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A PROJECT ON
“A study of Derivatives Instrument in Indian Capital Market ”
IN THE SUBJECT
ADVANCE FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
SUBMITTED BY
SOUMEET SARKAR
A030
M.Com Part-II in Advance Accountancy
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
PROF. MEGHNA CHOTALIYA
TO
UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
FOR
MASTER OF COMMERCE PROGRAMME
(SEMESTER - IV)
In
ADVANCE ACCOUNTANCY
YEAR: 2014-15
SVKM’S
NARSEE MONJEE COLLEGE OF COMMERCE &ECONOMICS
VILE PARLE (W), MUMBAI – 400056
2
EVALUATION CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the undersigned have assessed and evaluated the project on
“A study of Derivatives Instrument in Indian Capital Market ”submitted
by SOUMEET SARKAR student of M.Com. – Part – II (Semester – IV) In
ADVANCE ACCOUNTANCY for the academic year 2014-15. This project is
original to the best of our knowledge and has been accepted for Internal
Assessment.
Name & Signature of Internal Examiner
Name & Signature of External Examiner
PRINCIPAL
Shri Sunil B. Mantri
3
DECLARATION BY THE STUDENT
I, SOUMEET SARKAR student of M.Com (Part – II) In ADVANCE
ACCOUNTANCY Roll No. A030 hereby declare that the project titled “ A study
of Derivatives Instrument in Indian Capital Market ” for the subject ADVANCE
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT submitted by me for Semester – IV of the
academic year 2014-15, is based on actual work carried out by me under the
guidance and supervision of PROF. MEGHNA CHOTALIYA. I further state that this
work is original and not submitted anywhere else for any examination.
Place: MUMBAI
Date:
Name & Signature of Student:
Name: SOUMEET SARKAR
Signature
4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is indeed a great pleasure and proud privilege to present this project work.
I thank my project guide Prof. Meghna Chotaliya & my M.Com. Co-
ordinator Prof. Hardik Pathak of SVKM’s Narsee Monjee College of
Commerce and Economics. Their co-operation and guidance have helped me
to complete this project.
I would sincerely like to thank the principal of our college Shri Sunil B.
Mantri for his support and guidance.
I would also like to thank the college library and staff for helping and guiding
me, the class representatives and my family and friends who supported me in
this project.
THANK YOU
5
CONTENT
Sr. No. PARTICULARS Page No.
1 INTRODUCTION 6
2 STUDY of DERIVATIVE in DETAIL 8
3 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF
DERIVATIVE MARKET IN INDIA
20
4 GROWTH OF INDIAN DERIVATIVES
MARKET
23
5 CONCLUSION 35
6 BIBLIOGRAPHY 38
6
INTRODUCTION
While trading in derivatives products has grown tremendously in recent times, the earliest
evidence of these types of instruments can be traced back to ancient Greece. Even though
derivatives have been in existence in some form or the other since ancient times, the advent of
modern day derivatives contracts is attributed to farmers’ need to protect themselves against a
decline in crop prices due to various economic and environmental factors.
Thus, derivatives contracts initially developed in commodities. The first “futures” contracts can
be traced to the Yodoya rice market in Osaka, Japan around 1650. The farmers were afraid of
rice prices falling in the future at the time of harvesting. To lock in a price (that is, to sell the rice
at a predetermined fixed price in the future), the farmers entered into contracts with the buyers.
These were evidently standardized contracts, much like today’s futures contracts. In 1848, the
Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) was established to facilitate trading of forward contracts on
various commodities. From then on, futures contracts on commodities have remained more or
less in the same form, as we know them today.
While the basics of derivatives are the same for all assets such as equities, bonds, currencies, and
commodities, we will focus on derivatives in the equity markets and all examples that we discuss
will use stocks and index (basket of stocks).
The global economic order that emerged after World War II was a system where many less
developed countries administered prices and centrally allocated resources. Even the developed
economies operated under the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchange rates.
The system of fixed prices came under stress from the 1970s onwards. High inflation and
unemployment rates made interest rates more volatile. The Bretton Woods system was
dismantled in 1971, freeing exchange rates to fluctuate. Less developed countries like India
began opening up their economies and allowing prices to vary with market conditions.
Price fluctuations make it hard for businesses to estimate their future production costs and
revenues. Derivative securities provide them a valuable set of tools for managing this risk. This
article describes the evolution of Indian derivatives markets, the popular derivatives instruments,
and the main users of derivatives in India.
7
A derivative security is a security whose value depends on the value of together more basic
underlying variable. These are also known as contingent claims. Derivatives securities have been
very successful in innovation in capital markets.
The emergence of the market for derivative products most notably forwards, futures and options
can be traced back to the willingness of risk adverse economic agents to guard themselves
against uncertainties arising out of fluctuations in asset prices. By their very nature, financial
markets are markets by a very high degree of volatility. Through the use of derivative products, it
is possible to partially or fully transfer price risks by locking – in asset prices. As instruments of
risk management these generally don’t influence the fluctuations in the underlying asset prices.
