Challenges of Food and Nutrition Security in Bihar 
Anjani Kumar 
International Food Policy Research Institute 
IFPRI-Sout...
International Food Policy Research InstituteDimensions of food security 
Food Security 
Availability 
Accessibility 
Utili...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Challenges of food security 
Availability 
How to increase productivity an...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Availability (state production) of food in Bihar 
Commodities 
TE 1993 
TE 2...
International Food Policy Research InstituteTrends in incidence of poverty in Bihar (%) 
0.0 
10.0 
20.0 
30.0 
40.0 
50.0...
International Food Policy Research InstituteShare of food in consumption expenditure (%) 
0.0 
10.0 
20.0 
30.0 
40.0 
50....
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Food consumption pattern in Bihar (kg/person/annum) 
Year 
1983 
1993-94 
20...
International Food Policy Research InstituteShare of HVCs in food expenditure (%) 
0.0 
5.0 
10.0 
15.0 
20.0 
25.0 
30.0 ...
International Food Policy Research InstituteDiversification in food intake 
0.760 
0.780 
0.800 
0.820 
0.840 
0.860 
0.88...
International Food Policy Research InstituteIncidence of calorie deficiency (%) 
0 
10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
Bihar 
India 
Rura...
International Food Policy Research InstituteIncidence of under nutrition (%) 
On 75 % of norm 
On 100 % of norm 
Category ...
International Food Policy Research InstituteDeficiency of micro-nutrients, 2011-12 (%) 
On 100 percent 
On 75 percent 
Par...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Nature of Food Insecurity (%) 
On100 percent 
On75 percent 
State 
Chronic 
...
International Food Policy Research Institute% households accessing PDS for cereals 
0.0 
10.0 
20.0 
30.0 
40.0 
50.0 
60....
International Food Policy Research InstituteShare of PDS in cereal consumption (%) 
0.0 
5.0 
10.0 
15.0 
20.0 
25.0 
Biha...
International Food Policy Research InstitutePer capita subsidy at 2004-05 price (Rs./person) 
0 
50 
100 
150 
200 
250 
3...
International Food Policy Research InstituteShare of subsidy in expenditure (%) 
0 
0.5 
1 
1.5 
2 
2.5 
3 
3.5 
4 
Bihar ...
International Food Policy Research InstituteAverage impact on nutrition deficiency (“without” – “with”) 
0 
2 
4 
6 
8 
10...
International Food Policy Research InstituteAverage impact on poverty (“without” –“with”) 
0.0 
1.0 
2.0 
3.0 
4.0 
5.0 
6...
International Food Policy Research InstituteCan decentralized food management be a better option?
International Food Policy Research InstituteDeterminants of food security 
•Socio-demographic characteristics 
–Age 
–Hous...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Determinants of food self-sufficiency 
Dependent variable –(Self sufficient ...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
Determinants of food security 
Dependent variable –(Chronically insecure -1,...
International Food Policy Research Institute 
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IFPRI- Challenges of Food and Nutrition Security in Bihar, Anjani Kumar, IFPRI

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A N Sinha Institute of Social Science (ANSISS), and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) organized a one day consulation on
‘A Food Secure Bihar: Challenges and Way Forward’ on August 06, 2014 at ANSISS, Patna, Bihar.
You are aware that National Food Security Act (NFSA) has been enacted with a view to ensure food security in India and Bihar is one of the state where ensuring food security is a major challenge. A better understanding of NFSA in the context of Bihar will be helpful for effective implementation of the NFSA. The main objective of the policy consultative workshop is to deliberate on the options and strategies for making NFSA efficient and effective in Bihar

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IFPRI- Challenges of Food and Nutrition Security in Bihar, Anjani Kumar, IFPRI

