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Introduction To Information Management


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Describes how usage of computer has changed information technology

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Introduction To Information Management

  1. 1. Information Technology is not Computer Science ITM-1: Day 1 © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 5
  2. 2. IT is a very old concept A wolf's jawbone more than 20,000 years old with fifty-five notches in groups of five. This bone, which was discovered in Czechoslovakia in 1937, is the first evidence of the tally system. © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 Contrary to popular belief, Information Technology has been with us since the dawn of civilization. Much of the practices are age old. First evidence of a system of counting and storing information dates back to more than 20,000 years old. Society always had the need to collect, process and disseminate information. Information processing was always with us in the form of food availability, hidden treasure, stories, rules for conduct, trading, religious rituals, plans of enemies or command of ruler. No civilization could survive without an elaborate information system. 6
  3. 3. Basic Information Technology Collect Distribute Process Security © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 Information is as much a commodity as like any other thing like coin, grains, drinks. You do not get information just like that, there has to be a facility in place to collect information. Then one needs to make the information available to the right person, at right time. This requires a facility for information dissemination. At times, this may look paradoxical that unlike other commodity, information is not a physical commodity. It is not a exchangeable product, if you share a piece of information both will have it. It is not goods, not even a form of energy, yet much of the infrastructure for information technology depends on these physical processes. Information is a resource, that makes an action possible. Without information we shall have chaos. The fact that information is not an exchangeable commodity makes guarding the information an important aspect of IT. In fact Genghis Khan, the father of modern organization, had used the business of Information Security as an strategic weapon. He had a secret army wing – called “Arrow Rider”. Arrow riders provided covers for the messengers of Genghis Khan, at the same time, they used to intercept the messengers of enemy, this made his enemies clueless about the movements of Genghis Khan and their own troops leading to utter chaos. Nothing much has changed from the days of Arrow riders to present days of command aircrafts, the strategy still remains very much the same only technology has changed. 7
  4. 4. IT processes Input/ Document Output Process Decision Prepare Manual Input Sum Or Collate Merge Sort Extract © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 Store Data Delay Display Basic process of IT remains much the same – as given in the flow chart symbols. Namely: •Input/Output •Process •Decide •Document •Prepare •Manual input •Summarize •Collate •Sort •Share •Extract •Merge •Store •Wait •And Display (disseminate) 8
  5. 5. Computer : An IT tool Pascal's Arithmetic Abacus [1000 BC] Napier's Bones [1600 AD] Machine [1640] Leibniz's Step IBM Mark-I Reckoner [1671] [1942] IBM Blue Gene © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 [2007] IT is not computer science. Although today its use is so encompassing that Information Technology Association of American defines IT as "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware." IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information, securely. But actually, this is a very restrictive view of IT. As the architect of Toyota Production System puts it – an IT system can be much more advanced that use of computer. In fact the control exercised by KANBAN in Toyota factories was much more effective than computer based information systems in American Car factories. In fact it was so effective, that in early 80s American Car industry was in the verge of shut down by the competition of Japanese Car Manufacturers. Main strategic differentiators there was control (read information) that let the Japanese to control their inventories, address their quality problems much more efficiently than rest of the world. None of these were computer based. Information Technology needs to address the business of : •Collect •Convert •Process & •Transmit information SECURELY. Here security means: •Privacy •Reliability 9
