CFI Workshop - Module 5 Risk Management

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CFI Workshop - Module 5 Risk Management

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  • Along with Safety Trends comes Risk Management. In particular in this session we want to focus on how to teach risk management.
  • Would the wind be a problem for the average pilot? Point out that while loosing control in the crosswind is the obvious situation, it may have been the pilot’s decision to attempt a landing in the extreme crosswind may have also been a factor. Would you fly in these conditions? Would you conduct a dual flight (student flying) in these conditions? Inspire discussion by asking questions like, “What were the pilot’s alternatives? Another runway? Another airport?” Would your students know to consider alternatives?
  • The preceding point is reinforced by this excerpt from the 2010 Joseph T. Nall Report, published by AOPA Air Safety Institute: http://www.aopa.org/asf/publications/nall.html. Even accidents that at first appear to be about lack of skill (crosswind landing, overrun on a short runway, etc.) usually involve poor decision-making.
  • Here’s an example: A Piper PA32R crashed immediately after takeoff from a 3,200 ft. grass strip. Note the order of the factors cited in the NTSB final report. We often tend to focus on the failure to calculate W&B, runway required, distance to clear obstacles. And in this case poor technique, during and after the takeoff. But what’s the real issue here? The pilot did not assess the combined effects aircraft performance, weight & balance considerations and the grass runway surface. He was rushed, in a hurry to depart, and he made remarks to his passengers that they would need all the runway they could get. Aeronautical decision making at its worst. The pilot recognizes problems but fails to act.
  • According to the Risk Management Handbook (FAA-H-8083-2); published in 2009. Like other aviation handbooks, it’s available for free download (PDF) from FAASafety.gov and FAA website. Risk management is “a formalized way of dealing with hazards, [a] logical process of weighing the potential costs of risks against the possible benefits of allowing those risks to stand.” uncontrolled According to AC 60-22, the definition of risk management is the part of the decision-making process that relies on situational awareness, problem recognition, and good judgment to reduce risks associated with each flight. Each of three aspects situational awareness problem recognition and, good judgment must be taught to students and pilots. How do we accomplish that?
  • In this module we look closer at risk management and how to teach risk management to our students by helping them to: Identify hazards Assess risks Understand the time critical aspect Build risk management controls into training
  • Flight instructors are traditionally comfortable with teaching facts and specific skills (e.g., navigation, steep turns). We’re less comfortable with “softer” topics like judgment and decision-making. Too often we plunge ahead with only vague notions of what “judgment” is and we blunder along, hoping that a student will have enough experiences—”teachable moments”—during training and that, through osmosis, they’ll learn how to assess situations and make good decisions. But we do have tools, that like aircraft checklists, can help us evaluate and manage risk. At first they may seem gimmicky, but, like checklists, they organize information and tasks and require systematic action.
  • Here’s one idea: Think of risk-management and ADM as a phase of flight—like takeoff or descent. We already use checklists and procedures during such phases. And some include hints that risk management and ADM are part of the process. For example, most pre-maneuver checklists include an item such as “choose a suitable area” that point out the need to avoid congested areas and have a suitable emergency landing area should something go wrong. But many checklists are just lists of specific tasks to accomplish. Examples: Turn Time Tune Twist Throttle However, risk-management and ADM are usually not binary or as clear-cut as, say, landing gear failure. While many checklists for ADM, like the ones included in the back pages of the FAA Risk Management Handbook, seem cumbersome to use at first, what we are trying to teach is the ability to change the culture from “git r done” to “wait a minute…I’m not proficient in instrument flight, the weather is too low for my abilities and comfort”, or “we don’t have to get home today” and “this crosswind is beyond my capabilities, we will have to divert to another airport.” By routinely using the checklists the pilot becomes accustomed to making informed decisions based upon their own individual realistic capabilities and the aircraft’s ability.
  • From the Risk Management Handbook (FAA-H-8083-2) What are some typical aviation hazards, or sources of danger that pilots should be alert for? There are literally hundreds of items that we can list to stay on guard about. Weather A nick in the propeller blade Inoperative or faulty equipment Improper refueling of an aircraft Pilot fatigue Use of unapproved hardware on aircraft Unusual activity at or near an airport (special event such as Young Eagles flights, open house, etc.)
