How Hydropower Works?
Essential Element of a Hydropower Plant
Classification of Hydropower Electric Plant
Show a Dynamic model of Hydel Power
Procedure of the Making Model
Some View of the Project
Methods to alleviate the negative impact
Continent Wide distribution
A Project on Hydropower
¤ PRESENTED BY:
Table of contents:
• What’s Hydroelectricity?
• How Hydropower Works?
• Essential Element of a Hydropower Plant
• Classification of Hydropower Electric Plant
• Show a Dynamic model of Hydel Power
• Procedure of the Making Model
• Some View of the Project
• Methods to alleviate the negative impact
• Continent Wide distribution
• Like most other renewable, water powers indirect
solar power. Unlike most of the others, it is already a
major contributor to world energy supplies. Hydro-
electricity power is a well-established
technology, which has been producing firm power at
competitive prices for about a century.
What is Hydroelectricity?
• When we use the energy in flowing water to produce
electricity, we call it Hydroelectricity.
• The name comes from the Greek word for water,
‘hydro’. Hydroelectricity makes a major contribution
to the world’s energy supplies –more than any other
kind of renewable energy resource.
How Hydropower Works:
Water from the
reservoir flows due to
gravity to drive the
Turbine is connected to
Power generated is
transmitted over power
ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF A
HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT:-
CLASSIFICATION OF HYDRO ELECTRIC
According to the availability of head
1.High head power plants
2. Medium head power plants
3.Low head power plants
According to the nature of load
1. Base load plants
2.Peak load plants
According to quantity of water available
1. Run of river plant without poundage
2. Run of river plant with poundage
3. Hydroelectric plants with storage reservoirs
4. Pump storage plants
5. Mini and micro Hydel plants
PROCEDURE OF MAKING THE MODEL
PLANE THE BOTH SIDES OF
THE WOODEN BAR BY
CREATE A HOLE IN BOTH
BARS WHICH DIMENSION IS
SIMILAR TO THE BEARING
SMALL WOODEN BAR IS
USED TO SUPPORT THOSE
BAR & MAKE IT AS A STAND
INDIVIDUALLY BY USING
PINS & HAMMER
THE SHAFT IS PUSHED
THROUGH THE HOLE OF THE
THE SPOONS WHICH WILL
ACT AS BLADES ARE
ATTACHED TO THE RUNNER
THE SHAFT & TWO STANDS
ARE ATTACHED WITH
THE LARGER PULLEY IS
ATTACHED WITH THE ONE
END OF SHAFT
THE MOTOR IS ATTACHED
WITH THE WOODEN STAND
BY THE HELP OF CLAMP &
ANOTHER SMALLER PULLEY
IS ATTACHED WITH THE
BOTH THE PULLEY ARE
CONNECTED BY THE BELT
ONE RESERVOIR IS
ATTACHED OVER THE TABLE
& ANOTHER IS UNDER THE
ATLAST THE PUMP IS
SUBMERGED BELOW WATER
LEVEL & A PIPE GO TO THE
UPPER RESERVAR FROM THE
TWO RESERVOIRS (MADE
TWO WOODEN BARS
(SAME IN SIZE)
ONE HOLLOW SHAFT
(MADE OF AL & DIA 1.2
TWO PLASTIC PULLEYS
ONE TURBINE (RUNNER)
FIVE SPOONS (BLADE OF
ONE MOTOR (500 R.P.M.)
SOME PINS (TEN 1 inch &
TEN 2 inch)
SOME SMALL WOODEN
ONE SMALL BELT DRIVE
TOP VIEW OF STAND FRONT VIEW OF STAND TURBINE & SHAFT
OVER AL VIEW OF STAND,PULLEYS,TURBINE
BLADES OF THE TURBINE PULLEYS
Environmental Benefits of Hydro
• No operational greenhouse gas emissions
• Savings (kg of CO2 per MHz of electricity):
– Coal 1000 kg
– Oil 800 kg
– Gas 400 kg
• No SO2 or NOX
control, irrigation, transportation, fisheries and
• The loss of land under the reservoir.
• Interference with the transport of sediment by the
• Problems associated with the reservoir.
– Climatic and seismic effects.
– Impact on aquatic ecosystems, flora and fauna.
• Capture of sediment decreases the fertility downstream as a long
• It also leads to deprivation of sand to beaches in coastal areas.
• If the water is diverted out of the basin, there might be salt water
intrusion into the inland from the ocean, as the previous balance
between this salt water and upstream fresh water in altered.
• It may lead to changes in the ecology of the estuary area and lead
to decrease in agricultural productivity.
Climatic and Seismic effects:-
• It is believed that large reservoirs induce have the potential to
• In tropics, existence of man-made lakes decreases the convective
activity and reduces cloud cover. In temperate regions, fog forms
over the lake and along the shores when the temperature falls to
zero and thus increases humidity in the nearby area.
Methods to alleviate the negative
• Creation of ecological reserves.
• Limiting dam construction to allow substantial
free flowing water.
• Building sluice gates and passes that help
prevent fishes getting trapped.
The Indian Scenario:
• The potential is about 84000 MW at 60% load factor
spread across six major basins in the country.
• Pumped storage sites have been found recently
which leads to a further addition of a maximum of
• Annual yield is assessed to be about 420 billion units
per year though with seasonal energy the value
crosses600 billion mark.
• The possible installed capacity is around 150000 MW
(Based on the report submitted by CEA to the
Ministry of Power)
• BASICALLY WE CAME ACROSS THE MAKING
OF““A dynamic model of hydel power”
• I ALSO FOUND OPPURTUNITY TO GO
THROUGH THE VARIOUS TYPES OF
INSTRUMENTS, MACHINES USED BY THE
COLLEGE FOR MAKING THE PRODUCT.
• THIS PROJECT GAVE ME A FARE CHANCE TO
REFRESH OUR SKILLS IN DIFFERENT
SUBJECTS. IT WAS A WORTHFUL
EXPERIENCE WHICH HELPED ME TO
CORRELATE MY THEORETICAL
CONCEPTIONS WITH PRACTICAL ONES.