Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Image Reconstruction using MATLAB

15,121 views

Published on

  • Get HERE to Read This eBook === http://readjpaojdpa.ygto.com/285802037X-la-guinee-bissau-d-amilcar-cabral-a-la-reconstruction-nationale.html
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • We called it "operation mind control" - as we discovered a simple mind game that makes a girl become obsessed with you. (Aand it works even if you're not her type or she's already dating someone else) Here's how we figured it out... ➀➀ http://t.cn/AijLRbnO
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • β˜…β˜… How Long Does She Want You to Last? β˜…β˜… A recent study proved that the average man lasts just 2-5 minutes in bed (during intercourse). The study also showed that many women need at least 7-10 minutes of intercourse to reach "The Big O" - and, worse still... 30% of women never get there during intercourse. Clearly, most men are NOT fulfilling there women's needs in bed. Now, as I've said many times - how long you can last is no guarantee of being a GREAT LOVER. But, not being able to last 20, 30 minutes or more, is definitely a sign that you're not going to "set your woman's world on fire" between the sheets. Question is: "What can you do to last longer?" Well, one of the best recommendations I can give you today is to read THIS report. In it, you'll discover a detailed guide to an Ancient Taoist Thrusting Technique that can help any man to last much longer in bed. I can vouch 100% for the technique because my husband has been using it for years :) Here's the link to the report ●●● https://tinyurl.com/rockhardxxx
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Nice !! Download 100 % Free Ebooks, PPts, Study Notes, Novels, etc @ https://www.ThesisScientist.com
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Image Reconstruction using MATLAB