  • From the Risk Management Handbook (FAA-H-8083-2)
  • Discuss examples of each type of risk.
  • For example, the VFR pilot flying from point A to point B (50 miles) in marginal flight conditions has several ways to reduce risk: • Wait for the weather to improve to good VFR conditions. • Take a pilot who is more experienced or who is certified as an instrument flight rules (IFR) pilot. • Delay the flight. • Cancel the flight. • Drive.
  • Another way of identifying and evaluating risks. Take a few moments when evaluating any hazard (weather, aircraft equipment, fuel state, pilot’s condition) and see where it fits on the grid. The following are guidelines for making assignments. • Probable—an event will occur several times. • Occasional—an event will probably occur sometime. • Remote—an event is unlikely to occur, but is possible. • Improbable—an event is highly unlikely to occur. • Catastrophic—results in fatalities, total loss • Critical—severe injury, major damage • Marginal—minor injury, minor damage • Negligible—less than minor injury, less than minor system damage
  • From the Risk Management Handbook, FAA-H-8083-2, Figure 1-7: Pilots accept their own individual level of risk even Though they may have received similar training. Risk, which must be managed individually, becomes a problem when a situation builds and its complexity exceeds the pilot’s capability (background + education + predisposition + attitude + training). The key to managing risk is the pilot’s understanding of his or her threshold and perceptions of the risk. Risk thresholds vary: Pilot experience Aircraft type Ambient conditions What other factors affect risk thresholds?
  • What is “RISK?” Let’s take one example – say a flight in 3sm visibility. What are the risks for a student pilot? (Just be because it’s legal doesn’t make it safe) What are the risks for a 100 hr VFR-only private pilot? What are the risks for a 500 hr IFR private pilot flying in the mountains What are the risks for a 1,000 hr IFR pilot with 5 hrs experience in a glass cockpit? What are the risks for a 1,500 hr ATP pilot flying in busy airspace? As you can see, evaluating risk is not so easy. There are many aspects to consider in determining risk. The risk changes based on an indefinite number of combinations of factors. CFIs can’t possibly teach all the combinations that may result in an unacceptable risk, but we CAN teach fundamental thought processes—in other words, decision-making . DISCUSSION The pilot isn’t the only factor. What role does equipment play? What might be acceptable in an IFR-capable, high-performance aircraft may not be wise in a basic light aircraft—and vice-versa.
  • If fancy matrices and decision-trees strike you as too complicated or artificial, try asking these basic questions continuously before, during, and after a flight. Another favorite saying comes to mind. How would this situation and the pilot’s actions read in an NTSB report?
  • Let’s look at another scenario - Let’s say that you are a VFR-only private pilot with close to 200 total hours. Currently westbound, flying at 10,500 MSL to Portland, Oregon, in a Cessna 172 when you realize that snow showers have reduced visibility to white-out conditions. It is currently 5:35pm local time and you estimate that you estimate you have about an hour and a half fuel remaining. What will you do? DISCUSSION: What information MUST you know? (Distance remaining, weather, terrain, etc) What additional information would you LIKE to have? (Weather, aircraft equipment – terrain/TKS/etc.) Adapted from: www.avhf.com
  • You are “here” at the red star. Based on this information, and that on the previous slide, what are the hazards?
  • Is time a critical component to this situation? Why? 90 minutes of fuel. It’s not a lot of fuel when maneuvering around mountains and diverting to an alternate airport. It is now 5:35 PM and it gets dark early in the mountains. What time of the year is it? Fall/Winter – sunset is earlier. Will it be easier or more difficult to cope in the dark? More difficult to find an off-airport landing area in the event of fuel exhaustion? More difficult to see hazardous terrain?