However, by locking-in asset prices, derivative products minimize the impact of fluctuations in
asset prices on the profitability and cash-flow situation of risk-averse investor. Derivatives are
risk management instruments which derives their value from an underlying asset. Underlying
asset can be Bullion, Index, Share, Currency, Bonds, Interest, etc.
Among all the innovations that have flooded the international financial markets, financial
derivatives occupy the driver's seat. These specialized instruments facilitate the shuffling and
redistribution of the risks that an investor faces. Thus aids in the process of diversifying ones
portfolio. The volatility in the equity markets over the past years has resulted in greater use of
equity derivatives. The volume of the exchange traded equity futures and options in most of the
mature markets have seen a significant growth. It goes beyond that the local derivative in the
emerging markets has witnessed widespread use of the derivative instrument for a variety of
reasons. This continuous growth and development by the emerging market participants has
resulted in capital inflows as well as helped the investors in risk protection through hedging.
The emergence of the market for derivatives products, most notably forwards, futures and
options, can be tracked back to the willingness of risk-averse economic agents to guard
themselves against uncertainties arising out of fluctuations in asset prices. By their very nature,
the financial markets are marked by a very high degree of volatility. Through the use of
derivative products, it is possible to partially or fully transfer price risks by locking-in asset
prices. As instruments of risk management, these generally do not influence the fluctuations in
the underlying asset prices. However, by locking-in asset prices, derivative product minimizes
8
the impact of fluctuations in asset prices on the profitability and cash flow situation of risk-
averse investors.
Derivatives are risk management instruments, which derive their value from an underlying asset.
The underlying asset can be bullion, index, share, bonds, currency, interest, etc. Banks,
Securities firms, companies and investors to hedge risks, to gain access to cheaper money and to
make profit, use derivatives. Derivatives are likely to grow even at a faster rate in future.
DERIVATIVES
With the opening of the economy to multinational and the adoption of the liberalized economic
policies the economy is driven more towards the free market economy. The complex nature of
the financial structuring is self involves the utilization of multicurrency transaction. It exposes
the clients, particularly corporate clients to various risks such as exchange rate risk, interest risk,
economic risk & political risk.
In the present state of the economy there is an imperative need for the corporate clients to protect
their operating profits by shifting some of the uncontrollable financial risk to those who are able
bear and manage them. Thus, risk management becomes a must for survival since there is a high
volatility in the present’s financial markets.
In the context, derivatives occupy an important place as a risk reducing machinery. Derivatives
are useful to reduce many of the risks. In fact, the financial service companies can play a very
dynamic role in dealing with such risk. They can ensure that the above risks are hedged by using
derivatives like forwards, futures, options, swaps In a broad sense, many commonly used
instruments can be called derivatives since they derive their value from underlying assets. For
instance, equity share its self is a derivatives, since it derives its value from the underlying assets.
Similarly one takes an insurance against his house covering all risks.
The emergence of the market for derivative products, most notably forwards, futures and options,
can be traced back to the willingness of risk-averse economic agents to guard themselves against
uncertainties arising out of fluctuations in asset prices. By their very nature, the financial markets
are marked by a very high degree of volatility. Through the use of derivative products, it is
9
possible to partially or fully transfer price risks by locking –in asset prices. As instruments of
risk management, these generally do not influence the fluctuations underlying prices. However,
by locking – in asset prices, derivative products minimizes the impact of fluctuations in asset
prices on the profitability and cash flow situation of risk–averse investors.
DEFINITION
Understanding the word itself, Derivatives is a key to mastery of the topic. The word originates
in mathematics and refers to a variable, which has been derived from another variable. For
example, a measure of weight in pound could be derived from a measure of weight in kilograms
by multiplying by two. In financial sense, these are contracts that derive their value from some
underlying asset. Without the underlying product and market it would have no independent
existence. Underlying asset can be a Stock, Bond, Currency, Index or a Commodity. Someone
may take an interest in the derivative products without having an interest in the underlying
product market, but the two are always related and may therefore interact with each other.
Derivatives are the financial instruments, which derive their value from some other financial
instruments, called the underlying. The foundation of all derivatives market is the underlying
market, which could be spot market for gold, or it could be a pure number such as the level of the
wholesale price index of a market price. A derivative is a financial instrument whose value
depends on the Value of other basic underlying variables.
The term Derivative has been defined in Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act 1956, as:-
 A security derived from a debt instrument, share, loan whether secured or unsecured, risk
instrument or contract for differences or any other form of security.
 A contract, which derives its value from the prices, or index of prices, of underlying
securities.
