RENEWABLE ENERGYRESOURCES: ROLE OFAN INDIVIDUAL
NEED FOR RENEWABLEENERGY Effect to the environment• Combustion of fossil fuels generates sulfuric, carbonic, and nitric acids, which fall to Earth as acid rain, impacting both natural areas and the built environment.• Fossil fuels also contain radioactive materials, mainly uranium and thorium, which are released into the atmosphere.• Depletion of fossil fuels Fossil fuels are depleting in a rapid rate and are harder to retrieve• The consequence is that we can be facing an energy crisis in the future is we are not careful today.• Effect on development of small economies• The energy prices for crude oil are going through the roof, these countries suffer even more.• The monthly electricity costs for households increase among others like transport cost and prices for basic products.• Hence, these high oil prices make it harder for these small countries to grow there economies.
TYPES OF RENEWABLEENERGY• SOLAR ENERGY• BIOMASS• BIOFUEL• GEOTHERMAL ENERGY• WIND ENERGY• HYDROELECTRICITY• TIDAL ENERGY• WAVE ENEGY
BIOFUEL• Biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. BIOALCOHOLS• Bioalcohols,are produced by the action of microorganisms and enzymes through the fermentation of sugars or starches,or cellulose.• Ethanol fuel is the most common biofuel worldwide.• Alcohol fuels are produced by fermentation of sugars derived from wheat, corn, sugar beets, sugar cane, molasses and any sugar or starch made from (like potato and fruit waste, etc.).• The ethanol production methods used are enzyme digestion (to release sugars from stored starches), fermentation of the sugars, distillation and drying.• Ethanol can be used in petrol engines as a replacement for gasoline. Ethanol Fuel Power Plant in Norway
BIOFUEL• Biodiesel• Biodiesel is the most common biofuel in Europe.• It is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is a liquid similar in composition to fossil/mineral diesel. Chemically, it consists mostly of fatty acid methyl (or ethyl) esters (FAMEs).• Biodiesel can be used in any diesel engine when mixed with mineral diesel.• Biodiesel is an effective solvent and cleans residues deposited by mineral diesel, engine filters may need to be replaced more often, as the biofuel dissolves old deposits in the fuel tank and pipes.• GREEN DIESEL• Green diesel, also known as renewable diesel, is a form of diesel fuel which is derived from renewable feedstock rather than the fossil feedstock used in most diesel fuels.
BIOFUEL• Biogas• Biogas is methane produced by the process of anaerobic digestion of organic material by anaerobes.• It can be produced either from biodegradable waste materials or by the use of energy crops fed into anaerobic digesters to supplement gas yields.• The solid byproduct, digestate, can be used as a biofuel or a fertilizer.
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY• Geo thermal energy is the • energy which is extracted from the heat of the sun •• This energy is present into the earth due to the decay of minerals and absorption of sunlight by earth• Geothermal heating application was limited earlier near to the tectonic plates only. However, now this viable energy source is expanded over large geographical area. Steam rising from the Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station in Iceland.
GEOTHERMAL HEATING • Geothermal heating is the direct use of geothermal energy for heating applications. • WORKING • Closed loop geothermal heat pumps circulate a carrier fluid (usually a water/antifreeze mix) through pipes buried in. • As the fluid circulates underground it absorbs heat the ground • The heat extracted and that generated by the heat pump appliance as a byproduct is used to heat the house. • Switching the direction of heat flow, the same system can be used to circulate the cooled water through the house for cooling in the summer months. • The heat is exhausted to the relatively cooler ground (or groundwater) rather than delivering it to the hot outside air as an air conditioner does.
BIOMASSDefinition : Biomass is the common name for organic materials used asrenewable energy sources such as wood, crops and waste.Biomass sources:• garbage, waste•wood•landfill gases•alcohol fuels•municipal solid waste (MSW)•manufacturing waste
Types of Biomass:1. Wood and Agricultural Products •generate electricity •pulp and paper industries2. Landfill Gas •methane gas Wood is a typical source of biomass •biogas digesters3. Solid Waste •garbage
Advantages of Biomass•exhaustible natural resource inexpensive way of producing electricity•produces oxygen and utilize more carbon dioxide•lower the pressure of buying foreign oil
Solar energy•Solar energy is the energy received by the earth from the sun. Thisenergy is in the form of solar radiation, which makes the production ofsolar electricity possible.Application of Solar energy 1. Solar Chemical 2.Solar Pond 3.Solar water heater 4. Solar Power Tower
Solar Power Tower• The solar power towers use sunlight reflected from a series of mirrors to a central device called a receiver. The receiver collects the energy as heat which then turns turbines to generate electricity Solar Water Heater It is a device which uses solar radiation to heat water to temperatures of up to 50°-60°C. Such water heaters may be employed in for bathhouses and laundries.
HYDRO ENERGY• DEFINATION:Hydro-electric power means getting energy from flowing water• WORKING: Usually we build a dam, and let the water turn turbines & generators as it goes through pipes in the dam• ADVANTAGES: No pollution, no fuel needed, no waste, Electricity can be generated constantly.
WIND ENERGY• DEFINATION: Wind energy means getting energy from winds.• WORKING: The wind blows the propeller round, which turns a generator to produce electricity.• ADVANTAGES: Doesnt cause pollution, doesnt need fuel, Wind farms can be tourist attractions.
WAVES ENERGY• DEFINATION: Waves are used for generating the energy.• WORKING: Waves can make something bob up and down, and that can drive a generator. A wave power station needs to be able to stand really rough weather, and yet still be able to generate power from small waves.• ADVANTAGES: Not expensive to operate and maintain, the energy is free - no fuel needed, generates great amount of energy.•
TIDES ENERGY• DEFINATION:Tidal Power is obtain from tides going in or out.• WORKING: A huge dam called a "barrage "is built across a river estuary. When the tide goes in and out, the water flows through tunnels in the dam.• ADVANTAGES: Doesnt cause pollution, doesnt need fuel..
Some ways to use renewable energy• Get B lueprints For A Green Hous e• C hange Your Light Bulbs• Light Up Your C ity
•Pay your bills online•Turn up the geothermal heat•Wear a green eye-s hadow
•C heck the label•S hut off your computer•Make your garden grow
CONCLUSION•A dvantages•A warenes s“There is a sufficiency in the world for mans need but not for mans greed.” ~Mohandas K. Gandhi