  • So let’s bring this scenario to an end. What would you do? Discuss options suggested by the audience. (There are no wrong answers) What I would do? (Or if you have another plan, offer it) Descend to 6,000 MSL (clear the high terrain, but maybe improve visibility) Lean to best economy (conserve all fuel) Alert ATC/FSS/FlightWatch to our situation and position (plan for the worst) Navigate via VOR radials (positive indication of our position relative to terrain) toward the south (lowering terrain) diverting to the airport near the congested area along the river. (About 20 miles away) What is the highest priority? - Getting to suitable flight visibility for our VFR-only pilot while avoiding terrain Using effective risk management and Aeronautical Decision Making, low-time, inexperienced pilots should not fly when there is risk of marginal weather conditions on or along their route of flight. To improve an individual’s aviation knowledge and flying abilities, pilots should consider working on and obtaining an instrument rating. Having an instrument rating does not mean that the pilot is fully capable of a long and difficult IFR flight in poor weather conditions. Just like the Private Pilot Certificate the instrument rating is a license to learn. The more experience you get in instrument flight the more you will learn about this demanding flight environment. Pilots with newly minted instrument ratings have had many close calls and fatal accidents. Pilots should always be careful in planning their flights and always avoid weather and terrain that can not be handled by pilot or aircraft.
  • So how do we teach this process? None of us will live long enough to make all the mistakes by ourselves, so we teach what can happen when pilots make bad decisions. So what steps do we use?
  • To make good decisions we must know what the risks are. The five steps in controlling and managing risks are: Identify personal hazardous attitudes. How can you help your students to do that? Learn to recognize and cope with stress. Is this pilot in our scenario stressed? Should he be? (3) Develop risk assessment skills. What risk assessment tools do you use/teach? (4) Use all available resources. (Inside and outside the cockpit – can you list what some might be? Autopilot, GPS, MFD, ATC, passengers, …) (5) Evaluate the effectiveness of decisions. What tools do you use to measure the effectiveness of your student’s decisions? Photo – Yep! That’s a runway. One way in, one way out. The only piece of flat (?!?) land around. I chose not to land.
  • Why do pilots make bad choices? We are all the same right? Wrong….personalities abound in the pilot ranks. Here are a few of the hazardous attitudes we see most often. Let’s review quickly, what are the hazardous attitudes and their antidotes? Antiauthority ("Don't tell me!") - Don't like anyone telling him/her what to do. Resentful of rules & regulations. Impulsivity ("Do something - do it now!") - Need to do something, anything, quickly. Don't stop to think about better alternatives. 3. Invulnerability ("It won't happen to me.") - Accidents happen to other people, not to me. Therefore, I can take chances. 4. Macho ("I can do it.") - Always trying to prove themselves better than others. Take risks and try to impress others. Yes, women, too! 5. Resignation ("What's the use?") - I really can't make a difference. It's going to happen anyway, why bother? Leave actions to others.
  • Identifying risks before departure…can we identify risks in the preflight planning stage? Of course we can! One call to the FSS can be all it takes to move you along the path to going on the flight, or taking alternative means of transportation. The first step is the PAVE checklist. Lets examine ourselves, the aircraft, the weather and are we being pushed, either internally or externally, to go? Experienced pilots identify hazards in as they regard the pilot, the aircraft, the environment and the situation. DISCUSSION What are the hazards that are relative to the PILOT (can you think while scared?, hazardous attitudes, is hypoxia of concern?) What are the hazards that are relative to the AIRCRAFT (near the service ceiling, low on fuel) What are the hazards that are relative to the ENVIRONMENT (high terrain, white out conditions, mountains) What are the hazards that are relative to the SITUATION (CFIT, fuel exhaustion, survival in hostile conditions once on the ground) How do the risks change when they begin accumulating? (Traditionally pilots have called this the “accident chain.”)
  • In evaluating Risk Management, perhaps all future PTS will be like the Instrument rating PTS … Determine the pilot can assess the potential risk associated with the planned flight during preflight planning and while in flight. Explain the risk elements associated with the flight being conducted in the given scenario and how each one was assessed. Use a tool, such as the PAVE checklist to help assess the four risk elements. Use a personal checklist, such as the “I’MSAFE” checklist, to determine personal risks. Use weather reports and forecasts to determine weather risks associated with the flight. Explain how to recognize risks and how mitigate those risks throughout the flight. Explain how risks are likely to change as the flight progresses and options for mitigating those risks. Notice how the emphasis is placed on POTENTIAL risks and PREFLIGHT PLANNING. DISCUSSION Has anyone here had a flight whose risk changed as the flight progressed? Notice the use of SCENARIO. Did our scenarios here help you to see safety management as an important topic to weave throughout training?