Therefore, derivatives are specialized contracts to facilitate temporarily for hedging which is
protection against losses resulting from unforeseen price or volatility changes. Thus, derivatives
are a very important tool of risk management. Derivatives perform a number of economic
functions like price discovery, risk transfer and market completion. The simplest kind of
10
derivative market is the forward market. Here a buyer and seller write a contract for delivery at a
specific future date and a specified future price. In India, a forward market exists in the form of
the dollar- rupee market. But forward market suffers from two serious problems; Counter party
risk resulting in comparatively high rate of contract non-compliance and poor liquidity.
Futures markets were invented to cope with these two difficulties of forward markets. Futures
are standardized forward contracts traded on an organized stock exchange. In essence, a future
contract is a derivative instrument whose value is derived from the expected price of the
underlying security or asset or index at a pre-determined future date.
Derivatives are financial contracts that are designed to create market price exposure to changes
in an underlying commodity, asset or event. In general they do not involve the exchange or
transfer of principal or title. Rather their purpose is to capture, in the form of price changes, some
underlying price change or event. The term derivative refers to how the prices of these contracts
are derived from the price of some underlying security or commodity or from some index,
interest rate, exchange rate or event. Examples of derivatives include futures, forwards; options
and swaps, and these can be combined with each other or traditional securities and loans in order
to create hybrid instruments or structured securities.
IMPORTANCE of DERIVATIVES
Derivatives are becoming increasingly important in world markets as a tool for risk management.
Derivatives instruments can be used to minimize risk. Derivatives are used to separate risks and
transfer them to parties willing to bear these risks. The kind of hedging that can be obtained by
using derivatives is cheaper and more convenient than what could be obtained by using cash
instruments. It is so because, when we use derivatives for hedging, actual delivery of the
underlying asset is not at all essential for settlement purposes.
Moreover, derivatives would not create any risk. They simply manipulate the risks and transfer
to those who are willing to bear these risks. For example,
Mr. A owns a bike If he does not take insurance, he runs a big risk. Suppose he buys insurance [a
derivative instrument on the bike] he reduces his risk. Thus, having an insurance policy reduces
11
the risk of owing a bike. Similarly, hedging through derivatives reduces the risk of owing a
specified asset, which may be a share, currency, etc.
CHARACTERISTICS of DERIVATIVES
 Their value is derived from an underlying instrument such as stock index, currency, etc.
 They are vehicles for transferring risk.
 They are leveraged instruments.
RATIONALE BEHIND the DEVELOPMENT of DERIVATIVES
Holding portfolio of securities is associated with the risk of the possibility that the investor may
realize his returns, which would be much lesser than what he expected to get. There are various
influences, which affect the returns.
1. Price or dividend (interest).
2. Sum are internal to the firm like:-
a. Industry policy,
b. Management capabilities,
c. Consumer’s preference,
d. Labour strike, etc.
These forces are to a large extent controllable and are termed as “Non-systematic Risks”. An
investor can easily manage such non- systematic risks by having a well-diversified portfolio
spread across the companies, industries and groups so that a loss in one may easily be
compensated with a gain in other.
There are other types of influences, which are external to the firm, cannot be controlled, and they
are termed as “systematic risks”. Those are
 Economic
 Political
12
 Sociological changes are sources of Systematic Risk
Their effect is to cause the prices of nearly all individual stocks to move together in the same
manner. We therefore quite often find stock prices falling from time to time in spite of
company’s earnings rising and vice –versa.
Rational behind the development of derivatives market is to manage this systematic risk,
liquidity. Liquidity means, being able to buy & sell relatively large amounts quickly without
substantial price concessions.
In debt market, a much larger portion of the total risk of securities is systematic. Debt
instruments are also finite life securities with limited marketability due to their small size relative
to many common stocks. These factors favor for the purpose of both portfolio hedging and
speculation.
India has vibrant securities market with strong retail participation that has evolved over the
years. It was until recently a cash market with facility to carry forward positions in actively
traded “A” group scripts from one settlement to another by paying the required margins and
borrowing money and securities in a separate carry forward sessions held for this purpose.
However, a need was felt to introduce financial products like other financial markets in the
world.
MAJOR PLAYERS in DERIVATIVE MARKET
There are three major players in the derivatives trading:-
1. Hedgers:- The party, which manages the risk, is known as “Hedger”. Hedgers seek to
protect themselves against price changes in a commodity in which they have an
interest. For protecting against adverse movement. Hedging is a mechanism to reduce
price risk inherent in open positions. Derivatives are widely used for hedging. A Hedge
can help lock in existing profits. Its purpose is to reduce the volatility of a portfolio, by
reducing the risk.
13
2. Speculators:- They are traders with a view and objective of making profits. They are
willing to take risks and they bet upon whether the markets would go up or come down.
To make quick fortune by anticipating/forecasting future market movements. Hedgers
wish to eliminate or reduce the price risk to which they are already exposed. Speculators,
on the other hand are those classes of investors who willingly take price risks to profit
from price changes in the underlying. While the need to provide hedging avenues by
means of derivative instruments is laudable, it calls for the existence of speculative
traders to play the role of counter-party to the hedgers. It is for this reason that the role of
speculators gains prominence in a derivatives market.
