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Basic router configuration


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helpfull ppt for CCNA students n also for network admins.

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Basic router configuration

  1. 1. Basic Router Configuration BY Mr.Sourabh S. Badve
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives Explain IGRP Explain EIGRP Explain OSPF
  3. 3. Recall - I The different metrics used by the routing protocols include:  Hops  Bandwidth  Load  cost  Reliability Interior routing protocols include:  Routing Information Protocol (RIP)  Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)  Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
  4. 4. Recall - II  Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)  Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS – IS) The different RIP timers include:  Route update timer  Route invalid timer  Holddown timer  Route Flush timer Routing tables can be defined as the database that contains the routing information of the network
  5. 5. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol(IGRP) IGRP is a distance-vector routing protocol The characteristics if IGRP include:  Uses composite metric  Supports unequal-cost load balancing  Supports multipath routing  Supports holddowns  Supports split horizons
  6. 6. Verifying IGRP Commands to verify IGRP configurations include:  show ip route  show protocols  show ip protocols  debug ip rip  debug ip igrp events  debug ip igrp transactions
  7. 7. Debugging IGRP The debugging command displays the routing information and the updates sent and received on the router Commands for debugging IGRP include:  debug ip igrp events  debug ip igrp transactions
  8. 8. Enhanced Interior Gateway RoutingProtocols (EIGRP) EIGRP saves all the routes connected to the neighboring routers EIGRP has the qualities of both distance-vector and link state protocols EIGRP is an ideal protocol in the large networks
  9. 9. Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) DUAL helps the router to determine the best route to the destination using the hop count, bandwidth and other factors as metrics It sends query packets to the neighboring routers to determine the best path to reach the destination network When a router receives a reply, DUAL calculates the successor (main route) and the feasible successor (backup route)
  10. 10. Route Discovery and Maintenance For discovering the routes, the tables used by EIGRP include:  Neighbor table  Topology table  Route table  Successors  Feasible successors Unlike the other protocols, EIGRP uses four metrics, bandwidth, delay, load and reliability to determine the best path to transmit the packets
  11. 11. Verifying EIGRP Commands to verify EIGRP configurations include:  show ip route  show ip route eigrp  show ip eigrp neighbors  show ip eigrp topology
  12. 12. Border Gateway Protocol BGP is an Exterior Gateway Protocol used to exchange the routing information between two or more Autonomous Systems (AS) It uses cost as its metrics The hosts that use BGP as their routing protocol, exchange information with the help of TCP/IP It uses the method of Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
  13. 13. Link State Routing Protocols In Link-state routing, the routers while communicating share the status of the links on the network The protocols send Link State Advertisement (LSA) that contains routing information and details of the router that sent the information The destination router stores the LSAs in a local database When a change occurs in the database, the router runs the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm
  14. 14. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) OSPF uses the link-state concept and sends Link State Advertisements (LSAs) to all the connected routers Entities of the OSPF hierarchy include:  Autonomous System (AS)  Areas  Backbone Area  Area Border Routers (ABRs)  Stub Area  Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBRs)
  15. 15. OSPF Hierarchy
  16. 16. Case StudyThe Hyderabad branch of the Blue Diamond SteelCompany has 15 routers connected in the network.The network uses RIP to route the packets betweenthe departments. Now the company has decided toadd a team of 20 Software Engineers to design thenew steel plants. The network administrator hasdecided to place the engineers on a different network.This requires the 16th router to be placed in thenetwork.
  17. 17. ProblemThe other departments cannot exchange the data with the software engineers
  18. 18. Solution The network administrator decided to use OSPF, which uses bandwidth as its metric to route the packets and can be used to connect large networks
  19. 19. Intermediate System to IntermediateSystem (IS – IS) IS – IS is a link state routing protocol used to carry IP network information The routing in IS – IS is carried out in two levels:  Level 1 comprises of the routers connected in an area  Level 2 comprises of routers connected to the routers in multiple areas
  20. 20. Verifying OSPF Commands to verify OSPF configurations include:  show ip route  show ip ospf  show ip ospf database  show ip ospf interface  show ip protocols
  21. 21. Summary - I IGRP is a distant-vector routing protocol, which implies that each router sends all or a part of its routing table in a routing message update The characteristics of IGRP are:  Uses composite metric  Supports unequal-cost load balancing  Supports multipath routing  Supports multipath routing  Supports holdown  Supports split horizons
  22. 22. Summary - II The characteristics of EIGRP are:  Fast convergence  Link-state protocol  Less network overhead  Interoperation with IGRP  Supports three routed protocols  Six path load-balancing The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link-state routing protocol, used to handle routing for Internet Protocol (IP) traffic
  23. 23. Summary - III The OSPF protocol is designed on the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm, which enables to determine the shortest route to each destination OSPF provides the following advantages:  Open protocol  Loop free topology  Scalable  Hierarchical design  Provides multicasting
  24. 24. Summary - IV The OSPF maintains a two-layer hierarchy consisting of:  Backbone area  Off backbone The advantage of dividing OSPF into areas are as follows:  Conserves router resources  Concealing information  Dealing with external routes
  25. 25. Summary - V There are different OSPF area types that help to handle external routes:  Normal area  Stub area  Totally stubby area  Not-so-stubby area