  1. 1. 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 1 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  2. 2. PRESENTED BY :- 1)SAURAV MONDOL - 2)AJAY KR. PAUL - 3)SOUMYO CHAKRAVERTY - 4)DEBJIT BAKSHI - (Dept. of ECE) 2 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  3. 3. UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF : PROF. OINDRI RAY DEPT. OF ECE, MSIT. 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 3
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my sincere regards to Prof. Oindri Ray, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology for her guidance, valuable advice and constructive suggestions for carrying out this project work. I would like to record my indebtedness to Prof. Chandi Pani, TIC, Dept. of ECE, and Prof. U.Gangopadhyay, Principal, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, for providing me with all the facilities that were needed. I would also like to thank all the faculty members of ECE department, MSIT. Finally, my sincere thanks goes to my parents for their encouragement and support during this project work. 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 4
  5. 5. TECHNICAL OVERVIEW The main objective of the project is to understand the various Image Construction techniques and how they are used in various fields that help us in providing more information about an image. We would proceed by understanding these various techniques using MATLAB software. Understanding in details the mathematical representations of various images and how to present these images using MATLAB software. 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 5
  6. 6. CASE1: DETERMINATION OF CRYSTAL PLANE OF A TEM IMAGE OF SILICON CRYSTAL. β€’ W. L. Bragg explained this result by modelling the crystal as a set of discrete parallel planes separated by a constant parameter d. It was proposed that the incident X-ray radiation would produce a Bragg peak if their reflections off the various planes interfered constructively. The interference is constructive when the phase shift is a multiple of 2Ο€; this condition can be expressed by Bragg's law: π‘›πœ† = 2π‘‘π‘ π‘–π‘›πœƒ ( n=integral value πœ†=wavelength of X-Ray d= distance between two base points of a crystal lattice π‘ π‘–π‘›πœƒ= sine of angle between 3 base points) 6 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  7. 7. TEM IMAGE OF Si- CRYSTAL. FINDING OUT PARAMETER β€œd”, USING BRAGGS LAW (π‘›πœ†=2π‘‘π‘ π‘–π‘›πœƒ) IMAGE RECONSTRUC- TION USING MATLAB 7.0 PLANE PLOTTING USING MATLAB 7.0 GRAPHIC TOOLS CRYSTAL PLANE OF Si- CRYSTAL 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 7 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE PROCESS. FIGURE 1: BLOCK DIAGRAM
  8. 8. CRYSTAL PLANE OF A TEM IMAGE OF SILICON CRYSTAL. FIGURE 2: (a)TEM image of Si-crystal. (b)Its plane determination in MATLAB plot. 8 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  9. 9. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS β€’ A differential equation is a mathematical equation for an unknown function of one or several variables that relates the values of the function itself and its derivatives of various orders. β€’ Differential equations play a prominent role in engineering, physics, economics, biology, and other disciplines. β€’ Differential equations are mathematically studied from several different perspectives, mostly concerned with their solutions β€”the set of functions that satisfy the equation 9 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  10. 10. CASE 2: DETERMINATION OF SURFACE OF WOUND ON HUMAN SKIN. β€’ The model is based on conservation laws for the cellular and chemical species and tissue momentum. Thus, the primary variables of the model are the cellular densities of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and collagen, the chemical concentration of a mitotic and chemotactic generic growth factor and the ECM displacement vector . 10 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  11. 11. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PROCESS : DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF WOUND ON HUMAN SKIN SOLVING THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION USING MATLAB 7.0,WITH DIFFERENT PARAMETER VALUES SURFACE PLOTTING OF THE VALUES OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION GRAPHICAL SURFACE REPRESENTATION OF WOUND 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 11 FIGURE 3: BLOCK DIAGRAM
  12. 12. GRAPHICAL SURFACE OF HUMAN WOUND ON SKIN. 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 12 FIGURE 4: MATLAB plot showing wound surface in 3D . The graph above consist of different colour patterns. Each colour pattern determines respective cellular densities .
  13. 13. DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING β€’ Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images to provide more details about the original image. β€’ Since images are defined over two dimensions (perhaps more) digital image processing may be modelled in the form of multidimensional systems. β€’ Image Reconstruction is an integral part in Digital Image Processing. 13 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  14. 14. IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION β€’ Image reconstruction techniques are used to create 2-D and 3-D images from sets of 1-D projections. β€’ These reconstruction techniques form the basis for common imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, and PET, and they are useful in medicine, biology, earth science, archaeology, materials science. 14 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  15. 15. EXAMPLES OF IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION : 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 15 FIGURE 5 :a b c d e f a)Original Image b)Image blurred and corrupted by Gaussian Noise. c) through f) Image b) restored using an algorithm using 5,10,20 and 100 iterations respectively.
  16. 16. FIGURE 6 : a b c d a) Original Image b) Image blurred c) Noise Image d) Sum of (b) and (c) 16 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  17. 17. FIGURE 7 : a b c d e f a)Spectrum of specified impulses. b) Corresponding SINE noise pattern in spatial domain c) &d) A similar sequence. e) & f) Two other noise patterns. The dots in a) & c) were enlarged to make them easier to see. 17 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  18. 18. FIGURE 8 : a b a) Image with Noise power equal to 4 b) Image with noise power equal to 0.4 18 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  19. 19. 19 2D TO 3D CONVERSION USING IMAGE ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES OTHER THAN MATLAB. β€’ The world of 3D incorporates the third dimension of depth, which can be perceived by the human vision in the form of binocular disparity. With an appropriate disparity and calibration of parameters, a correct 3D perception can be realized. β€’ An important step in any 3D system is the 3D content generation. Several special cameras have been designed to generate 3D model directly. Examples:- 1) Stereoscopic dual-camera 2) A depth-range camera 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  20. 20. CAMERAS GENERATING 3D MODEL DIRECTLY FIG 9: STEREOSCOPIC DUAL CAMERA FIG 10: DEPTH RANGE CAMERA 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 20
