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  1. 1. Welcome
  2. 2. Sub itte By m d Sw e ud Da ( Re . No U0 BT2 8 e tg u s g . 5 3) Sw tas rka ( Re . No U0 BT2 9 e a r g . 5 3) Bha t Unive ity ra rs Und r theGuid nc o e a e f Dr. A K Da i la Dire to M.Sc Bio c lo y c r, . te hno g Re ns wUnive ity, C c Oris a ve ha rs utta k, s
  3. 3.  Yeasts are unicellular fungus, oval shaped reproduced asexually by budding or fission  Yeast contains enzymes which convert sugar into ethanol.  These are used in the brewing industry to convert sugar into alcohol & carbon dioxide, which is known as fermentation
  4. 4.  Bakhar – It is a tablate used in the preparation of handia. This tablate contains sun dried rice, roots & barks of plants Patala Garuda, Bhuin Limba & bhuin Boiti alu & Micro organisms, which help in fermentation.  Handia – It is a popular alcoholic drink among tribals prepared from uncleaned boied rice + tablates of Bakhar  Comnposition of Handia – ½ KG of Uncleaned boied rice + 2 bakhar tablates.  May be hard Medium or soft, depending upon quantity of bakhar tablates.
  5. 5.  It takes mostly 3 days.  Unclean rice is boiled with water & thoroughly mixed with bakhar tablates & kept untouched for 2 days.  On the 3rd day, the mixture gets fermented & then filtered out.  Now the handia is prepared.
  6. 6.  Handia is produced by yeast from the fermentation of sugar in anaerobic condition.  The present investigation deals with the yeast strains isolated from bakhar.  It is proposed to study the characteristics of yeast strains, to analyse the growth under different pH, temperature , carbon sources & percentage of alcohol produced.
  7. 7.  It is a saprophytic fungus.  It is an unicellular thallus  Scientific name – Saccharomyces cerevesiae (brewing yeast)  Saccharomyces cerevesiae is derived from a greek word meaning “sugar fungi” where saccharon = sugar & myco = fungi & cerevesiae comes from a latin word meaning beer
  8. 8.  Cleaning & sterilisation of glasses  Inoculation of Y1 & Y3 strains in YPD Agar slant  Preparation of serial diluants of both the strains  Inoculation of both the strains in YPD Agar plates for colony characterisation & block characterisation.  Growth measurement was done by the following 2 methods.  Cell count Method by Heamocytometer (klenzoids)  Measurement of turbidity by spectrophotometer @ 540 nm  6. Percentage of alcohol estimation by spectrophotometer @ 600 nm
  9. 9.  The ye s is la s c ns e d in this inve tig tio w re a t o te o id re s a n e na e a s in BNAS1F & BNAS3 w h w re m d s tra R hic e d s na da Y1 & Y3re p c ly. e ig te s s e tive  C lo C ra te a n o ny ha c ris tio  Thes a c ra te o thes in us d w sd p te in tre k ha c rs f tra e a e ic d fig 1 & fig fo Y1 & Y3s insre p c ly. . .2 r tra s e tive  Thes a o Y1 w sm o , w rea tha o Y 3w s tre k f a uc us he s t f a tra luc nt w g w c lo s ns e ith ro ing o nie .  C ra te tic o Ye s s in in YP m d ha c ris s f a t tra D e ium Strain Margin Elevation surface form Colour BNAS1F C rra e te c nve o x c nc ntric o e irre ula g r C a is re m h W hite BNAS3R Entire Pulvinate C nc ntric o e C ula irc r C a is re m h W hite
  10. 10.  The cells of both the strains were oval or elliptical having distinct thick cell walls & dark nucleus  Characteristics of cells of Yeast strains Strains Cell Characteristics Ova o e tic l l r llip a Lig g e c lo ins e ht re n o ur id Bud ings e m xim 2 d e n a um Outlined rke a r C ntra d rks o isnuc us e l a pt le C llsa la e in s e re rg r ize Y1 Ova o e tic l l r llip a Tra lus e & g w ins e ns c nt lo ing id Bud ings e m xim = 4 d e n a um Outlined rke a r C ntra d rks o isnuc us e l a pt le C llsa s a r in s e re m lle ize
  11. 11.  The YPD broth after the growth of the yeast strains shows distinct variation in the top & middle part of the culture, where as the lower part with similar sediments.  Characteristics of YPD broth inoculated with Yeast strains. Strain Culture Media Top Part Middle part Lower part Y1 Ring formation Cloudy appearance Sediment Y3 Clear Clear Sediment
  12. 12.  The growth of both the strains were studied upto 72 hours at different time intervals.  The maximum growth was obtained in 48 hours after that there was a decline in growth.  The growth of Whitish strain in broth was less than Y1.  Growth of Yeast strain in YPD medium in different pH. pH of O D at 540 nm Growth of Yeast strain in YPD Medium medium in different temperature Y1 Y3 1.405 0.548 Temperature O D at 540 nm 4 5 1.725 0.475 Y1 Y3 6 1.744 0.481 0.552 0.734 7 1.754 0.583 4*C 8 1.713 0.496 1.691 0.859 27* C 9 1.713 0.545 1.981 0.448 2.109 0.947 37* C 10
  13. 13. Gro th o Ye s s in in YP m d w f a t tra D e iumin d re c rb n iffe nt a o s urc s o e Carbon O D at 540 nm sources Y1 Y3 Gluc s oe 1.038 0.579 De s xtro e 1 .030 0.429 Suc s ro e 0.617 0.485 Sta h rc 0.663 0.341  The effect of pH on growth showed maximum growth of strains at pH 10. So Y3 strain shows late growth than Y1.  The effect of temperature on growth were found to differ as Y1 showed better growth at 37* C and Y showed better growth in 27* C  The effect of carbon sources on growth is enhanced in monosachharide suppliments (Glucose & Dextrose) as compared to disaccharides ( Sucrose) & polysaccharides( Starch).