  1. 1. Challenges of Food and Nutrition Security in Bihar Anjani Kumar International Food Policy Research Institute IFPRI-South Asia Regional Office, NASC Complex, Pusa New Delhi 110 012 India E-mail: anjani.kumar@cgiar.org Web: www.ifpri.org
  2. 2. International Food Policy Research InstituteDimensions of food security Food Security Availability Accessibility Utilization Vulnerability
  3. 3. International Food Policy Research Institute Challenges of food security Availability How to increase productivity and production efficiently? How to strengthen procurement and distribution? Access Persistent poverty Changes in consumption pattern Intake of energy and other nutrients Functioning of social safety nets programme Utilization Incidence of nutritional deficiency Nutritional outcome Vulnerability Dependence on home produced food Dependence on PDS food Dependence on food from market
  4. 4. International Food Policy Research Institute Availability (state production) of food in Bihar Commodities TE 1993 TE 2012 Foodgrains 120 133 Cereals 94 127 Pulses 4 6 Vegetables 98 177 Fruits - 46 Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Bihar
  5. 5. International Food Policy Research InstituteTrends in incidence of poverty in Bihar (%) 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 Bihar India Urban 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 Bihar India Rural 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12
  6. 6. International Food Policy Research InstituteShare of food in consumption expenditure (%) 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 Bihar India Rural 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 Bihar India Urban 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12
  7. 7. International Food Policy Research Institute Food consumption pattern in Bihar (kg/person/annum) Year 1983 1993-94 2004-05 2011-12 Rice 82.6 86.5 85.8 75.4 Wheat 71.0 69.8 69.1 68.7 Cereals 186.1 163.5 159.4 145.7 Pulses 11.7 9.1 9.3 9.8 Edible Oil 3.0 4.4 5.6 6.4 Vegetables 62.5 80.1 83.2 70.3 Fruits 4.0 4.7 8.0 7.8 Milk 28.8 40.1 46.4 57.9 Sugar 5.0 5.8 5.7 6.3 Non-veg 2.8 3.0 2.9 3.8
  8. 8. International Food Policy Research InstituteShare of HVCs in food expenditure (%) 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 Bihar India Rural 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 Bihar India Urban 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12
  9. 9. International Food Policy Research InstituteDiversification in food intake 0.760 0.780 0.800 0.820 0.840 0.860 0.880 0.900 Bihar India Rural 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12 0.780 0.790 0.800 0.810 0.820 0.830 0.840 0.850 0.860 0.870 0.880 0.890 Bihar India Urban 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12
  10. 10. International Food Policy Research InstituteIncidence of calorie deficiency (%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 Bihar India Rural 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Bihar India Urban 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12
  11. 11. International Food Policy Research InstituteIncidence of under nutrition (%) On 75 % of norm On 100 % of norm Category Bihar Jharkhand Odisha Bihar Jharkhand Odisha Labour 9.2 6.7 8.5 61.8 40.4 38.7 Small 3.8 14.2 8.0 35.7 51.9 36.8 Medium 3.6 8.4 5.9 27.7 40.5 35.5 Large 1.6 5.6 5.2 28.9 36.7 29.9 All 4.6 8.7 6.9 38.7 42.3 35.1 CV (%) 62.1 38.2 19.8 35.8 13.5 9.3
  12. 12. International Food Policy Research InstituteDeficiency of micro-nutrients, 2011-12 (%) On 100 percent On 75 percent Particulars Bihar Jharkhand Odisha Eastern states Bihar Jharkhand Odisha Eastern states Iron 59.0 76.5 71.5 68.5 18.5 68.5 57.6 46.6 Carotene 98.8 99.7 99.8 99.4 98.1 97.8 99.2 98.3 Thiamine 4.1 66.9 59.3 41.2 0.2 58.5 44.2 32.4 Riboflavin 71.2 81.2 78.5 76.7 44.9 70.6 63.4 58.8 Niacin 17.1 57.4 49.2 39.9 2.1 27.4 25.9 17.5 Folic acid 53.7 69.9 56.8 59.9 19.1 55.6 42.7 38.1 Vitamin C 41.7 29.7 24.4 32.5 26.1 16.8 12.6 19.0
  13. 13. International Food Policy Research Institute Nature of Food Insecurity (%) On100 percent On75 percent State Chronic Transitory Chronic Transitory Bihar 87.2 12.8 50.0 50.0 Jharkhand 85.7 14.3 66.7 33.3 Odisha 78.4 21.6 44.4 55.6 Eastern states 83.7 16.3 50.0 50.0
  14. 14. International Food Policy Research Institute% households accessing PDS for cereals 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 Bihar India Rural 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 Bihar India Urban 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12
  15. 15. International Food Policy Research InstituteShare of PDS in cereal consumption (%) 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 Bihar India Rural 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 Bihar India Urban 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12
  16. 16. International Food Policy Research InstitutePer capita subsidy at 2004-05 price (Rs./person) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Bihar India Rural 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Bihar India Urban 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12
  17. 17. International Food Policy Research InstituteShare of subsidy in expenditure (%) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Bihar India Rural 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 Bihar India Urban 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12
  18. 18. International Food Policy Research InstituteAverage impact on nutrition deficiency (“without” – “with”) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Bihar India Rural 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Bihar India Urban 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12
  19. 19. International Food Policy Research InstituteAverage impact on poverty (“without” –“with”) 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 Bihar India Rural 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Bihar India Urban 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12
  20. 20. International Food Policy Research InstituteCan decentralized food management be a better option?
  21. 21. International Food Policy Research InstituteDeterminants of food security •Socio-demographic characteristics –Age –Household size –Education –Social group •Economic characteristics –Land holding –Occupation –Income •Policy instruments –Functioning of PDS –Prices of food commodities •Regional characteristics
  22. 22. International Food Policy Research Institute Determinants of food self-sufficiency Dependent variable –(Self sufficient household -1, otherwise-0) Variable Coefficient Standard error Age of head (years) 0.0070* 0.0037 Education of head (years) 0.0248** 0.0113 Caste group (SC&ST -1, otherwise -0) -0.6148*** 0.1232 Land size (acre) 0.2541*** 0.0266 No of pumpset(no.) 0.1552*** 0.0516 Access of KCC -0.1531 0.2041 Livestock size (no.) 0.0600** 0.0247 State 1 (Bihar -1, otherwise -0) 0.8775*** 0.1277 State 2 (Jharkhand -1, otherwise -0) 0.2554* 0.1360 Constant -1.7235*** 0.2290 No. of observation 998 Prob> chi2 0.0000 Pseudo R2 0.2769 Log likelihood -480.8773
  23. 23. International Food Policy Research Institute Determinants of food security Dependent variable –(Chronically insecure -1, Transitory-2, Secure -3) Variable Coefficient Standard error Age of head (years) -0.0094** 0.0047 Education of head (years) 0.0655*** 0.0146 Caste group (SC&ST -1, otherwise -0) -0.7409*** 0.1564 Land size (acre) 0.0788*** 0.0249 Livestock size (no.) -0.0284 0.0319 State 1 (Bihar -1, otherwise -0) -0.0318 0.1720 State 2 (Jharkhand -1, otherwise -0) -0.0110 0.1752 Access of PDS -0.4141*** 0.1490 Cut1 -1.1554 0.3224 Cut2 0.7462 0.3215 No. of observation 998 Prob > chi2 0.0000 Pseudo R2 0.0601 Log likelihood -1010.4949
  24. 24. International Food Policy Research Institute Thank you

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