CFI Forum - Spins

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CFI Forum - Spins

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  • 2011/01/01-002 (E) PP PRESENTER: Thank you for taking the time to facilitate this important CFI Forum! This is a guided discussion opening with a “typical” stall/spin accident that occurred during a flight review, with both questions that will be posed by you and a quiz you will administer at the end for those desiring WINGS credit for participating. Included as part of this presentation are the following additional files: Spins Forum supporting documents – PDF Video reconstruction of spin accident – video file provided by AvWeb GENERAL NOTES ABOUT THE SLIDES: These slides contain both automatic animations and presenter-prompted actions to move through the presentation: “ Animation” means that certain effects have been programmed to occur automatically “ Click” means that you will need to advance to the next point or slide manually NEXT SLIDE: All elements of the next slide are animated and will appear automatically. The next slide is animated and is finished when you see the video camera icon labeled “Web” crawl in from the right. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Entire slide is animated and is finished when you see the video camera icon labeled “Web” crawl in from the right. PRESENTER: The video included with this forum is a reconstruction provided by AvWeb of the referenced accident, with permission to use it during this forum. Run time is 05:31 and playing it is OPTIONAL. Clicking the black box labeled “Movie” should play the video full screen. When the video is finished, you should automatically be returned to this slide. If you have access to the Internet, the “Web” camera icon is hyperlinked to the YouTube version of the video. If neither of the above methods works, you can play the video by exiting PowerPoint and double clicking "CFI_Forum_Spins.wmv” directly. If you elect NOT to play the video, click for the next slide when ready to proceed. IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER: Although this particular accident involves a Cirrus, it is representative of a broader, more common stall/spin accident scenario encountered by pilots flying all types of airplanes; thus, this accident is being used for general illustrative and educational purposes only. ACCIDENT BACKGROUND INFORMATION: NTSB Identification: DFW08FA060 Operated under 14 CFR Part 91: General Aviation – Flight Review Accident date: February 2008 Aircraft: Cirrus SR22 Registration: N824BJ Injuries: 2 Fatal This accident provides a stark reminder of the seriousness of the stall/spin problem not only for all pilots, but especially for flight instructors and DPEs, and provides a lead-in to a more detailed discussion of the topic. See the NTSB narrative provided in the supporting documents for additional information. NEXT SLIDE: Bullet points will fade into view at the same time. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Bullet points will fade into view at the same time. PRESENTER: See the NTSB narrative provided in the supporting documents for additional information. Review these points slowly and methodically. Using the slides that follow, you will pose questions designed to foster discussion. NEXT SLIDE: First bullet point automatically fades into view; you must click when ready to reveal the second bullet point. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: First bullet point automatically fades into view Click when ready to reveal the second bullet point PRESENTER: It is up to you to facilitate interaction with and among the participants. Some links in the accident chain: Non-standard pattern entry at a non-towered airport Tight turn toward the runway Overshooting the runway centerline Steeply banked close to the ground Missed opportunity to perform a go-around (part of a flight review anyway) Others? NEXT SLIDE: First bullet point automatically fades into view; you must click when ready to reveal the second bullet point. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: First bullet point automatically fades into view Click when ready to reveal the second bullet point PRESENTER: Some possible warning signs: Awkward position relative to the runway for traffic pattern entry Too close to the runway for an adequate base leg Needing to bank more steeply close to the ground Overshooting The initial stall/spin departure that occurred to the left, prior to the fatal, over-the-top departure to the right Others? Stall/Spin Awareness elements (refer to AC 61-67C): Stall avoidance at slow airspeeds Power-on (Departure) Stall Engine failures / gliding turns Power-off (Approach-to-landing) Stalls Stalls during go-arounds Elevator trim stalls AOA awareness – stall speed vs. bank angle Distractions Others? NEXT SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. PRESENTER: Sources of yaw: Adverse yaw due to aileron inputs Slow flight engine effects (high power/slow speed) – torque, p-factor, spiral slipstream In some aircraft, gyroscopic precession effects, e.g.: raising the tail in a taildragger during takeoff (nose yaws left) pulling into a loop in a Pitts (nose yaws left) Yawing with rudder, e.g.: skidded turns (too much rudder in the direction of bank, rudder applied toward the ground) slipping (rudder applied toward the sky) NEXT SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. PRESENTER: The four spin phases per the FAA are entry, incipient, developed, and recovery. NEXT SLIDE: Graphic of spin phases from the Airplane Flying Handbook; quote automatically