3. Arbitrageurs:- Risk less profit making is the prime goal of arbitrageurs. They could be
making money even without putting their own money in, and such opportunities often
come up in the market but last for very short time frames. They are specialized in making
purchases and sales in different markets at the same time and profits by the difference in
prices between the two centers. To earn risk-free profits by exploiting market
imperfections. Arbitrageurs profit from price differential existing in two markets by
simultaneously operating in the two different markets.
TYPES of DERIVATIVES:-
1. Forwards:- A forward contract or simply a forward is a contract between two parties to
buy or sell an asset at a certain future date for a certain price that is pre-decided on the
date of the contract. The future date is referred to as expiry date and the pre-decided price
is referred to as Forward Price. It may be noted that Forwards are private contracts and
their terms are determined by the parties involved.
A forward is thus an agreement between two parties in which one party, the buyer, enters
into an agreement with the other party, the seller that he would buy from the seller an
underlying asset on the expiry date at the forward price. Therefore, it is a commitment by
both the parties to engage in a transaction at a later date with the price set in advance.
This is different from a spot market contract, which involves immediate payment and
immediate transfer of asset. The party that agrees to buy the asset on a future date is
referred to as a long investor and is said to have a long position. Similarly the party that
14
agrees to sell the asset in a future date is referred to as a short investor and is said to have
a short position. The price agreed upon is called the delivery price or the Forward Price.
Forward contracts are traded only in Over the Counter (OTC) market and not in stock
exchanges. OTC market is a private market where individuals/institutions can trade
through negotiations on a one to one basis.
A forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell an asset on a specified date for a
specified price. One of the parties to the contract assumes a long position and agrees to
buy the underlying asset on a certain specified future date for a certain specified price.
The other party assumes a short position and agrees to sell the asset on the same date for
the same price; other contract details like delivery date, price and quantity are negotiated
bilaterally by the parties to the contract. The forward contracts are normally traded
outside the exchange.
The salient features of forward contracts are:-
 They are bilateral contracts and hence exposed to counter-party risk,
 Each contract is custom designed, and hence is unique in terms of contract size,
expiration date and the asset type and quality,
 The contract price is generally not available in public domain,
 On the expiration date, the contract has to be settled by delivery of the asset, or
net settlement.
The forward markets face certain limitations such as:-
 Lack of centralization of trading,
 Illiquidity, and
 Counterparty risk
A forward contract is a customized contract between two entities where settlement takes
place on a specific date in the futures at today’s pre-agreed price. Forward contracts offer
tremendous flexibility to the party’s to design the contract in terms of the price, quantity,
quality, delivery, time and place. Liquidity and default risk are very high.
For example, on 1st June, X enters into an agreement to buy 50 bales of cotton for 1st
December at Rs.1000 per bale from Y, a cotton dealer. It is a case of a forward contract
where X has to pay Rs.50000 on 1st December to Y and Y has to supply 50 bales of
cotton.
15
2. Futures:- Like a forward contract, a futures contract is an agreement between two
parties in which the buyer agrees to buy an underlying asset from the seller, at a future
date at a price that is agreed upon today. However, unlike a forward contract, a futures
contract is not a private transaction but gets traded on a recognized stock exchange. In
addition, a futures contract is standardized by the exchange. All the terms, other than the
price, are set by the stock exchange (rather than by individual parties as in the case of a
forward contract). Also, both buyer and seller of the futures contracts are protected
against the counter party risk by an entity called the Clearing Corporation. The Clearing
Corporation provides this guarantee to ensure that the buyer or the seller of a futures
contract does not suffer as a result of the counter party defaulting on its obligation. In
case one of the parties defaults, the Clearing Corporation steps in to fulfill the obligation
of this party, so that the other party does not suffer due to non-fulfillment of the contract.
To be able to guarantee the fulfillment of the obligations under the contract, the Clearing
Corporation holds an amount as a security from both the parties. This amount is called
the Margin money and can be in the form of cash or other financial assets. Also, since the
futures contracts are traded on the stock exchanges, the parties have the flexibility of
closing out the contract prior to the maturity by squaring off the transactions in the
market. The basic flow of a transaction between three parties, namely Buyer, Seller and
Clearing Corporation is depicted in the diagram below:-
16
Futures contract is a standardized transaction taking place on the futures exchange.
Futures market was designed to solve the problems that exist in forward market. A
futures contract is an agreement between two parties, to buy or sell an asset at a certain
time in the future at a certain price, but unlike forward contracts, the futures contracts are
standardized and exchange traded To facilitate liquidity in the futures contracts, the
exchange specifies certain standard quantity and quality of the underlying instrument that
can be delivered, and a standard time for such a settlement. Futures’ exchange has a
division or subsidiary called a clearing house that performs the specific responsibilities of
paying and collecting daily gains and losses as well as guaranteeing performance of one
party to other. A futures' contract can be offset prior to maturity by entering into an equal
and opposite transaction. More than 99% of futures transactions are offset this way.
