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ManeuveringAt LowAltitude:SpinsManeuveringAt LowAltitude:Spins
Lindsay, OKLindsay, OKCaseCaseStudyStudyWebMovie
Common ScenarioCommon Scenario• Accident occurred during a flight review• Conditions were day, VFR with winds nearby repor...
DiscussionDiscussion• What are your thoughts about this accident?• Where does the first major link occur in theaccident ch...
• How many warning signs can you identify inthe accident sequence?DiscussionDiscussion• Relative to the traffic pattern, w...
• Yaw and stall must both be present in order foran aircraft to spin.—What are the various sources of yaw?DiscussionDiscus...
• According to the Airplane Flying Handbook,what are the four phases of a spin?DiscussionDiscussion
DiscussionDiscussion“There are four phases of a spin: entry,incipient, developed, and recovery.”Source: Airplane Flying Ha...
• During a spin, how do the angles of attack ofthe left and right wings compare?DiscussionDiscussion
DiscussionDiscussionSource: Airplane Flying Handbook, Fig. 4-10Wing AOAs areWing AOAs areunequal during a spinunequal duri...
• Unless the manufacturer states otherwise, howshould spin recovery inputs be applied?DiscussionDiscussion
DiscussionDiscussionStep 1—REDUCE THE POWER (THROTTLE) TO IDLE. Power aggravates the spincharacteristics.Step 2—POSITION T...
• Some aircraft can exhibit aggravated spinbehavior by design (it’s just their nature).—Even so, what pilot-controlled act...
• When is a spin most likely to occur?DiscussionDiscussion
DiscussionDiscussionSource: FAA General Aviation Accident CausesPowerPoint Slides, September 8, 20100 5 10 15 20 25 30Mane...
• When spinning, the slip/skid ball is totallyunreliable for determining spin direction.—But what instrument does provide ...
• In general, the sequence rudder-followed-by-elevator is important during spin recovery.—Unless noted otherwise, how long...
DiscussionDiscussionStep 1—REDUCE THE POWER (THROTTLE) TO IDLE. Power aggravates the spincharacteristics.Step 2—POSITION T...
• How do you determine if a particular airplane isapproved for intentional spins?—And is it ever permissible to intentiona...
• What are some of the common errors madeduring the execution of intentional spins?DiscussionDiscussion
• If you inadvertently spin while cross-controlled,in what direction would you usually expect therotation to be?Discussion...
CFI ApplicantsCFI ApplicantsReference: Airplane Flying Handbook, Chapter 4Logbook endorsement that applicant hasdemonstrat...
CFI ApplicantsCFI ApplicantsReference: Airplane Flying Handbook, Chapter 4Instructional knowledge of:• Anxiety factors ass...
• An avoidable spin accidentAn avoidable spin accident• Spin dynamics and aggravating factorsSpin dynamics and aggravating...
This presentation would not have beenpossible without the generous help andsupport of the following:Your Forum Facilitator...
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CFI Forum - Spins