  • Let’s review quickly the DECIDE Model and the 3P models for practicing ADM. Continuous use during the early flight stages helps make the use of these models natural and leads to better decision making. DISCUSSION Do you use either of these with your students? When do you first introduce them? How do you reinforce them? Do you provide opportunities for the student to practice using them? Emphasize that the process used must be continuous. You must apply it throughout a flight, not just before takeoff. Photo Info: This is a Quest Kodiak 100 flying near Coeur d’Alene, ID. (pronounced “core de lane”)
  • Use a sound decision making process , such as the DECIDE model or similar process when making critical decisions that will have an effect on the outcome of the flight. The pilot should be able to explain the factors and alternative courses of action that were considered while making the decision. Recognize and explain any hazardous attitudes that may have influenced any decision. Decide and execute an appropriate course of action to handle any situation that arises that may cause a change in the original flight plan in such a way that leads to a safe and successful conclusion of the flight. In the first bullet, the word PROCESS is underlined to emphasize that decision making in flight doesn’t come naturally to new pilots – it must be taught and it is best learned as a process. In the second bullet, RECOGNIZING hazardous attitudes is an important concept for instructors to teach. It is best taught by using examples from other pilots. Pilots don’t see hazardous attitudes in themselves, but can quickly see them in other people. In the third bullet DECIDE and EXECUTE are emphasized. That is to say that we must provide opportunities for students to make decisions and to learn from their decisions – in a controlled environment. Many times the only way to learn how good a decision was, is in it’s execution. DISCUSSION Can you see a day when ADM might appear in the pilot PTS? Would the ADM standards look like this? What else may be important in evaluating ADM? Can you think of ways to help students recognize hazardous attitudes in other pilots? Can you name a few examples of decisions that students should be encouraged to make?
  • So, how do we include risk management into our syllabi? What lesson number? Risk management should be included on EACH flight lesson. But occasionally, we can emphasize it with situations such as the one we have been talking about. Set up situations to stimulate the student’s decision making process and Practice situations Create circumstances that may actually make unsafe judgments or decisions look appealing to students. Why? Because it is important for the student to become skilled at recognizing and replacing hazardous attitudes and unsafe tendencies with good judgment behavior. Can you think of ideas to do that? Photo Info: A small airstrip along the Columbia River in Idaho. Can you see the airport? The runway is East/West and very challenging when the sun reflects on the water at sunset.
  • The FAA has incorporated Decision Making into the Instrument Practical Test Standards (PTS). DPEs are required to use scenarios in instrument practical tests to assess the applicant’s judgment. The PTS has a judgment assessment matrix that provides the means for a standardized evaluation of the applicant’s decision making skills, or lack there of. CFIIs preparing applicants for the instrument rating are required to teach these skills. The FAA Instrument Flying Handbook, the FAA Risk Management Handbook and the FAA Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge all have sections on Risk Management and Pilot Decision Making.
  • Additional considerations: Shouldn’t be too clear-cut Often we emphasize extraordinary accidents as examples of poor ADM and flying technique. But most hazards are more subtle. Important to discuss other situations—not just fatal accidents—that lead to a variety of problems and which have the potential to become serious accidents.
  • One way to give students practice at making decisions and allow you as the CFI to evaluate the effectiveness of those decisions is by having a database of scenarios. You could plan a lesson around decision-making scenarios or include one on each lesson. Take any experience that you’ve recently had and put it into a scenario to review with students. Here is a sample: (READ THE SCREEN) What pops into your brain when you hear 7 PM after a business meeting? What condition will the pilot be in? What are the risks? What is the implication of rental airplane? What are the risks flying a rental after dark? And if the pilot can’t see well, do you feel the risks beginning to accumulate? If the pilot needs to deviate for lowering visibility will he be able to read a chart or A/FD? Does option A reduce the risks on this flight? How about B? C? D? Can you see how such an exercise would help students to DETECT the problems? ESTIMATE the risks? CHOOSE the viable alternatives? IDENTIFY their choice? There is no one RIGHT answer. It’s a scenario designed to teach the student to D.E.C.I.D.E. Find more ideas at www.avhf.com (Aviation Human Factors)
  • In evaluating Risk Management, perhaps all future PTS may say something like this … Determine the pilot can assess the potential risk associated with the planned flight during preflight planning and while in flight. Explain the risk elements associated with the flight being conducted in the given scenario and how each one was assessed. Use a tool, such as the PAVE checklist to help assess the four risk elements. Use a personal checklist, such as the “I’MSAFE” checklist, to determine personal risks. Use weather reports and forecasts to determine weather risks associated with the flight. Explain how to recognize risks and how mitigate those risks throughout the flight. Explain how risks are likely to change as the flight progresses and options for mitigating those risks. Notice how the emphasis is placed on POTENTIAL risks and PREFLIGHT PLANNING. DISCUSSION Has anyone here had a flight whose risk changed as the flight progressed? Notice the use of SCENARIO. Did our scenarios here help you to see safety management as an important topic to weave throughout training?