Yet another feature is that in a futures contract gains and losses on each party’s position
is credited or charged on a daily basis, this process is called daily settlement or marking
to market. Any person entering into a futures contract assumes a long or short position,
by a small amount to the clearing house called the margin money
The standardized items in a futures contract are:-
 Quantity of the underlying,
 Quality of the underlying,
 The date and month of delivery,
 The units of price quotation and minimum price change,
 Location of settlement.
3. Options:- Like forwards and futures, options are derivative instruments that provide the
opportunity to buy or sell an underlying asset on a future date.
An option is a derivative contract between a buyer and a seller, where one party (say First
Party) gives to the other (say Second Party) the right, but not the obligation, to buy from
(or sell to) the First Party the underlying asset on or before a specific day at an agreed-
upon price. In return for granting the option, the party granting the option collects a
payment from the other party. This payment collected is called the “premium” or price of
the option.
An option is a contract, or a provision of a contract, that gives one party (the option
holder) the right, but not the obligation, to perform a specified transaction with another
17
party (the option issuer or option writer) according to the specified terms. The owner of a
property might sell another party an option to purchase the property any time during the
next three months at a specified price. For every buyer of an option there must be a seller.
The seller is often referred to as the writer. As with futures, options are brought into
existence by being traded, if none is traded, none exists; conversely, there is no limit to
the number of option contracts that can be in existence at any time. As with futures, the
process of closing out options positions will cause contracts to cease to exist, diminishing
the total number. Thus an option is the right to buy or sell a specified amount of a
financial instrument at a pre-arranged price on or before a particular date.
The right to buy or sell is held by the “option buyer” (also called the option holder); the
party granting the right is the “option seller” or “option writer”. Unlike forwards and
futures contracts, options require a cash payment (called the premium) upfront from the
option buyer to the option seller. This payment is called option premium or option price.
Options can be traded either on the stock exchange or in over the counter (OTC) markets.
Options traded on the exchanges are backed by the Clearing Corporation thereby
minimizing the risk arising due to default by the counter parties involved. Options traded
in the OTC market however are not backed by the Clearing Corporation.
There are two types of options:-
 Call Option:- A call option is an option granting the right to the buyer of the
option to buy the underlying asset on a specific day at an agreed upon price, but
not the obligation to do so. It is the seller who grants this right to the buyer of the
option. It may be noted that the person who has the right to buy the underlying
asset is known as the “buyer of the call option”.
The price at which the buyer has the right to buy the asset is agreed upon at the
time of entering the contract. This price is known as the strike price of the
contract (call option strike price in this case).
Since the buyer of the call option has the right (but no obligation) to buy the
underlying asset, he will exercise his right to buy the underlying asset if and only
if the price of the underlying asset in the market is more than the strike price on or
before the expiry date of the contract. The buyer of the call option does not have
an obligation to buy if he does not want to.
18
 Put Option:- A put option is a contract granting the right to the buyer of the
option to sell the underlying asset on or before a specific day at an agreed upon
price, but not the obligation to do so. It is the seller who grants this right to the
buyer of the option.
The person who has the right to sell the underlying asset is known as the “buyer
of the put option”. The price at which the buyer has the right to sell the asset is
agreed upon at the time of entering the contract. This price is known as the strike
price of the contract (put option strike price in this case).
Since the buyer of the put option has the right (but not the obligation) to sell the
underlying asset, he will exercise his right to sell the underlying asset if and only
if the price of the underlying asset in the market is less than the strike price on or
before the expiry date of the contract. The buyer of the put option does not have
the obligation to sell if he does not want to.
4. Warrants:- Longer – dated options are called warrants and are generally traded over the
counter. Options generally have life up to one year, the majority of options traded on
options exchanges having a maximum maturity of nine months.
5. Swaps Contract:- A swap is an agreement between two or more people or parties to
exchange sets of cash flows over a period in future. Swaps are agreements between two
parties to exchange assets at predetermined intervals. Swaps are generally customized
transactions. The swaps are innovative financing which reduces borrowing costs, and to
increase control over interest rate risk and FOREX exposure. The swap includes both
spot and forward transactions in a single agreement. Swaps are at the centre of the global
financial revolution. Swaps are useful in avoiding the problems of unfavorable
fluctuation in FOREX market. The parties that agree to the swap are known as counter
parties. The two commonly used swaps are interest rate swaps and currency swaps.
Interest rate swaps which entail swapping only the interest related cash flows between the
parties in the same currency. Currency swaps entail swapping both principal and interest
between the parties, with the cash flows in one direction being in a different currency
than the cash flows in the opposite direction.