  6. 6. Enigma machine [1941] Enigma machine used by germans posed serious threat to allied forces due to its encryption on the fly. It was used to encrypt operational level commands by German forces © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 The Enigma machine was used by the Germans to encrypt low level secret communications, such as battlefield communications or communications to U- Boats. It was a mechanical device which operated on letters. An operator encrypted a message using a typewriter like interface and then the encoded message was sent using Morse Code. The Lorenz machine was the machine used by the Germans for more strategic communication. It took as input a message encoded using what is called a Baudot code. Baudot code had been used for years for teleprinter communications, and is essentially a conversion of the message into binary (a "binary encoding"): 1s and 0s. The Lorenz cipher would then encrypt the message to produce another binary encoding of the message (but now a binary encoding of the encrypted message). Since the Lorenz cipher worked on binary encodings it could process information much faster than the Enigma machine, since no one needed to type a message into the machine. The Lorenz cipher was used by Hitler to communicate between his centres of command. If the Allies could break into the Lorenz information they would know what Hitler and his followers were actually thinking. 10
  7. 7. Lorenz machine © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 In breaking the Enigma machine the British had the advantage of actually having an Enigma machine which had been recovered by the Polish. When breaking into the Lorenz machine though, they did not have a clue how it worked at all. To make it worse still, picking up the airborn traffic was harder. Intercepting the remote binary signal produced by Lorenz machines was much more difficult than recognizing the Morse code used by the Enigma. They worked out exactly how the Lorenz machine worked just from seeing scrambled messages However, by setting up listening stations the British recovered enough messages for the British cryptographers at Bletchley to actually work out exactly how the Lorenz machine worked, without ever seeing one. It was an amazing intellectual feat. The cryptographers at Bletchley also worked out how to break the machine using subtle statistical weaknesses of the machine. Unfortunately, to actually exploit the weaknesses they needed to process a large amount of data. A lot of calculations would need to be performed on a given target message quickly. After all cracking a message years after it was sent wasn't a lot of help. This meant that a machine would be needed to exploit the weaknesses found. To solve this problem Tommy Flowers, an engineer who worked for the post office, designed a machine which worked on the digital data stream of the Lorenz traffic and could carry out the statistical tests needed to find the key. One of the things he needed to take into account when designing the machine though was that different tests might be needed to be used at different times. As a result he designed the machine in a flexible way so that it could carry out whatever tests ended up being needed. 11
  8. 8. The Colossus © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 So Colossus was able to process digital data. It was also able to perform different tasks, including ones that were not envisaged by its designers. Even better you could use Colossus to perform other calculations that were not necessarily related to code breaking. That's a feature which distinguishes it from the Bombes, and a feature which makes its claim as the first modern computer. In short, Colossus was a programmable digital computer just as modern computers are. One distinct difference between Colossus and modern computers though is that Colossus was programmed by someone connecting various pieces of the machine together using wires. A modern computer's program is stored with its data, inside the machine. This improvement did not come until a machine called the Manchester Baby in 1948. The Colossus allowed the breaking of the most important German communications and so allowed the Allies in the last years of the war to see inside the minds of the Nazis. Apart from its code breaking use the Colossus is important because it was the first digital computer to be able to be used for different tasks. It was therefore the first machine to partially fulfill Alan Turing's pre-war idea of a Universal Machine which can be programmed to compute anything. Many of the Bletchley team went onto build the first post war computers in the UK, at Manchester and Cambridge. Many of the US computer pioneers also had secret access to Colossus during the war. However, the Colossus' role has only recently been fully recognized. The machines were all apparently destroyed at the end of the war, and their existance was kept secret until only recently. Of the 10 000 people who worked at Bletchley none spoke of what they had been involved in or even of Bletchley Park's existence for 30 years when its existence eventually became public knowledge. The ideas behind the Lorenz cipher are very similar to the type of stream ciphers used to encrypt large data quantities in modern devices, such as your mobile phone. The ideas behind Colossus which broke the Lorenz cipher had to be kept secret because govenments continued using ciphers based on the same principles as Lorenz for a long time. Luckily the early computer pioneers really could keep a secret. 12
  9. 9. Manchester Baby and its computer program by Tom Kilburn [1948] © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 IBM thought world will need around 8 computer This required very high skill level. Use of computer required very advanced knowledge of Electrical engineering. Computers were limited to research and applications requiring complicated calculations. 13
