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The bionic eye

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IT IS THE NEW SIDE OF LIFE SCIENCE WHICH CAN IMPROVE THE FUNCTIONALITY OF DAMAGE PART OF THE EYE , IN THIS PPT VARIOUS TECHNIQUES ARE DESCRIBED ON BIONIC EYE.

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The bionic eye

  1. 1. CONTENTS:-  WHAT IS BIONIC EYE ?  BIOLOGY OF EYE  BLINDNESS  TECHNIQUES FOR BIONIC EYE  MARC  ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES  CONCLUSION
  2. 2.  WHAT IS BIONIC EYE?  BIONIC EYE REFERS TO BIOELECTRONIC EYE.  THE ELECTRONIC DEVICE WHICH REPLACES FUNCTIONALITY OF A PART OR WHOLE OF THE EYE.
  3. 3. BIOLOGY OF EYE
  4. 4. RETINA
  5. 5. BLINDNESS  BLINDNESS MEANS LOSS OF VISION.  A COMPLETELY BLIND INDIVISUAL UNABLE TO SEE ANYTHING EVEN WITH THE USE OF EYE GLASSES , CONTACT LENSES , MEDICINE OR SURGERY.  8O% OF BLINDNESS OCCURS IN PEOPLE OVER 50 YEARS OLD.  COMMON CAUSES :- MACULAR DEGENERATION , TRAUMATIC INJURIES , GLAUCOMA etc.  LESS COMMON CAUSES :- VIT-A DEFICIENCY , RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA , RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY etc.
  6. 6. TECHNOLOGIES APPLIED IN BIONIC EYE :-  MIT – HARVARD DEVICE  ASR(ARTIFICIAL SILICON RETINA)  MARC  ARGUS II  HOLOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGY
  7. 7. MIT-Harvard device  Epi-Retinal Approach  Microelectrode array replaces damaged photoreceptors  Image Acquisition - Using CCD Camera  Patient spectacle holds the camera and power source
  8. 8.  Epiretinal Approach involves a semiconductor based device positioned on the surface of the retina to try to simulate the remaining overlying cells of the retina.  Subretinal Approach involves implanting the ASR chip behind the retina to simulate the remaining viable cells. ASR (ARTIFICIAL SILICON RETINA)
  9. 9. ARGUS II  The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss.  Test I: letter identification  Test II: letter size reduction  Test III: word recognition
  10. 10. HOLOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGY  Computer-generated holography, could be used in conjunction with a technique called optogenetics, which uses gene therapy to deliver light-sensitive proteins to damaged retinal nerve cells.  “The basic idea of optogenetics is to take a light-sensitive protein from another organism, typically from algae or bacteria, and insert it into a target cell, and that photosensitizes the cell,”
  11. 11. MARC(Multiple Unit Of Artificial Retinal Chipset System)
  12. 12. Photograph of MARC Chip
  13. 13. MARC Photoreceptor
  14. 14. MARC System Block Diagram
  15. 15. MARC TECHNIQUE LOOKS LIKE THIS >
  16. 16. Advantages Disadvantages Compact Size – 6x6 mm  Diagnostic Capability  Reduction of stress upon retina Costly If a single part of the chip is damaged the total technique will be meaningless.
  17. 17. Conclusion  Its been 40 years since Arne Larsson received the first fully implanted cardiac pacemaker at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm.  Researchers throughout the world have looked for ways to improve people's lives with artificial, bionic devices.  Bionic devices are being developed to do more than replace defective parts.  Researchers are also using them to fight illnesses.  Providing power to run bionic implants and making connections to the brain's control system pose the two great challenges for biomedical engineering.  Scientist are now looking at devices like bionic arms, tongues, noses etc.
  18. 18. References:-  www.ai.rug.ni/~lambert/projects/BCI/literature/misc/bio.ppt  www.met.edu/institute/ICS/NCNHIT/papers/0.5.pdf  www.bionicsinstitute.org/publications/...../Factsheet_Bionic eye.pdf  www.hansmalab.physics.ucsb.edu/phys150/Bionic_Eyes.pdf
  19. 19. THANKING YOU !!!
  20. 20. PRESENTED BY :- SHUBHASHREE GAYATRI DAS MSC(BIOTECHNOLOGY) 1ST YEAR , 13MBT007 RAVENSHAW UNIVERSITY, CUTTACK SEMINAR TOPIC- THE BIONIC EYE Dated-21st MARCH 2014

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