  • And now it’s time for review questions.
  • And now it’s time for review questions.
  • Here’s some help for CFIs about keeping up with changes to rules, procedures, and policies.
  • Provides: News Information about safety programs Register and you’ll get notices about safety programs, policy changes, etc.
  • You can view the AIM and P/C Glossary online and download PDF versions (which are easy to search for specific topics). Also offers links to FAA training handbooks (Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, Airplane Flying Handbook, etc.) in PDF format.
  • The latest version of the AIM includes an introduction that highlights changes.
  • Online handbook for FAA inspectors. You can use the TOC and search for specific topics.
  • Use your favorite Web search tool to locate the websites. Organizations offer email newsletters and other tools to help you keep up with changes.
  • We have talked about allot of stuff here today. If you have any questions, or would like help in understanding how to use this information in the instruction that you give, call on any of the FAASTeam members. Thank you for your commitment to aviation safety. I’ve enjoyed meeting each of you and having the opportunity to exchange ideas with you. I hope to see you in Module #6.
  • CFI Workshop - Module 5 Risk Management

    1. 1. Federal Aviation Administration CFI Workshop 5 Core Topic 10 Risk Management for Flight Instructors October 1, 2011
    2. 2. 2Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 A Crosswind Accident? The pilot lost control after the aircraft touched down on one wheel, swerved sharply, hit several runway lights, left the runway, and came to rest in the airport boundary fence. The winds were at 60-degree crosswind to the runway at 32 kts with gusts to 40. What caused this accident?
    3. 3. 3Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 2010 Joseph T. Nall Report “Accidents occurring during takeoff, climb, maneuvering, descent, approach, and landing tend to result more directly from deficient airmanship, though it may have been faulty decision- making that placed the pilots in situations beyond their skills.”
    4. 4. 4Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 NTSB CEN09FA393 Probable Cause: The pilot’s poor judgment/decision making in attempting the no-flap takeoff, his failure to comply with weight limitations, and his failure to calculate the airplane’s performance under existing conditions.
    5. 5. 5Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Risk Management: A Definition The part of the decision- making process that relies on •Situational awareness •Problem recognition, and •Good judgment to reduce risks associated with each flight.
    6. 6. 6Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Teaching Risk Management • Identifying hazards • Assessing risk • Understanding its time-critical nature • Including risk- management controls in training
    7. 7. 7Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Teaching Judgment We’re trying to answer the enduring questions: •“Can you teach judgment?” •“If yes, how?”
    8. 8. 8Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Analogous to Checklists Think of (and teach) risk-management as another aircraft system or phase of flight with a checklist/procedure to follow. •5 Ts •GUMPS Run the risk-management checklist at important phases of flight (including preflight) and whenever the situation changes or new information arrives.
    9. 9. 9Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Risk Management Before you make decisions, you must: 1. Identify risk factors (hazards) 2. Assess their likelihood 3. Evaluate their severity
    10. 10. 10Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Defining Terms: Hazard • A present condition, event, object, or circumstance that could lead to or contribute to an unplanned or undesired event such as an accident. • Is it a source of danger?
    11. 11. 11Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Defining Terms: Risk The future impact of a hazard that is not controlled or eliminated. 1. Future uncertainty created by the hazard. 2. If it involves skill sets, the same situation may yield different risks. 3. Could also be described as the “degree of uncertainty.”
    12. 12. 12Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Types of Risk • Total Risk: The sum of identified and unidentified risks. • Identified Risk: Risk that has been determined. • Unidentified Risk: Often identified only after an accident. • Unacceptable Risk: Can’t be tolerated. Must be eliminated or controlled. • Acceptable Risk: Identified but managed. • Residual Risk: Remains after mitigation attempts.