  10. 10. Binary number system Acanthostega ( approx. 350 million BC) had eight fingers on each hand. This would have gave us natural binary number system. Current decimal number system is rooted our having ten fingers. The decimal number system was invented in India and spread to rest of the world by Arabs. Digital Computers can understand only 0/1, Binary system is required to work. This gives us numbers with base 2 – other popular radix are: base 8 (Octal) and base 16 (Hexadecimal) © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 Unlike us computer can only understand two things – on/off, yes/no World of computer is a binary one. The numbers and symbols we use today are not god gifted. Actually we missed a gala oportunity that came across as Acanthostega – an animal that lived some 350 million ago. It had eight fingers – If we had such hands, probably we would have gone for a hexadecimal number system. But right now we have to live with converting our decimal numbers to Hexadecimal/octal/binary for computers to understand us. Early users of computer had to code the commands used by computers manually and used to enter them by had using switches. 14
  11. 11. Jaquard (1804, France) Looms were first to introduce sequential programmed process control using punched cards Herman Hollerith adopted punched cards as major medium of IT for processing census data [1890] and formed Tabulating Machine Company – one of the company that merged to form IBM. Punch card was in common use till © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 early eighties. A blank punched card Punched cards were first used around 1725 by Basile Bouchon and Jean-Baptiste Falcon as a more robust form of the perforated paper rolls then in use for controlling textile looms in France. This technique was greatly improved by Joseph Marie Jacquard in his Jacquard loom in 1801. A few decades later Charles Babbage launched the idea of the use of the punched cards as a way to control a mechanical calculator he designed. Herman Hollerith developed punched card data processing technology for the 1890 US census and founded the Tabulating Machine Company (1896) which was one of three companies that merged to form Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation (CTR), later renamed IBM. IBM manufactured and marketed a variety of unit record machines for creating, sorting, and tabulating punched cards, even after expanding into computers in the late 1950s. IBM developed punch card technology into a powerful tool for business data-processing and produced an extensive line of general purpose unit record machines. By 1950, the IBM card and IBM unit record machines had become ubiquitous in industry and government. "Do not fold, spindle or mutilate," a generalized version of the warning that appeared on some punched cards, became a motto for the post-World War II era (even though many people had no idea what spindle meant). During the 1960s, the punched card was gradually replaced as the primary means for data storage by magnetic tape, as better, more capable computers became available. Punched cards were still commonly used for data entry and programing until the mid-1970s when the combination of lower cost magnetic disk storage, and affordable interactive terminals on less expensive minicomputers made punched cards obsolete for this role as well. 15
  12. 12. Some new words Bit :1 Byte : 10010011 Word : 10001101 10001111 FLOPS : Floating point operation per second Clock speed : Freq. the master clock in microprocessor runs © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 16
  13. 13. Hardware and software Hello! User Software Hardware © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 10001001 11011001 11001111 All that thing that a computer does is done by hardware. Software is the information part – that makes computer do what is does. 17
  14. 14. IBM 1401 [1960] © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 Second generation and third generation computer found a way to avoid cumbersome method of coding each and every command in terms of 1 & 0. They coded the command by assembly language – using a short mnemonic code for each binary code computer used. A program called assembler converted the text of assembly language to machine code. The process of loading these different program, storing – in short all operations done by computer with its environment used another program called operation system. 18
  15. 15. Program/OS/Computer High level Computer Computer Computer program OS Binary Code © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 Electronics The programmers actually interacted with operating system, giving commands in high language that was understandable to humans. OS in turn loaded different programs from its primary and secondary memory and passed the binary codes to the electronic circuitry of computer. Even today, the process remains the same. 19
  16. 16. 3rd generation computer [1960-70] © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 Third generation computers were impressive devices. It occupied huge halls and required special wiring and air-conditioning. What you see in the picture above is a typical set-up of 3rd generation computer. Magnetic tape and punched cards were the main input output medium. It used to have a few Hard disks – a typical 40MB disk came in the size of a filing cabinet. If you wanted to transfer information from one place to another, you used to physically carry the deck of cards or tape. In seventies, communication technology advanced sufficiently to allow connecting one computer to another by modems. 20