  21. 21. 21 2D TO 3D CONVERSION ALGORITHMS β€’ Depending on the number of input images, we can categorize the existing conversion algorithms into two groups: algorithms based on two or more images and algorithms based on a single still image. β€’ In the first case, the two or more input images could be taken either by multiple fixed cameras located at different viewing angles or by a single camera with moving objects in the scenes. We call the depth cues used by the first group the multi-ocular depth cues. The second group of depth cues operates on a single still image, and they are referred to as the monocular depth cues. 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  22. 22. 22  2D TO 3D CONVERSION ALGORITHMS FIGURE 11 : CHART SHOWING 2D TO 3D IMAGE CONVERSION ALGORITHMS NO: OF IMAGE INPUTS ONE IMAGE DEFOCUS LINEAR PERSPECTIVE ATMOSPHERIC SCATTERING SHADING PATTERNED TEXTURES SYMMETRIC PATTERNS OCCLUSIONS TWO IMAGES BINOCULAR DISPERITY MOTION DEFOCUS FOCUS SILHOUETTE 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  23. 23. MULTIOCULAR DEPTH CUE ALGORITHMS BINOCULAR DISPARITY : o With two images of the same scene captured from slightly different view points, the binocular disparity can be utilized to recover the depth of an object. o First, a set of corresponding points in the image pair are found. Then, by means of the triangulation method, the depth information can be retrieved with a high degree of accuracy when all the parameters of the stereo system are known. 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 23
  24. 24. MOTION : o The relative motion between the viewing camera and the observed scene provides an important cue to depth perception: near objects move faster across the retina than far objects do. FIGURE 12: MOTION IN MULTIOCULAR DEPTH CUE 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 24
  25. 25. DEFOCUS USING MORE THAN TWO IMAGES o Depth-from-defocus methods generate a depth map from the degree of blurring present in the images. In a thin lens system, objects that are in- focus are clearly pictured whilst objects at other distances are defocused, i.e. blurred. FIGURE 13: DEFOCUS USING MORE THAN TWO IMAGES 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 25
  26. 26. FOCUS : The depth-from-focus requires a series of images of the scene with different focus levels by varying and registering the distance between the camera and the scene. FIGURE 14 : FOCUS 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 26
  27. 27. SILHOUETTE A silhouette of an object in an image refers to the contour separating the object from the background. Shape-from- silhouette methods require multiple views of the scene taken by cameras from different viewpoints. FIGURE 15: SILHOUETTE IMAGES 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 27
  28. 28. MONOCULAR DEPTH CUE ALGORITHMS DEFOCUS : The images, with which this group of algorithms works, are required to be taken from a fixed camera position and object position but using different focal settings. FIGURE 16: DEFOCUS 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 28
  29. 29. LINEAR PERSPECTIVE : Linear perspective refers to the fact that parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to converge with distance, eventually reaching a vanishing point at the horizon. The more the lines converge, the farther away they appear to be. FIGURE 17 (a b) : IMAGES SHOWING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 29
  30. 30. ATMOSPHERIC SCATTERING : The phenomenon called atmosphere scattering, also known as haze, causes various visual effects: distant objects appear less distinct and more bluish than objects nearby. FIGURE 18 (a b) : ATMOSPHERIC SCATERRING 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 30
  31. 31. BILATERAL SYMMETRIC PATTERN : The idea behind 3D reconstruction based on symmetric patterns is that a single non-frontal image of a bilaterally symmetric object can be viewed as two images of this object from different view angles. FIGURE 19 : BILATERAL SYMMETRIC PATTERN 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 31
  32. 32. OCCLUSIONS : The principle of depth-from-occlusion algorithms has its roots in the phenomenon that an object which overlaps or partly obscures our view of another object is considered to be closer. FIGURE 20: OCCLUSIONS 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 32
  33. 33. APPLICATION OF ALGORITHMS: 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB 33 FIGURE 22 : Shape from texture (From left to right: Original image, Segmented texture region; Surface normals; Depth map; Reconstructed 3D shape) FIGURE 21: (a)A 2D image (b) Depth map of image (a)
  34. 34. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION ADVANTAGES: β€’ Provide more information about an Image. β€’ Contrast and Intensity Enhancement. β€’ Removal of external noise from an image. β€’ Provides high resolution form of a low resolution image, etc. DISADVANTAGES: β€’ Loss of information can happen during reconstruction from one form to another . β€’ Increase in memory storage space because of the storage of different forms of the same image. 34 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  35. 35. CONCLUSION Image Reconstruction is an important part of Digital Image Processing. It helps us in providing various details about an image by enhancing its resolution,contrast,intensity,etc.We have defined various mathematical operations and plotting functions of the software and gradually concluded our project by providing MATLAB functions that will help us to solve Differential Equations and its plotting, which is the backbone of the Image Reconstruction techniques. 35 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  36. 36. REFERENCES β€’ Digital Image Processing using MATLAB 2nd Edition – Gonzalez,Woods,Eddins. β€’ An Introduction to Digital Image Processing – Bill Silver, Chief Technology Officer ,Cognex Corporation, Modular Vision Systems Division. β€’ Introduction to MATLAB for engineering students - David Houcque,Northwestern University. β€’ http://www.mathworks.in/help/matlab/math/ordinary-differential- equations.html?s_tid=doc_12b β€’ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_equation β€’ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bragg's_law β€’ Wound Model : International Journal of Solids and Structures. β€’ Hassner And Basri: Example based 3d reconstruction model. 36 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB
  37. 37. THANK YOU 37 2D TO 3D IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING MATLAB

Γ—