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Managing change


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Managing change

  1. 1. Managing OrganizationalChange and Learning
  2. 2. Managing OrganizationalChange and Learning A Proactive Behavior
  3. 3. Why is it Important to Adapt toChange? Individuals, teams, or organizations that do not adapt to change in timely ways are unlikely to survive.
  4. 4. Adapting to Change  Individuals, teams and organizations that recognize the inevitability of change, learn to adapt to it, and attempt to manage it, will be the most successful.
  5. 5. What is Change? Coping process of moving from a unsatisfactory present state to a desired state
  6. 6. Reacting to Change  Unplanned  ―Fire fighting‖
  7. 7. Learning Principles and Change Principles of learning  Unfreezing old learning  Movement to new learning  Refreezing the learned behavior
  8. 8. Change Agents An intervener who…  Brings a different perspective to a situation  Challenges the status quo (position) The success of a change program rests heavily on…  The relationship between the change agent and key decision makers
  9. 9. Types of Change Agents Internal External-Internal External
  10. 10. Why People Resist Change Rational or irrational reaction to  Uncertainty  Actual, perceived, or imaged threats Parochial self-interest Misunderstanding Lack of trust Different assessments Low tolerance for change
  11. 11. Reducing Resistance to Change Employee resistance can be reduced by utilizing:  Education and communication  Participation and involvement  Facilitation and support  Negotiation and agreement  Manipulation and cooptation  Explicit and implicit coercion
  12. 12. Model for Managing Change Forces for change Selection of Performance Diagnosis of appropriate Environmental outcomes the problem intervention • Market • Technology Organizational Information Leads Structural Affect Group Encourage Participation to • Resources Skill/attitude Internal Individual Change agent Behavioral • Behavior • Processes 1 2 3 4 Limiting Conditions Implementation Evaluation Followed Provision of method Leadership climate by Timing for Feedback Formal organization Scope Adjustment Organization culture Experimentation Revision 5 6 Reinforcement 7 Feedback Feedback
  13. 13. Forces for Change Environmental Forces  Economic  Technological  Social/political Internal Forces  Process problems  Behavioral problems
  14. 14. Diagnosis of a Problem Change agents facilitate a diagnosis  Gathering, interpreting, and presenting data  There is no formula for accurate diagnosis Questions that can point to the right direction:  What is the problem, as distinct from the symptoms of the problem?  What must be changed to resolve the problem?  What outcomes (objectives) are expected from the change?  How will those outcomes be measured?
  15. 15. Data Collection Process &Techniques Processes and techniques…  Questionnaire  Direct observation  Interviews  Workshops  Examination of documents and records
  16. 16. Intervention Intervention – A specific action or program undertaken to focus the change process on particular targets.
  17. 17. Depth & Approach of Change Depth of intended change  Scope and intensity of organizational change efforts Approaches to achieving change  Structural  Behavioral  Technological
  18. 18. Alternative Change Techniques Structural Change  Change the nature of jobs  Change the bases for departmentalization  Change line-staff relationships Behavioral Change  Team building  Diversity training Technological Change  New ways of transforming resources into products or services
  19. 19. Technological Change Techniques Flexible manufacturing Automation systems Robotics Wireless Connectivity
  20. 20. High-Tech Disappointments High-tech changes often disappoint  Structural changes not implemented  Behavioral changes lacking  Employee training  Compensation  Management style
  21. 21. Anticipated Outcomes ofChange Structural Work simplification Satisfaction changes Job enrichment Morale Job description Performance Departmentalization Initiator of change: internal Communications Behavioral Team building Attitudes and/or external Cross-cultural understanding changes Self-awareness change agent Managing diversity Problem solving Technological Robotics Efficiency changes Automation Output Wireless connectivity Quality
  22. 22. Appreciative Inquiry A method of focusing on and bringing about positive change  Uses metaphors and narratives to strengthen an individual or organization’s ability to anticipate, seize, or initiate positive potential  A positive approach to change that completely lets go of problem-based management  Individual engagement to bring about creative solutions
  23. 23. Framework for AppreciativeInquiry 1 2 3 4 Discovery Dreaming Designing Delivery Phase Phase Phase Phase Identifying Thinking Discussing Creating everything about what and clear that is the the analyzing objectives best of “possibilities” what of “what is “what is” are “should” be going to be”
  24. 24. Trends in OrganizationalChange Downsizing Empowerment Flextime Virtual Jobs