fades into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Graphic of spin phases from Airplane Flying Handbook Quote automatically fades into view PRESENTER: Note that most spin training administered to CFI applicants takes place in the incipient phase. NEXT SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. PRESENTER: The bottom line is that the AOAs of the two wings are different when spinning. Whether that means both wings are stalled (albeit with one more deeply stalled than the other), or that one wing is stalled and the other is not quite yet, the wings are at different AOAs. It is the resulting differences in drag and lift that drive the rotation. NEXT SLIDE: Graphic of wing AOAs from the Airplane Flying Handbook; quote automatically fades into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Graphic of wing AOAs from Airplane Flying Handbook Quote automatically fades into view PRESENTER: The bottom line is that the AOAs of the two wings are different when spinning. Whether that means both wings are stalled (albeit with one more deeply stalled than the other), or that one wing is stalled and the other is not quite yet, the wings are at different AOAs. It is the resulting differences in drag and lift that drive the rotation. NEXT SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. PRESENTER: Unless the manufacturer recommends otherwise, spin recovery inputs should be applied sequentially. Rudder and elevator actions in particular should be applied positively as well. NEXT SLIDE: One at a time, click to reveal each step in spin recovery as published in the Airplane Flying Handbook. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: One at a time, click to reveal each step in spin recovery. PRESENTER: Note the clear, step-by-step actions recommended here by the FAA Note the clear warnings that power and aileron can aggravate spin and recovery behavior Note that the rudder must be applied briskly – kick the full opposite rudder all the way to the control stop Note the description regarding the elevator input Note that the above actions are consistent with NASA Standard spin recovery actions that have been recommended since the 1930’s Note that the acronym “PARE” (pronounced “pair”) provides a simple mental checklist to work through the first four, main recovery actions NEXT SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. CLICK TWICE TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. PRESENTER: Airplanes that inherently demonstrate bad spin behavior or poor recovery characteristics are usually the ones with placards stating, “Intentional Spins Prohibited!” Pilot-controlled parameters that can aggravate a spin: Increasing the power (or not reducing it, refer to the previous slides) Deflecting the ailerons (refer to the previous slides) Loading the aircraft beyond its weight and aft c.g. envelopes NEXT SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. PRESENTER: Answer: While pilots are maneuvering at low altitude. NEXT SLIDE: Graphic of FAA General Aviation Accident Causes; red arrows and text automatically fade into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Graphic of FAA General Aviation Accident Causes Red arrows and text automatically fade into view PRESENTER: The FAA as well as the AOPA Air Safety Institute (formerly Air Safety Foundation) have identified “Maneuvering – Low Altitude” as the scenario where an accidental spin is most likely to occur. Note that “stall/spin” appears twice on the FAA list of top accident causes: Number 3 = “Maneuvering – low altitude” Number 7 = “Initial climb” Also emphasize that all traffic pattern operations involve maneuvering while at low altitude; thus stall/spin awareness is critical here. NEXT SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. PRESENTER: Contrary to what far too many pilots (instructors included) have heard, been taught, or read, the slip/skid ball cannot be relied upon for spin direction information. If the pilot is disoriented or unable to determine spin direction from external visual cues, the symbolic airplane of the turn coordinator (or the needle of a turn needle), will reliably provide spin direction information during upright spins. Example: If the symbolic airplane is tilted to the left, the airplane is spinning left; therefore, the pilot needs to apply full right rudder. NEXT SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. PRESENTER: Contrary to what far too many pilots (instructors included) have been taught, heard, or read, it is NOT correct to teach, “move the elevator control forward once rotation has stopped.” Full opposite rudder alone should not be relied upon all by itself to stop spin rotation, especially from developed or aggravated spins. In many cases, it is the combined effects of full opposite rudder followed immediately by forward elevator that will be necessary to stop the spin. NEXT SLIDE: Spin recovery steps per the Airplane Flying Handbook; red box automatically fades into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Spin recovery steps per the Airplane Flying Handbook Red box automatically fades into view PRESENTER: Contrary to what far too many pilots (instructors included) have been taught, heard, or read, it is NOT correct to teach, “move the elevator control forward once rotation has stopped.” Full opposite rudder alone should not be relied upon by itself to stop spin rotation, especially from developed or aggravated spins. Note that even the Airplane Flying Handbook is unequivocal in this regard: once the opposite rudder has been applied briskly and fully for