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Transforming Bihar Agriculture for Improving Food Security -Challenges and Opportunities 
P K Joshi 
International Food Po...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Issues covered 
1.Identify opportunities for higher, sustainable and inclusi...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Key characteristics of Bihar agriculture 
Abundant water; abundant sun shin...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Smallholder agriculture 
0% 
10% 
20% 
30% 
40% 
50% 
60% 
70% 
80% 
90% 
10...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
How to unleashing opportunities? 
4 pronged strategy 
Innovations 
Instit...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
1. Bridge the yield gapsRice yield gaps: FLD and sate average (t/ha) 
Yield...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Yield gaps contt… 
Wheat yield gaps 
86%: ranging from 70% in zone III to ...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Yield gaps in dairy sectorMilk yield l/animal/year 
Items 
Crossbred 
Indige...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
2. Connect invention to innovation: potential of hybrid rice 
Yield range, t...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
3. Emerging hybrid maize in Bihar (yields t/ha) 
1.72.412.633.185.666.660123...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
4. Climate smart agriculture: farmers’ preferences to various technology int...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Investment and its impact on crop sector 
Item 
Unit 
Current 
20% Inv 
% Ch...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
5. Harness potential of rice-fallow 
Extent of rabi-fallow area 
1.2 
1.7 
2...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Constraints to use rice-fallow lands 
Abiotic 
Low residual moisture (91-9...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
6. Agricultural diversification: Share of food commodities in value of agric...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
7. Jute and Mesta: promising crops in changing scenario 
State-wise cultivat...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Global scenario of Jute Production 
Production of Jute in the World durign y...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
8. Prospects for agro-processing sector 
Bihar food market: US$ 9 billion &...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Constraints in agro-processing sector 
Agro-processing is with the unorgani...
II 
Interventions for Accelerating Sustainable Agricultural Production
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Needed interventions and way forward 
More investment in agriculture 
Floo...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Interventions…. 
Connect invention and innovation 
Massive seed production...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Bihar marching for transformation for improving food security 
Thank you
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IFPRI - Food Secure Bihar, P K Joshi, IFPRI

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A N Sinha Institute of Social Science (ANSISS), and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) organized a one day consulation on
‘A Food Secure Bihar: Challenges and Way Forward’ on August 06, 2014 at ANSISS, Patna, Bihar.
You are aware that National Food Security Act (NFSA) has been enacted with a view to ensure food security in India and Bihar is one of the state where ensuring food security is a major challenge. A better understanding of NFSA in the context of Bihar will be helpful for effective implementation of the NFSA. The main objective of the policy consultative workshop is to deliberate on the options and strategies for making NFSA efficient and effective in Bihar.

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IFPRI - Food Secure Bihar, P K Joshi, IFPRI

  1. 1. Transforming Bihar Agriculture for Improving Food Security -Challenges and Opportunities P K Joshi International Food Policy Research Institute Consultation Workshop on ‘A Food Secure Bihar: Challenges and Way Forward’ Supported by SDC for a project on India-Food Security Portal 6 August 2014, Patna, Bihar
  2. 2. International Food Policy Research Institute Issues covered 1.Identify opportunities for higher, sustainable and inclusive agricultural growth 2.Propose interventions for transforming agriculture and sequence priorities