  25. 25. Limiting Conditions Selection of a change technique…  Based on diagnosis of the problem  Tempered by the conditions at the time an intervention is to occur Conditions to consider…  Leadership climate  The formal organization  The organizational culture  Resistance to change
  26. 26. Implementing & Evaluating Change The implementation of proposed change has two dimensions:  Timing — when to make the change  Scope — how much change to make Feedback should be solicited during the monitoring phase  It helps determine the success of the change
  27. 27. Ethical Issues of Change Change itself is not unethical  It creates opportunities for unethical behavior Ethical choices are always guided by the underlying values of management  Employ and empower managers who create and foster a culture that encourages ethical behavior
  28. 28. Guidelines for Managing Change Everyone involved must have…  High and visible commitment to the effort  Advance information that lets them know what is to happen and why they are being asked to do what they are to do The change effort…  Must connect to other parts of the organization, especially evaluation and reward systems  Should be directed by line managers and assisted by a change agent, if necessary
  29. 29. Guidelines for Managing Change For a change to be effective…  The effort must be based on good diagnosis and consistent with the conditions in the organization  Management must remain committed to the effort through all its steps  Evaluation is essential and must consist of more than asking people how they felt about the effort  People must see the connection between the effort and the organization’s mission and goals  Change agents, if used, must be competent and perceived as such
  30. 30. The Learning Organization Learning is a key ingredient in…  Growing  Becoming more effective  Becoming more socially responsible  Sustaining the business’s value proposition
  31. 31. A Learning Perspective Scanning the environment Performance issues Metrics Experimental philosophy Transparency Education Operational variety Multiple advocates Engaged leaders and role models
  32. 32. Manager’s Role in LearningOrganizations Managers who also lead can create or contribute to the learning environment  Build a commitment to learning  Work to generate ideas with impact  Work to generalize ideas with impact
  33. 33. Manager’s Role in LearningOrganizations Sustaining a learning organization requires  A commitment to learning  Generation & implementation of creative ideas  Building cohesive teams  Fostering collaboration and support What is learned must be implemented in order to execute a change  Managers must be decisive and action oriented
  34. 34. Converting a TraditionalOrganization Change the way information and experienced are used  Change the way information is sought, used, stored and reviewed  Information must be shared, available, and transparent  Actively work to make information, new ideas, and creativity part of the culture
  35. 35. Planned Change Results from deliberate attempts by managers to improve organizational operations
  36. 36. Unfreeze ChangeThree Phases ofPlanned Change Refreeze
  37. 37. Unfreezing  Help people accept that change is needed because the existing situation is not adequate
  38. 38. Changing Involves rearranging of current work norms and relationships to meet new needs
  39. 39. Refreezing  Reinforces the changes made so that the new ways of behaving become stabilized
  40. 40. Steps in the Planned ChangeProcessRecognize the need for change Diagnose and plan change Manage the transition Measure results Maintain change
  41. 41. Model of Planned ChangeBy Permission: Porres & Silvers (1991)
  42. 42. Model of Planned Change – 2Porras & Silvers Model:1. Change intervention (two categories):  Organization transformation  Organization development2. Organizational target variables:  Vision (beliefs, purpose, mission)  Work setting (organizing arrangements, social factors, technology, physical setting)
  43. 43. Model of Planned Change – 3Porras & Silvers Model:3. Individual organizational member: Cognitive change (four types): Alpha change Beta change Gamma (A) change Gamma (B) change Behavior change
  44. 44. Model of Planned Change – 4Porras & Silvers Model:4. Organizational outcomes:  Improved organizational performance  Enhanced individual development
  45. 45. Managing the Planned ChangeProcess Improving the organization’s ability to cope with unplanned changes that are thrust upon it Modifying employee’s attitudes and behaviors to make them more effective contributors to the organization’s goals
  46. 46. Initiating the Planned ChangeProcess Recognize the need for change Diagnose and plan change Formulate Goals Determine stakeholders’ needs Examine driving and restraining forces
  47. 47. Force-Field Analysis Process of analyzing the forces that drive change and the forces that restrain it
  48. 48. Driving Forces Factors that push toward the new, more desirable status quo
  49. 49. Restraining Forces  Factors that exert pressure to continue past behaviors or to resist new actions
  50. 50. Managing the Planned ChangeProcess Consider contingencies to determine the best interventions Manage the transition Measure results Maintain change