  17. 17. MICR introduced [1964] © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 Invention of MICR allowed Banks to take computing in big way 21
  18. 18. Commodore [1980] HDD - ~5MB 8 BIT CPU [8085. Z80, 6800] Monitor – 80 char /line ROM BASIC Optional CP/M as OS Philips invents CDROM Microsoft thought 640MB is all the internal memory one will ever need © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 IBM introduced IBM-PC based on intel 8088 Discovery of VLSI chips and microprocessors made it possible to build computers for personal use. Computers became house hold goods. These computers had ROM BASIC. Many stored the program and data in music cassets. But quickly this was replaced by 5.25” floppy 22
  19. 19. 1981 – IBM PC 12th of August, IBM showed its IBM 5150 PC (personal computer) that is based on the 4.77 MHz 8 bit 8088 CPU of Intel 64KB RAM, 40KB ROM, one 5.25-inch floppy drive (160KB capacity) costing $3000 – 6000 8088 had internal 16bit execution, but external 8 bit data bus Original PC has ROM-BASIC as OS, later switched to PC-DOS IBM published all technical details of the hardware and software, making it © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 possible to any body to develop clones of their machine IBM PC changed the way computing was done in a big way. 23
  20. 20. Parts of a computer © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 A computer consists: •Input devices – Keyboard, mouse, joy stick, Tablet, Scanner, modem. microphone etc •Output devices – Monitor, projector, printer, Modem, CD-W •CPU – that has electronic circuits, storage devices like HDD, CDROM, Floppy, Ports like serial, parallel, USB These features remain very much the same from desktop to super computer. 24
  21. 21. How computers (Microprocessor) work 8080 © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 25
  22. 22. Trend in microprocessor Name Date Transistors Microns Clock speed Data width MIPS 8080 1974 6,000 6 2 MHz 8 bits 0.64 16 bits 8088 1979 29,000 3 5 MHz 0.33 8-bit bus 80286 1982 134,000 1.5 6 MHz 16 bits 1 80386 1985 275,000 1.5 16 MHz 32 bits 5 80486 1989 1,200,000 1 25 MHz 32 bits 20 32 bits Pentium 1993 3,100,000 0.8 60 MHz 100 64-bit bus 32 bits Pentium II 1997 7,500,000 0.35 233 MHz ~300 64-bit bus 32 bits Pentium III 1999 9,500,000 0.25 450 MHz ~510 64-bit bus 32 bits © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 Pentium 4 2000 42,000,000 0.18 1.5 GHz ~1,700 64-bit bus 32 bits Pentium 4 "Prescott" 2004 125,000,000 0.09 3.6 GHz ~7,000 64-bit bus 26
  23. 23. Hardware trends First electronic Transistor Microprocessors VLSI chips Molecular level computer devices based minituarization Multiple CPU Many manual Single CPU Massively steps Large internal parallel system Small primary memory Hardly any memory Optics & internal storage Stand alone Highly Chemical based capacity connected circuits All Semiconductors Chemical Pervasive compound in computing circuit © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 27
  24. 24. Xerox Star (8010), GUI based interface This had most innovations that we see in intrfaces today Computer based video games © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 becomes popular In 80’s XEROX came out with X-Windows; in true legacy of XEROX, this was the father of all GUI interface we have today. 28
  25. 25. Y2K Y2K fever grips industry Industries grapple with massive code re write Java/C becomes industry std replacing COBOL Packaged applications, ERP is the popular over custom developed software IBM anonunces Blue Gene – commercial super computer © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 capable of running at 1 pentaflop Year 2000 saw some major shift in computing trend. The threat of Y2k resulted in junking of many legacy software and paved way to newer technology. It also saw innovation software development techniques, dependence of off-the –shelf application package. 29
  26. 26. Shift in technology © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 In the 1980s computers and communication industries had little intersection with each other or with content industries 30
  27. 27. Shift in technology © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 The mid 1990s saw experimentation of interactive CD ROM and less interactive web based developments bridging the industries 31
  28. 28. © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 The markets demand for greater interactivity and righer content has driven innovation in computing, communications and content. 32
  29. 29. 2016 © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 The industries will be highly inter-dependent and inter-mingled to the point of being indistinguishable. 33
  30. 30. Digital convergence © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 Today the trend of digital convergence is very clear. 34