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CFI Forum - Spins

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CFI Forum - Spins

  1. 1. ManeuveringAt LowAltitude:SpinsManeuveringAt LowAltitude:Spins
  2. 2. Lindsay, OKLindsay, OKCaseCaseStudyStudyWebMovie
  3. 3. Common ScenarioCommon Scenario• Accident occurred during a flight review• Conditions were day, VFR with winds nearby reportedat about 5 knots• No anomalies were found with flight or powercontrols, or with the engine• Last moments reconstructed using radar data anddata recovered from the aircraft’s PFD and MFD
  4. 4. DiscussionDiscussion• What are your thoughts about this accident?• Where does the first major link occur in theaccident chain?
  5. 5. • How many warning signs can you identify inthe accident sequence?DiscussionDiscussion• Relative to the traffic pattern, what elements ofstall/spin awareness do you emphasize?
  6. 6. • Yaw and stall must both be present in order foran aircraft to spin.—What are the various sources of yaw?DiscussionDiscussion
  7. 7. • According to the Airplane Flying Handbook,what are the four phases of a spin?DiscussionDiscussion
  8. 8. DiscussionDiscussion“There are four phases of a spin: entry,incipient, developed, and recovery.”Source: Airplane Flying Handbook, Pg. 4-13 and Fig. 4-10
  9. 9. • During a spin, how do the angles of attack ofthe left and right wings compare?DiscussionDiscussion
  10. 10. DiscussionDiscussionSource: Airplane Flying Handbook, Fig. 4-10Wing AOAs areWing AOAs areunequal during a spinunequal during a spin
  11. 11. • Unless the manufacturer states otherwise, howshould spin recovery inputs be applied?DiscussionDiscussion
  12. 12. DiscussionDiscussionStep 1—REDUCE THE POWER (THROTTLE) TO IDLE. Power aggravates the spincharacteristics.Step 2—POSITION THE AILERONS TO NEUTRAL. Ailerons may have an adverseeffect on spin recovery.Step 3—APPLY FULL OPPOSITE RUDDER AGAINST THE ROTATION. Make surethat full (against the stop) opposite rudder has been applied.Step 4—APPLY A POSITIVE AND BRISK, STRAIGHT FORWARD MOVEMENT OFTHE ELEVATOR CONTROL FORWARD OF THE NEUTRAL TO BREAK THE STALL. Thisshould be done immediately after full rudder application.Step 5—AFTER SPIN ROTATION STOPS, NEUTRALIZE THE RUDDER.Source: Airplane Flying Handbook, Pg. 4-15
  13. 13. • Some aircraft can exhibit aggravated spinbehavior by design (it’s just their nature).—Even so, what pilot-controlled actions tendto aggravate a spin?DiscussionDiscussion
  14. 14. • When is a spin most likely to occur?DiscussionDiscussion
  15. 15. DiscussionDiscussionSource: FAA General Aviation Accident CausesPowerPoint Slides, September 8, 20100 5 10 15 20 25 30Maneuvering-low-alt flying - Collision withterr/obj (non-CFIT)Maneuvering-low-alt flying - Loss ofcontrol in flightEnroute-cruise - Loss of control in flightEnroute - VFR encounter with IMCInitial climb - Aerodynamic stall/spinEnroute-cruise - Controlled flight intoterr/obj (CFIT)Maneuvering - Midair collisionManeuvering-low-alt flying - Low altitudeoperation/eventManeuvering-low-alt flying - Aerodynamicstall/spinInitial climb - Loss of control in flightManeuvering - Loss of control in flightPrimarySecondary
  16. 16. • When spinning, the slip/skid ball is totallyunreliable for determining spin direction.—But what instrument does provide reliablespin direction information (upright spins)?DiscussionDiscussion
  17. 17. • In general, the sequence rudder-followed-by-elevator is important during spin recovery.—Unless noted otherwise, how long a delayshould there be between these actions?DiscussionDiscussion
  18. 18. DiscussionDiscussionStep 1—REDUCE THE POWER (THROTTLE) TO IDLE. Power aggravates the spincharacteristics.Step 2—POSITION THE AILERONS TO NEUTRAL. Ailerons may have an adverseeffect on spin recovery.Step 3—APPLY FULL OPPOSITE RUDDER AGAINST THE ROTATION. Make surethat full (against the stop) opposite rudder has been applied.Step 4—APPLY A POSITIVE AND BRISK, STRAIGHT FORWARD MOVEMENT OFTHE ELEVATOR CONTROL FORWARD OF THE NEUTRAL TO BREAK THE STALL. Thisshould be done immediately after full rudder application.Step 5—AFTER SPIN ROTATION STOPS, NEUTRALIZE THE RUDDER.
  19. 19. • How do you determine if a particular airplane isapproved for intentional spins?—And is it ever permissible to intentionallyspin when in the Normal category?DiscussionDiscussion
  20. 20. • What are some of the common errors madeduring the execution of intentional spins?DiscussionDiscussion
  21. 21. • If you inadvertently spin while cross-controlled,in what direction would you usually expect therotation to be?DiscussionDiscussion
  22. 22. CFI ApplicantsCFI ApplicantsReference: Airplane Flying Handbook, Chapter 4Logbook endorsement that applicant hasdemonstrated competency in spin entries,spins, and spin recoveries
  23. 23. CFI ApplicantsCFI ApplicantsReference: Airplane Flying Handbook, Chapter 4Instructional knowledge of:• Anxiety factors associated with spins• Accident scenarios• Spin aerodynamics• Common errors
  24. 24. • An avoidable spin accidentAn avoidable spin accident• Spin dynamics and aggravating factorsSpin dynamics and aggravating factors• How to determine if an aircraft is approvedHow to determine if an aircraft is approvedfor intentional spinsfor intentional spins• Common errors during intentional spinsCommon errors during intentional spinsSummarySummaryDuring this forum, we discussed:During this forum, we discussed:
  25. 25. This presentation would not have beenpossible without the generous help andsupport of the following:Your Forum FacilitatorFAA Safety Teamwww.FAASafety.govSAFEwww.SafePilots.orgGold Seal Flightwww.GoldSealFlight.comAvWebwww.AvWeb.comRich Stowell, MCFI-Awww.RichStowell.comCreated December 2010
  26. 26. QuizQuiz

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