BLINDNESS MEANS LOSS OF VISION.
A COMPLETELY BLIND INDIVISUAL UNABLE TO SEE
ANYTHING EVEN WITH THE USE OF EYE GLASSES
, CONTACT LENSES , MEDICINE OR SURGERY.
8O% OF BLINDNESS OCCURS IN PEOPLE OVER 50
COMMON CAUSES :- MACULAR DEGENERATION
, TRAUMATIC INJURIES , GLAUCOMA etc.
LESS COMMON CAUSES :- VIT-A DEFICIENCY
, RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA , RETINOPATHY OF
TECHNOLOGIES APPLIED IN BIONIC EYE :-
MIT – HARVARD DEVICE
ASR(ARTIFICIAL SILICON RETINA)
Microelectrode array replaces damaged photoreceptors
Image Acquisition - Using CCD Camera
Patient spectacle holds the camera and power source
Epiretinal Approach involves a
semiconductor based device positioned
on the surface of the retina to try to simulate
the remaining overlying cells of the retina.
Subretinal Approach involves
implanting the ASR chip behind the
retina to simulate the remaining
ASR (ARTIFICIAL SILICON RETINA)
The Argus II epiretinal
prosthesis system allows
letter and word reading
and long-term function
in patients with profound
Test I: letter identification
Test II: letter size reduction
Test III: word recognition
holography, could be used in
conjunction with a technique called
optogenetics, which uses gene
therapy to deliver light-sensitive
proteins to damaged retinal nerve
“The basic idea of optogenetics is to
take a light-sensitive protein from
another organism, typically from
algae or bacteria, and insert it into a
target cell, and that photosensitizes
MARC(Multiple Unit Of Artificial Retinal Chipset System)
Compact Size – 6x6 mm
Reduction of stress upon
If a single part of the chip is
damaged the total technique
will be meaningless.
Its been 40 years since Arne Larsson received the first fully implanted
cardiac pacemaker at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm.
Researchers throughout the world have looked for ways to improve
people's lives with artificial, bionic devices.
Bionic devices are being developed to do more than replace defective
Researchers are also using them to fight illnesses.
Providing power to run bionic implants and making connections to the
brain's control system pose the two great challenges for biomedical
Scientist are now looking at devices like bionic arms, tongues, noses