  31. 31. Software trends Binary codes High level Object DLL Autonomous language oriented Assembly Objects Agents language Procedure Modular Library Self aware Monolithic Messaging Multi SOA based Compiled Interpreted/ threading partially Natural CODASYL compiled GUI language developed Data © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 Bases RDBMS – Distributed DB/2, Oracle 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 35
  32. 32. Networking Topology – Point-to-point – Token ring Spread – LAN – WAN Media – Wired – IR – Blue tooth – WiFi Speed © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 – Traditional – Broadband 36
  33. 33. Internet Leonard Kleinrock at MIT published Packet switching theory [July,1961] J.C.R. Licklider of MIT presented many short memos August 1962 discussing his "Galactic Network" concept US ministry of Defense wants a robust communication system that will survive nuclear holocast ARPAnet started on experimental basis [1969] ARPAnet opened for non-military use [1970] ARPANET host protocol changes from NCP to TCP/IP [Jan 1, 1983] Concept of Domain name formed [1984] BBS operators rule the world with dial- up modems [1985] Shareware, newsgroup and E-Mail uses © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 spread amongst computer users [1990] Tim Berners-Lee invents HTTP [1989] 37
  34. 34. © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 Internet timeline 38
  35. 35. Internet tools Browser Whois Email UUCP rlogin telnet FTP VPN IP-Phone © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 39
  36. 36. Information transfer over internet © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 You can see how the message is transferred at 40
  37. 37. Security Privacy protection – While storing – While transmission – While execution Access control – Physical – Assets – Network Reliability – System failure © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 – Disaster recovery – Accidental mishaps 41
  38. 38. Distributed computing Internet UUCP/rlogin/Telnet/FTP http/Web Terminal Server Citrix – thin client technology CORBA XML/XSL WSDL/SOAP © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 Need for communication gave rise to various program like UUCP – Unix to Unix Copying. It allowed computer to link and transfer data using dial-up modem. With real time communication being available it was possible to login to remote computer. So one could access the information remotely. Telnet and rlogin are the popular textbased protocol used for that. In telnet/rlogin you actually login to the remote computer and see the screen as you would have done sitting at the console. For transferring files this is not a convinient thing to do. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is the protocol that allowed transferring files over internet to remote computer. Internet created a big challenge and opportunity to the computing. Suddenly you are able to send information across globe at the cost of a local call – on real time (almost). This feature was quickly exploited by a innovation called CORBA is the acronym for Common Object Request Broker Architecture, OMG's open, vendor- independent architecture and infrastructure that computer applications use to work together over networks. Using the standard protocol IIOP, a CORBA-based program from any vendor, on almost any computer, operating system, programming language, and network, can interoperate with a CORBA-based program from the same or another vendor, on almost any other computer, operating system, programming language, and network. 42
  39. 39. SOAP © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is a way for a program running in one kind of operating system (such as Windows 2000) to communicate with a progam in the same or another kind of an operating system (such as Linux) by using the World Wide Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)and its Extensible Markup Language (XML) as the mechanisms for information exchange. Since Web protocols are installed and available for use by all major operating system platforms, HTTP and XML provide an already at-hand solution to the problem of how programs running under different operating systems in a network can communicate with each other. SOAP specifies exactly how to encode an HTTP header and an XML file so that a program in one computer can call a program in another computer and pass it information. It also specifies how the called program can return a response. SOAP was developed by Microsoft, DevelopMentor, and Userland Software and has been proposed as a standard interface to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It is somewhat similar to the Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP), a protocol that is part of the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). Sun Microsystems' Remote Method Invocation (RMI) is a similar client/server interprogram protocol between programs written in Java. An advantage of SOAP is that program calls are much more likely to get through firewall servers that screen out requests other than those for known applications (through the designated port mechanism). Since HTTP requests are usually allowed through firewalls, programs using SOAP to communicate can be sure that they can communicate with programs anywhere. 43
  40. 40. Discussion E-Mail : YMS ID : soumyanath URL: © Soumyanath Chatterjee, 2007 Further reading: Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks (ISBN 0-13-349945-6) 44