    13. 13. 13Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Risk Management • The method used to control, eliminate, or reduce hazards. • Unique to each individual based on skills, knowledge, training, and experience. • A decision-making process designed to systematically identify hazards, assess risk, and determine the best course of action.
    14. 14. 14Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5 October 26, 2009 chg 1 Risk Assessment Matrix
    15. 15. 15Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5 October 26, 2009 chg 1 Risk Thresholds
    16. 16. 16Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Risk Assessment 3 SM visibility—is it a risk? • For a student pilot? • 100 hr VFR-only private pilot? • 500 hr IFR pilot flying in the mountains • 1,000 hr IFR pilot with 5 hr experience in a glass cockpit? • 1,500 hr ATP pilot flying in busy airspace? Photo AOPA Gallery
    17. 17. 17Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 A Simple Test Ask three basic questions: •Is it safe? •Is it legal? •Does it make sense?
    18. 18. 18Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Where to Land? • Flying west at 10,500MSL • To Portland, Oregon • Cessna 172 (TAS 110 KIAS) • Snow showers and reduced visibility • 5:35 pm local time • Fuel remaining is about 90 minutes. What will you do? VFR-Only 200-hr private pilot
    19. 19. 19Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 10,500MSL Cessna 172 5:35pm local time 90 minutes fuel
    20. 20. 20Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 5:35pm local time 60 minutes fuel Time Critical Framework
    21. 21. 21Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 5:35pm local time 90 minutes fuel What Would You Do?
    22. 22. 22Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 ADM DEFINED Aeronautical Decision Making is a systematic approach to the mental process use by pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a given set of circumstances.
    23. 23. 23Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Risk Management Controls 1. Identify hazardous attitudes. 2. Recognize and cope with stress. 3. Develop risk-assessment skills. 4. Use all available resources. 5. Evaluate effectiveness of decisions.
    24. 24. 24Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Hazardous Attitudes and Antidotes Anti-authority – Don’t tell me. – Follow the rules, they are usually right Impulsivity – Do something – do it now. – Not so fast, think first Invulnerability – It won’t happen to me. – It could happen to me. Macho – I can do it. – Taking chances is foolish. Resignation – What’s the use? – I can make a difference.
    25. 25. 25Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Risk Identification PAVE Checklist: •Pilot •Aircraft •enVironment •External Pressures www.skyvector.com
    26. 26. 26Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Evaluating Pilot’s Risk Management Assess the potential risk associated with planned flight during preflight planning and in flight. •Explain risk elements with the given scenario and how each was assessed. •Use a tool, such as PAVE to assess the risk elements. Pilot – Aircraft – enVironment – External Factors
    27. 27. 27Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 D.E.C.I.D.E. 3P D = Detect Perceive E = Estimate Process C = Choose Perform I = Identify (Continuous Loop) D = Do E = Evaluate Photo: Quest Kodiak 100
    28. 28. 28Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Evaluating Pilot’s Decision Making • Use a decision-making process (such as the DECIDE model) when making decisions that affect the outcome of the flight. Pilot should be able to explain factors and alternatives. Detect – Estimate – Choose – Identify – Do – Evaluate • Recognize and explain any hazardous attitudes that may have influenced a decision. • Decide and execute an appropriate course of action to handle any situation and lead to a safe and successful conclusion of the flight.
    29. 29. 29Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Including Risk Management in Flight Training • Situations to stimulate decision making • Practice problem solving • Create circumstances that make unsafe judgments look appealing
    30. 30. 30Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Do You Teach ADM? Seen this?
    31. 31. 31Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Scenarios According to the Aviation Instructor’s Handbook (p. 2-26), a good scenario: 1. Has a clear set of objectives. 2. Is tailored to the needs of the student. 3. Capitalizes on the nuances of the local environment.