19
Classification of Derivatives
Derivative Contracts Traded in India
Derivatives
Financial
Basic FD / FI
Futures Forwards Options
Warrants &
Convertibles
Complex FD /
FI
Swaps &
Swaptions
Exotic Non
Standard
Options
Commodity
Derivative
Equity
Index Futures &
Options
Single Stock Futures &
Options
Debt
Interest Rate
Futures & Forwards
Interest Rate Swaps
Commodity
Forward Contarcts
Cross Currency Swaps
Forex
Forward Futures
20
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DERIVATIVE MARKET IN INDIA
The origin of derivatives can be traced back to the need of farmers to protect themselves against
fluctuations in the price of their crop. From the time it was sown to the time it was ready for
harvest, farmers would face price uncertainty. Through the use of simple derivative products, it
was possible for the farmer to partially or fully transfer price risks by locking-in asset prices.
These were simple contracts developed to meet the needs of farmers and were basically a means
of reducing risk.
Derivative markets in India have been in existence in one form or the other for a long time. In the
area of commodities, the Bombay Cotton Trade Association started future trading way back in
1875. This was the first organized futures market. Then Bombay Cotton Exchange Ltd. in 1893,
Gujarat Vyapari Mandall in 1900, Calcutta Hesstan Exchange Ltd. in 1919 had started future
market. After the country attained independence, derivative market came through a full circle
from prohibition of all sorts of derivative trades to their recent reintroduction. In 1952, the
government of India banned cash settlement and options trading, derivatives trading shifted to
informal forwards markets. In recent years government policy has shifted in favour of an
increased role at market based pricing and less suspicious derivatives trading. The first step
towards introduction of financial derivatives trading in India was the promulgation at the
securities laws (Amendment) ordinance 1995. It provided for withdrawal at prohibition on
options in securities. The last decade, beginning the year 2000, saw lifting of ban of futures
trading in many commodities. Around the same period, national electronic commodity
exchanges were also set up.
REGULATION OF DERIVATIVES TRADING IN INDIA
The regulatory frame work in India is based on L.C. Gupta Committee report and J.R. Varma
Committee report. It is mostly consistent with the international organization of securities
commission (IUSCO). The L.C. Gupta Committee report provides a perspective on division of
regulatory responsibility between the exchange and SEBI. It recommends that SEBI‟s role
should be restricted to approving rules, bye laws and regulations of a derivatives exchange as
21
also to approving the proposed derivatives contracts before commencement of their trading. It
emphasizes the supervisory and advisory role of SEBI. It also suggests establishment of a
separate clearing corporation.
DERIVATIVES MARKET IN INDIA
In India, there are two major markets namely National Stock Exchange (NSE) and Bombay
Stock Exchange (BSE) along with other Exchanges of India are the market for derivatives. Here
we may discuss the performance of derivatives products in Indian market.
DERIVATIVE PRODUCTS TRADED AT BSE
The BSE started derivatives trading on June 9, 2000 when it launched “Equity derivatives (Index
futures-SENSEX) first time. It was followed by launching various products as shown below.
They are index options, stock options, single stock futures, weekly options, stocks for: Satyam,
SBI, Reliance Industries, Tata Steel, Chhota (Mini) SENSEX, Currency futures, US dollar-rupee
future and BRICSMART indices derivatives.
Date of Commencement Derivative Product
9th
June 2000 Equity derivatives (Index futures - SENSEX)
1st
June 2001 Index Options – S&P CNX Nifty
9th
July 2001 Stock options launched (Stock option on 109 stocks)
9th
Nov. 2002 Stock futures launched (Stock futures on 109 Stocks)
13th
Sep. 2004 Weekly options on 4 Stocks
1st
Jan. 2008 Chhota (mini) SENSEX
NA Futures options on sectoral indices (namely BSE TECK, BSE
FMCG, BSE metal, BSE Bankex & BSE oil & gas)
1st
Oct. 2008 Currency derivative introduced (currency futures on US Dollar)
30th
March 2012 Launched BRICSMART indices derivatives
22
DERIVATIVE PRODUCTS TRADED AT NSE
The NSE started derivatives trading on June 12, 2000 when it launched “Index Futures S & P
CNX Nifty” first time. It was followed by launching various derivative products which are
shown in table no.3. They are index options, stock options, stock future, interest rate, future
CNX IT future and options, Bank Nifty futures and options, CNX Nifty Junior futures and
options, CNX100 futures and options, Nifty Mid Cap-50 future and options, Mini index futures
and options, Long term options. Currency futures on USD-rupee, Defty future and options,
interest rate futures, SKP CNX Nifty futures on CME, European style stock options, currency
options on USD INR, 91 days GOI T.B. futures, and derivative global indices and infrastructures
indices.