spin recovery, apply recovery elevator immediately after . Do not sit there and wait for the rudder to stop the rotation (because the rudder alone might not stop the rotation) – complete steps one through four en route to spin recovery. NEXT SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. PRESENTER: GA airplanes can be certificated in the Normal, Utility, or Acrobatic categories. Aircraft can also be certificated in multiple categories depending on weight, c.g., and which spin certification standard the manufacturer chooses to apply. In general, intentional spins: Are never approved in the Normal Category (hence, it is never permissible to spin when in the Normal category) May or may not be approved in the Utility Category Are always approved in the Acrobatic category (notwithstanding any after-market Airworthiness Directive or Supplementary Type Certificate requirements that could change this) Official sources to determine whether or not an airplane is approved for intentional spins include: Type Certification Data Sheets or Aircraft Specifications Limitations Section of FAA-approved POH/AFM Cockpit Placards ADs and STCs NEXT SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. PRESENTER: Common errors include (refer to Flight Instructor Practical Test Standards for Airplane ): failure to establish proper configuration prior to spin entry failure to achieve and maintain a full stall during spin entry failure to close throttle when a spin entry is achieved failure to recognize the indications of an imminent, unintentional spin improper use of flight controls during spin entry, rotation, or recovery disorientation during a spin failure to distinguish between a high-speed spiral and a spin excessive speed or accelerated stall during recovery failure to recover with minimum loss of altitude hazards of attempting to spin an airplane not approved for spins NEXT SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Bullet point automatically fades into view. PRESENTER: Spin direction is always in the direction of the excess yaw. In the case of a cross-controlled stall/spin, this usually means that the resulting spin direction will be the same as the applied rudder, regardless of which wingtip is raised: In the direction bank (i.e., under the bottom entry) during a skidded stall/spin departure Opposite the direction of bank (i.e., over the top) during a slipping stall/spin departure NEXT SLIDE: CFI spin endorsement automatically fades into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: CFI spin endorsement automatically fades into view. PRESENTER: It is incumbent on the flight instructor community to give legitimacy to the spin endorsement by ensuring that CFI applicants truly demonstrate competency regarding spin theory and practice. Improving the stall/spin safety of our students, our fellow instructors, and general aviation as a whole depends on the proper attention being given to the spin endorsement. NEXT SLIDE: Some instructional knowledge areas for CFI applicants automatically fade into view. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Some instructional knowledge areas for CFI applicants automatically fade into view. PRESENTER: Other instructional knowledge areas include errors (refer to Flight Instructor Practical Test Standards for Airplane ) : airplanes approved for the spin maneuver based on airworthiness category and type certificate how to recognize and recover from imminent, unintentional spins entry procedure and minimum entry altitude for intentional spins control procedure to maintain a stabilized spin orientation during a spin recovery procedure and minimum recovery altitude for intentional spins NEXT SLIDE: Summary - red text automatically fades into view; one by one must click to reveal four bullet points. CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Red text automatically fades into view One by one, click to reveal four bullet points PRESENTER: Refer participants to the following for additional information: FAA Airplane Flying Handbook and Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Advisory Circular AC 61-67C, Stall and Spin AwarenessTraining Air Safety Institute Safety Advisor, Maneuvering Flight – Hazardous to Your Health? Flight Instructor Practical Test Standards for Airplane NEXT SLIDE: Acknowledgements CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Acknowledgments PRESENTER: Thank the many hard working volunteers who make this and other free educational forums possible! Be sure to acknowledge the host of the event. NEXT SLIDE: Quiz CLICK TO PROCEED TO NEXT SLIDE
  • THIS SLIDE: Quiz PRESENTER: Hand out the 12-question quiz to all those who wish to earn WINGS credit for participating. See Quiz and Answer Key provided in the supporting documentation. CLICK TO END FORUM
  • CFI Forum - Spins

    1. 1. ManeuveringAt LowAltitude:SpinsManeuveringAt LowAltitude:Spins
    2. 2. Lindsay, OKLindsay, OKCaseCaseStudyStudyWebMovie
    3. 3. Common ScenarioCommon Scenario• Accident occurred during a flight review• Conditions were day, VFR with winds nearby reportedat about 5 knots• No anomalies were found with flight or powercontrols, or with the engine• Last moments reconstructed using radar data anddata recovered from the aircraft’s PFD and MFD
    4. 4. DiscussionDiscussion• What are your thoughts about this accident?• Where does the first major link occur in theaccident chain?
    5. 5. • How many warning signs can you identify inthe accident sequence?DiscussionDiscussion• Relative to the traffic pattern, what elements ofstall/spin awareness do you emphasize?