    32. 32. 32Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Scenario Database At 7:00PM, after an exhausting 3-day business meeting, you load the rental plane and file VFR for a 2-hr flight. You discover your only pair of reading glasses was left back at the hotel. You have no problem seeing distance but can’t read panel gauges or a chart very well. Weather is 3,500 ceiling, 5SM visibility with 15 kt crosswinds at your designation. If you depart in the next 20 minutes you can land before dark. You decide to: A. Depart and fly to land before dark. Purchase a new pair of glasses at your destination. B. Call the hotel, if they have your glasses go get them and takeoff late this evening. C. Call the hotel, if they do not have your glasses, spend the night. Tomorrow purchase a new pair and fly takeoff. D. Call the hotel, if they have your glasses, go get them, spend the night and takeoff in the morning. From: www.avhf.com
    33. 33. 33Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Sources of Scenarios • FAA-Industry Training Standards (FITS) • The generic syllabi at the FITS website include a variety of scenarios for VFR and IFR pilots. • You can easily modify and adapt them for your students and customers. • http://www.faa.gov/training_testing/training/ fits/training/
    34. 34. 34Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 FITS Website
    35. 35. 35Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 I’M SAFE Checklist
    36. 36. 36Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5 October 26, 2009 chg 1 FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5 Risk Management Questions? Comments? Ideas? Quiz time
    37. 37. 37Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Risk Management Question #1 Which of the following are hazardous attitudes? a) Tormenter b) Macho c) Recluse d) Quarrelsome
    38. 38. 38Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Risk Management Question #2 Effective workload management ensures that essential operations are accomplished by planning, prioritizing, and sequencing tasks. True or False?
    39. 39. 39Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Risk Management Question #3 Is it a “Hazard” or a “Risk” that is a present condition, event, object, or circumstance that could lead to or contribute to an unplanned or undesired event such as an accident?
    40. 40. 40Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Risk Management Question #4 An excellent tool in making good aeronautical decisions is the D.E.C.I.D.E model. What are the six attributes of the model? a) Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, Evaluate b) Drop, Evacuate, Criticize, Indemnify, Decimate, Exacerbate c) Determine, Eliminate, Choose, Initiate, Divert, Evacuate d) None of the above Answers follow ~
    41. 41. 41Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Risk Management Question #1 Which of the following are hazardous attitudes? a) Tormenter b) Macho c) Recluse d) Quarrelsome Answer ~ b) Macho – Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
    42. 42. 42Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Risk Management Question #2 Effective workload management ensures that essential operations are accomplished by planning, prioritizing, and sequencing tasks. True or False? Answer ~ True – Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
    43. 43. 43Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Risk Management Question #3 Is it a “Hazard” or a “Risk” that is a present condition, event, object, or circumstance that could lead to or contribute to an unplanned or undesired event such as an accident? Answer ~ “Hazard” – Risk Management Handbook
    44. 44. 44Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Risk Management Question #4 An excellent tool in making good aeronautical decisions is the D.E.C.I.D.E model. What are the six attributes of the model? a) Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, Evaluate b) Drop, Evacuate, Criticize, Indemnify, Decimate, Exacerbate c) Determine, Eliminate, Choose, Initiate, Divert, Evacuate d) None of the above Answer ~ a) Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, Evaluate
    45. 45. 45Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Regulatory, Policy, and Publications Changes and Updates
    46. 46. 46Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 FAASafety.gov
    47. 47. 47Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Official Sources from FAA FAA Website: •Air Traffic Plans and Publications – AIM – Pilot/Controller Glossary •Flight Standards Information Management System (FSIMS) – FAA inspector’s handbook with links to regs and other documents
    48. 48. 48Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 AIM Updates
    49. 49. 49Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 AIM Updates
    50. 50. 50Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 FSIMS
    51. 51. 51Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Industry Groups • SAFE (Society of Aviation and Flight Educators): www.safepilots.org • NAFI (National Association of Flight Instructors): www.nafinet.org • AOPA Flight Training: http://flighttraining.aopa.org/
    52. 52. 52Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 FIRC • AC 61-83G, which outlines requirements for FIRCs, is in the draft stage. • Includes significant updates to the FIRC process (including online courses) and content. • Organizations like SAFE are working with FAA to refine the FIRC process to make it more effective and relevant.
    53. 53. 53Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop 5, Core Topic 10 October 1, 2011 Updated FIRC Content (Draft) Required Core Topics: Navigating in the 21st Century: Pilotage to GPS Safety Trends in GA Security-Related Special Use Airspace Pilot Deviations Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and CFIs How to Make the Best Use of the FAASTeam and the Pilot Proficiently WINGS Program How to Teach Effectively and Build a Culture of Safety Regulatory, Policy, and Publications Changes and Updates
    54. 54. 54Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5 October 26, 2009 chg 1 This completes CFI Workshop Module #5CFI Workshop Module #5 See you for Module #6

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