Date of Introduction Derivative Product
12th
June 2000 Index futures – S&P CNX Nifty
4th
June 2001 Index Options – S&P CNX Nifty
2nd
July 2001 Stock options – on 233 stocks
9th
Nov. 2001 Stock futures on 233 stocks
23rd
June 2003 Interest rate futures – T. Bills & 10 years Bond
29th
Aug. 2003 CNX IT futures & options
13th
June 2005 Bank Nifty futures & options
1st
June 2007 CNX Nifty Junior Futures & Options
1st
June 2007 CNX 100 futures & options
5th
Oct. 2007 Nifty midcap – 50 futures & options
1st
Jan. 2008 Mini index futures & options – S&P CNX Nifty Index
3rd
March 2008 Long term options contracts on – S&P CNX Nifty Index
29th
Aug. 2008 Currency futures on US Dollar Rupee
10th
Dec. 2008 S&P CNX Defty Futures & options
August 2009 Launch of Interest rate futures
February 2009 Launch of currency futures on additional currency pair
July 2010 S&P CNX Nifty futures on CME
October 2010 Introduction of European style stock options
23
October 2010 Introduction of Currency options on USD INR
July 2011 start 91 day GOI Treasury Bill-futures
August 2011 Launch of derivatives on global indices
September 2011 Launch of derivatives on CNX PSE & CNX Infrastructure indices
GROWTH OF INDIAN DERIVATIVES MARKET
The NSE and BSE are two major Indian markets have shown a remarkable growth both in terms
of volumes and numbers of traded contracts. Introduction of derivatives trading in 2000, in
Indian markets was the starting of equity derivative market which has registered on explosive
growth and is expected to continue the same in the years to come. NSE alone accounts 99% of
the derivatives trading in Indian markets. Introduction of derivatives has been well received by
stock market players. Derivatives trading gained popularity after its introduction in very short
time.
If we compare the business growth of NSE and BSE in terms of number of contracts traded and
volumes in all product categories it shows the NSE traded 636132957 total contracts whose total
turnover is Rs.16807782.22 cr in the year 2012-13 in futures and options segment while in
currency segment in 483212156 total contracts have traded whose total turnover is
Rs.2655474.26 cr in same year.
In case of BSE the total numbers of contracts traded are 150068157 whose total turnover is
Rs.3884370.96 Cr in the year 2012-13 for all segments. In the above case we can say that the
performance of BSE is not encouraging both in terms of volumes and numbers of contracts
traded in all product categories.
Year Total No. of
Contracts
Total Turnover (Rs.
Cr.)
Average Daily Turnover (Rs.
Cr.)
2013-2014 911118963 26444804.86 155557.68
2012-2013 1131467418 31533003.96 126638.57
24
2011-2012 1205045464 31349731.74 125902.54
2010-2011 1034212062 29248221.09 115150.48
2009-2010 679293922 17663664.57 72392.07
2008-2009 657390497 11010482.20 45310.63
2007-2008 425013200 13090477.75 52153.30
2006-2007 216883573 7356242 29543
2005-2006 157619271 4824174 19220
2004-2005 77017185 2546982 10107
2003-2004 56886776 2130610 8388
2002-2003 16768909 439862 1752
2001-2002 4196873 101926 410
2000-2001 90580 2365 11
Business Growth of NSE in CD Segment
Year Total Number of
Contracts
Total Turnover (Rs.
Crs)
Average Daily Turnover (Rs.
Crs)
2013-2014 54,88,48,391 32,94,408.65 19,727.00
2012-2013 95,92,43,448 52,74,464.65 21,705.62
2011-2012 97,33,44,132 46,74,989.91 19,479.12
2010-2011 74,96,02,075 34,49,787.72 13,854.57
2009-2010 37,86,06,983 17,82,608.04 7,427.53
2008-2009 3,26,72,768 1,62,272.43 1,167.43
Below their is statistical data or information about Indian derivatives markets namely: product
wise turnover of FO segment at NSE, product wise turnover of CD segment at NSE, Number of
contract traded at NSE in FO segment, number of contracts traded at NSE in CD segment,
Average daily transaction at NSE in FO segment, average daily transactions at NSE in CD
25
segment, Product wise turnover of futures at BSE, product wise turnover of options at BSE,
number of contract traded at BSE in future segment, number of contract, traded at BSE in option
segment and average daily transaction at BSE in all segments.
After analyzing the data given in table below we can say that they are encouraging growth and
developing. Industry analyst feels that the derivatives market has not yet, realized its full
potential in terms of growth and trading. Analyst points out that the equity derivative market on
the NSE and BSE has been limited to only four product Index-futures, index options and
individual stock future and options, which in turn are limited to certain select stock only.
Product Wise Turnover at NSE
Year Index
Futures
Turnover (
cr.)
Stock
Returns
Turnover (
cr.)
Index
Options
Notional
Turnover (
cr.)
Stock
Options
Notional
Turnover (
cr.)
Total
Turnover (
cr.)
Average
Daily
Turnover
( cr.)