  3. 3. International Food Policy Research Institute Key characteristics of Bihar agriculture Abundant water; abundant sun shine; abundant labour Concurrent twin problems of drought and flood High poverty and acute under-nourishment
  4. 4. International Food Policy Research Institute Smallholder agriculture 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Holdings Area 89.6 53 6.7 19.6 3 18.2 0.7 9.3 <1.0 ha 1-2 ha 2-4 ha >4.0 ha Tiny size of holding 0.43 ha in 2005/06 0.75 ha in 1995/96 <0.5 ha: 72% holdings commanding 27% area 0.16 ha of < 0.5 ha <1.0 ha: 90% holdings Commands 50% area Joint holdings (13%) <0.5 ha: 12% holdings 10 ha>: 40% holdings
  5. 5. International Food Policy Research Institute How to unleashing opportunities? 4 pronged strategy Innovations Institutions Incentives Infrastructure Harness untapped yield reservoir Leverage power of improved technologies Utilize fallow lands Promote agridiversification & agro-processing High-value & remunerative commodities Labor absorbing & water efficient commodities
  6. 6. International Food Policy Research Institute 1. Bridge the yield gapsRice yield gaps: FLD and sate average (t/ha) Yield gap: 131-300% FLD yield: 6.29 t/ha State avg: 1.55 t/ha 0.5 t/ha in Bhagalpur to 2.9 t/ha in Bhojpur Rajendra Mahsuri-1; Rajendra Sweta Swarna-Sub 1for flood- prone areas
  7. 7. International Food Policy Research Institute Yield gaps contt… Wheat yield gaps 86%: ranging from 70% in zone III to 158% in zone II Maize yield gaps Rainy season: 103-141% Causes of high yield gaps High uncertainty and yield risks Non-availability of improved varieties Low seed replacement rates Low and imbalance fertilize use
  8. 8. International Food Policy Research Institute Yield gaps in dairy sectorMilk yield l/animal/year Items Crossbred Indigenous Buffalo Experiment station yield (Maximum) 7275 2768 3200 Attainable yield (Maximum) 3386 1589 2610 Average actual farm Yield 1541 910 1560 Yield gap I 3889 1179 590 Yield gap II 1845 679 1050 Yield gap I % of Experiment station yield 79 67 51 Yield gap II % of attainable 54 43 40
  9. 9. International Food Policy Research Institute 2. Connect invention to innovation: potential of hybrid rice Yield range, t/ha Average yield, t/ha Districts < 5.00 4.67 West Singhbhun (4.81); Dumka (4.29); Chatra (4.92) 5.0 –6.0 5.75 Ranchi (5.72); Godde (5.64); Koderne (5.90) 6.0 –7.0 6.33 Lohardaga (6.03); Shibganj (6.89); Palamau (6.06) > 7.00 7.43 Bokaro (7.54); Gharwa (7.06); Dhanbad (7.98); Pakur (7.07); East Singhbhum (7.54)
  10. 10. International Food Policy Research Institute 3. Emerging hybrid maize in Bihar (yields t/ha) 1.72.412.633.185.666.6601234567RainyWinterLocalCompositeHybrids
  11. 11. International Food Policy Research Institute 4. Climate smart agriculture: farmers’ preferences to various technology interventions Bihar 1.Laser land Levelling 2.Rain water conservation 3.Systems of Rice Intensification 4.Green manuring 5.Crop Diversification 6.Crop Insurance
  12. 12. International Food Policy Research Institute Investment and its impact on crop sector Item Unit Current 20% Inv % Change Production m t 10.89 17.11 57.00 Income bRs 107.00 135.30 26.00 Employment m days 403 435 8.00 Water use 000 m c m 33.45 22.43 -33.00 Income LS bRs 35.00 53.86 53.00 Emission M t CO2 eq 14.80 13.26 -10.00
  13. 13. International Food Policy Research Institute 5. Harness potential of rice-fallow Extent of rabi-fallow area 1.2 1.7 2.2 4.4 9.5 11.6 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Rice-fallow area, m ha Orissa W Bengal Bihar MP 4 States India 31 37 37 78 47 38 0 20 40 60 80 Rabi fallow as of kharif rice. % Orissa W Bengal Bihar MP 4 States India 18 10 15 38 19 Orissa W Bengal Bihar MP Other
  14. 14. International Food Policy Research Institute Constraints to use rice-fallow lands Abiotic Low residual moisture (91-97%); terminal drought (63-78%) Crop improvement Lack of short duration pulses and rice varieties (64-97%); pest problems (30-62%) Resource constraints Lack of inputs and cash to buy seeds and other inputs (>90%) Access to information about varieties and management Source of information: 88-97% by NGOs & 14-23% by extension staff Grazing lands Crop damage due to grazing (almost 100%) Missing markets High production risk (22-60%)and price risk (18-46%)