    6. 6. • Yaw and stall must both be present in order foran aircraft to spin.—What are the various sources of yaw?DiscussionDiscussion
    7. 7. • According to the Airplane Flying Handbook,what are the four phases of a spin?DiscussionDiscussion
    8. 8. DiscussionDiscussion“There are four phases of a spin: entry,incipient, developed, and recovery.”Source: Airplane Flying Handbook, Pg. 4-13 and Fig. 4-10
    9. 9. • During a spin, how do the angles of attack ofthe left and right wings compare?DiscussionDiscussion
    10. 10. DiscussionDiscussionSource: Airplane Flying Handbook, Fig. 4-10Wing AOAs areWing AOAs areunequal during a spinunequal during a spin
    11. 11. • Unless the manufacturer states otherwise, howshould spin recovery inputs be applied?DiscussionDiscussion
    12. 12. DiscussionDiscussionStep 1—REDUCE THE POWER (THROTTLE) TO IDLE. Power aggravates the spincharacteristics.Step 2—POSITION THE AILERONS TO NEUTRAL. Ailerons may have an adverseeffect on spin recovery.Step 3—APPLY FULL OPPOSITE RUDDER AGAINST THE ROTATION. Make surethat full (against the stop) opposite rudder has been applied.Step 4—APPLY A POSITIVE AND BRISK, STRAIGHT FORWARD MOVEMENT OFTHE ELEVATOR CONTROL FORWARD OF THE NEUTRAL TO BREAK THE STALL. Thisshould be done immediately after full rudder application.Step 5—AFTER SPIN ROTATION STOPS, NEUTRALIZE THE RUDDER.Source: Airplane Flying Handbook, Pg. 4-15
    13. 13. • Some aircraft can exhibit aggravated spinbehavior by design (it’s just their nature).—Even so, what pilot-controlled actions tendto aggravate a spin?DiscussionDiscussion
    14. 14. • When is a spin most likely to occur?DiscussionDiscussion
    15. 15. DiscussionDiscussionSource: FAA General Aviation Accident CausesPowerPoint Slides, September 8, 20100 5 10 15 20 25 30Maneuvering-low-alt flying - Collision withterr/obj (non-CFIT)Maneuvering-low-alt flying - Loss ofcontrol in flightEnroute-cruise - Loss of control in flightEnroute - VFR encounter with IMCInitial climb - Aerodynamic stall/spinEnroute-cruise - Controlled flight intoterr/obj (CFIT)Maneuvering - Midair collisionManeuvering-low-alt flying - Low altitudeoperation/eventManeuvering-low-alt flying - Aerodynamicstall/spinInitial climb - Loss of control in flightManeuvering - Loss of control in flightPrimarySecondary
    16. 16. • When spinning, the slip/skid ball is totallyunreliable for determining spin direction.—But what instrument does provide reliablespin direction information (upright spins)?DiscussionDiscussion
    17. 17. • In general, the sequence rudder-followed-by-elevator is important during spin recovery.—Unless noted otherwise, how long a delayshould there be between these actions?DiscussionDiscussion
    18. 18. DiscussionDiscussionStep 1—REDUCE THE POWER (THROTTLE) TO IDLE. Power aggravates the spincharacteristics.Step 2—POSITION THE AILERONS TO NEUTRAL. Ailerons may have an adverseeffect on spin recovery.Step 3—APPLY FULL OPPOSITE RUDDER AGAINST THE ROTATION. Make surethat full (against the stop) opposite rudder has been applied.Step 4—APPLY A POSITIVE AND BRISK, STRAIGHT FORWARD MOVEMENT OFTHE ELEVATOR CONTROL FORWARD OF THE NEUTRAL TO BREAK THE STALL. Thisshould be done immediately after full rudder application.Step 5—AFTER SPIN ROTATION STOPS, NEUTRALIZE THE RUDDER.
    19. 19. • How do you determine if a particular airplane isapproved for intentional spins?—And is it ever permissible to intentionallyspin when in the Normal category?DiscussionDiscussion
    20. 20. • What are some of the common errors madeduring the execution of intentional spins?DiscussionDiscussion
    21. 21. • If you inadvertently spin while cross-controlled,in what direction would you usually expect therotation to be?DiscussionDiscussion
    22. 22. CFI ApplicantsCFI ApplicantsReference: Airplane Flying Handbook, Chapter 4Logbook endorsement that applicant hasdemonstrated competency in spin entries,spins, and spin recoveries
    23. 23. CFI ApplicantsCFI ApplicantsReference: Airplane Flying Handbook, Chapter 4Instructional knowledge of:• Anxiety factors associated with spins• Accident scenarios• Spin aerodynamics• Common errors
    24. 24. • An avoidable spin accidentAn avoidable spin accident• Spin dynamics and aggravating factorsSpin dynamics and aggravating factors• How to determine if an aircraft is approvedHow to determine if an aircraft is approvedfor intentional spinsfor intentional spins• Common errors during intentional spinsCommon errors during intentional spinsSummarySummaryDuring this forum, we discussed:During this forum, we discussed:
    25. 25. This presentation would not have beenpossible without the generous help andsupport of the following:Your Forum FacilitatorFAA Safety Teamwww.FAASafety.govSAFEwww.SafePilots.orgGold Seal Flightwww.GoldSealFlight.comAvWebwww.AvWeb.comRich Stowell, MCFI-Awww.RichStowell.comCreated December 2010
    26. 26. QuizQuiz

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