  15. 15. International Food Policy Research Institute 6. Agricultural diversification: Share of food commodities in value of agricultural output, % 1990/ 91 2000/ 01 2008/09 Paddy 20 13 11 Wheat 14 11 9 Maize 3 3 2 Pulses 7 3 2 F & Veg 14 36 24 L’stock 30 25 42 Others 12 9 10 Diversification towards livestock sector F & V and L’stockshares 66% in VOAO Declining size of holdings Rising demands COMFED (dairy) Membership up 17.282 m in 1999/00 48.96 m in 2010/11 Milk collection up 281.08 thkg/day in 1999/00 608.38 thkg/day in 2006-07
  16. 16. International Food Policy Research Institute 7. Jute and Mesta: promising crops in changing scenario State-wise cultivated Area (Million Ha) under 'Jute & Mesta' in India during year 2009-10 West Bengal, 0.62, 69% Bihar, 0.14, 15% Assam, 0.07, 8% Others, 0.08, 8% State-wise Production of Jute & Mesta (Million bales of 180 Kg each) West Bengal, 9.40, 80% Bihar, 1.28, 11% Assam, 0.74, 6% Others, 0.40, 3% Area (Million Ha), Production (10 Million bales of 180 Kgs. each) of Jute & Mesta at All- India level during period 1950-51 to 2009-10 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1950-51 1952-53 1954-55 1956-57 1958-59 1960-61 1962-63 1964-65 1966-67 1968-69 1970-71 1972-73 1974-75 1976-77 1978-79 1980-81 1982-83 1984-85 1986-87 1988-89 1990-91 1992-93 1994-95 1996-97 1998-99 2000-01 2002-03 2004-05 2006-07 2008-09 2010-11* Years Area and Production 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Yield Area (Million) Production (10 Million Bales of 180 kgs. each) Yield (Kg/Ha) Source: Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 201, Ministry of Agriculture, GoI
  17. 17. International Food Policy Research Institute Global scenario of Jute Production Production of Jute in the World durign year 2010 Thousand Tonnes % India 1743.0 57.0 Bangladesh 1200.6 39.3 China 40.0 1.3 Uzbekistan 21.7 0.7 Nepal 21.0 0.7 Others 29.6 1.0 World 3055.9 100.0 Production Country Production of Jute (Millions Tonnes) in India, Bangladesh and China during period 1961 to 2010 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Years Production (Million Tonnes) Bangladesh China India Source: FAOStat
  18. 18. International Food Policy Research Institute 8. Prospects for agro-processing sector Bihar food market: US$ 9 billion & expected to grow to US$ 19 billion by 2015 (110% increase) 45% is processed food market Prospects for cereals, pulses, oilseeds Rice milling installed capacity is inadequate Maize processing insignificant Starch, corn oil, corn flacks, poultry feed Fruits, vegetables, sugarcane, potato, tobacco, etc Fruit juice, fruit pulp, squash, pickles, tomato sauces/pulp/paste, jam/jelly, fruit beverages Makhanaprocessing
  19. 19. International Food Policy Research Institute Constraints in agro-processing sector Agro-processing is with the unorganized sector Absence of pre-processing facilities Pre-cooling, cooling, grading, sorting, pack houses High post-harvest losses Papaya: 30-50%; Banana: 15-25%; Cabbage: 41-44%; Potato, Brinjal, Onion, cauliflower: 33% Power is a major constraint
  20. 20. II Interventions for Accelerating Sustainable Agricultural Production
  21. 21. International Food Policy Research Institute Needed interventions and way forward More investment in agriculture Flood control, irrigation, drainage management; & land development Drainage canal from north to south Promote dairy sector (veterinary hospitals & AI facilities) Develop markets Agricultural research and extension Reprioritize research agenda More multi-disciplinary research in farming system mode at sub- regional level Focus on management of natural resources Priority for rain water management Management practices for alleviating abioticconstraints
  22. 22. International Food Policy Research Institute Interventions…. Connect invention and innovation Massive seed production program: Hybrids (maize, vegetables) Saplings of fruit trees Promote climate smart agriculture Provide incentives to connect farmers with markets Special agriculture zone Cereals, fruits, vegetables, poultry, fish Develop markets Enforce regulatory mechanisms for assured prices Attract corporate sector for developing agro-processing Strengthen institutions Land reforms (consolidation, ownership….) Pro-poor (smallholder agriculture): collective production and marketing, contract farming, farmers’ cooperatives Strengthen credit, insurance, services, and extension services
  23. 23. International Food Policy Research Institute Bihar marching for transformation for improving food security Thank you

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