2013-
14
2176314.26 3203112.18 19462635.85 1602742.62 26444804.86 155557.68
2012-
13
2527130.76 4223872.02 22781574.14 2000427.29 31533003.96 126638.57
2011-
12
3577998.41 4074670.73 22720031.64 977031.13 31349731.74 125902.54
2010-
11
4356754.53 5495756.70 18365365.76 1030344.21 29248221.09 115150.48
2009-
10
3934388.67 5195246.64 8027964.20 506065.18 17663664.57 72392.07
2008-
09
3570111.40 3479642.12 3731501.84 229226.81 11010482.20 45310.63
26
2007-
08
3820667.27 7548563.23 1362110.88 359136.55 13090477.75 52153.30
2006-
07
2539574 3830967 791906 193795 7356242 29543
2005-
06
1513755 2791697 338469 180253 4824174 19220
2004-
05
772147 1484056 121943 168836 2546982 10107
2003-
04
554446 1305939 52816 217207 2130610 8388
2002-
03
43952 286533 9246 100131 439862 1752
2001-
02
21483 51515 3765 25163 101926 410
2000-
01
2365 - - - 2365 11
Product Wise Turnover of CD Segment at NSE
Year Currency Futures
Turnover ( cr.)
Currency Options
Notional Turnover (
cr.)
Total
Turnover ( cr.)
Average Daily
Turnover ( cr.)
2013-
2014
23,66,882.14 9,27,526.51 32,94,408.65 19,727.00
2012-
2013
37,65,105.33 15,09,359.32 52,74,464.65 21,705.62
2011-
2012
33,78,488.92 12,96,500.98 46,74,989.91 19,479.12
27
2010-
2011
32,79,002.13 1,70,785.59 34,49,787.72 13,854.57
2009-
2010
17,82,608.04 - 17,82,608.04 7,427.53
2008-
2009
1,62,272.43 - 1,62,272.43 1,167.43
Number of Contract Traded at NSE in FO Segment
Year Index Futures
No. of
contracts
Stock Futures
No. of
contracts
Index Options
No. of
contracts
Stock Options
No. of
contracts
Total No. of
contracts
2013-
14
75537352 116676854 663033020 55871737 911118963
2012-
13
96100385 147711691 820877149 66778193 1131467418
2011-
12
146188740 158344617 864017736 36494371 1205045464
2010-
11
165023653 186041459 650638557 32508393 1034212062
2009-
10
178306889 145591240 341379523 14016270 679293922
2008-
09
210428103 221577980 212088444 13295970 657390497
2007-
08
156598579 203587952 55366038 9460631 425013200
2006-
07
81487424 104955401 25157438 5283310 216883573
28
2005-
06
58537886 80905493 12935116 5240776 157619271
2004-
05
21635449 47043066 3293558 5045112 77017185
2003-
04
17191668 32368842 1732414 5583071 56886776
2002-
03
2126763 10676843 442241 3523062 16768909
2001-
02
1025588 1957856 175900 1037529 4196873
2000-
01
90580 - - - 90580
Number of Contract Traded at NSE in CD Segment
Year Currency Futures No. of
contracts
Currency Options No. of
contracts
Total No. of
contracts
2013-
2014
39,00,52,130 15,87,96,261 54,88,48,391
2012-
2013
68,41,59,263 27,50,84,185 95,92,43,448
2011-
2012
70,13,71,974 27,19,72,158 97,33,44,132
2010-
2011
71,21,81,928 3,74,20,147 74,96,02,075
2009-
2010
37,86,06,983 - 37,86,06,983
2008-
2009
3,26,72,768 - 3,26,72,768
29
Average Daily Transaction at NSE in FO Segment
Year Total No. of contracts Total Turnover ( cr.) Average Daily Turnover (Rs. Cr.)
2013-14 1279243623 38034680.30 151532.59
2012-13 1131467418 31533003.96 126638.57
2011-12 1205045464 31349731.74 125902.54
2010-11 1034212062 29248221.09 115150.48
2009-10 679293922 17663664.57 72392.07
2008-09 657390497 11010482.20 45310.63
2007-08 425013200 13090477.75 52153.30
2006-07 216883573 7356242 29543
2005-06 157619271 4824174 19220
2004-05 77017185 2546982 10107
2003-04 56886776 2130610 8388
Average Daily Transaction at NSE in CD Segment
Year Total No. of
contracts
Total Turnover (
cr.)
Average Daily Turnover (Rs.
Cr.)
2013-
2014
47,83,01,579 29,40,885.92 16,444.73
2012-
2013
68,41,59,263 37,65,105.33 21,705.62
2011-
2012
70,13,71,974 33,78,488.92 19,479.12
2010-
2011
71,21,81,928 32,79,002.13 13,854.57
30
2009-
2010
37,86,06,983 17,82,608.04 7,427.53
2008-
2009
3,26,72,768 1,62,272.43 1,167.43
Business Growth at BSE in All Segments
Year Total
Contracts
Total Turnover (Rs
Cr)
Average Daily Turnover (Rs
Cr)
Trading
Days
2013-
14
7503405 19421854.8 308283.4 247
2012-
13
150068157 3884370.96 30828.34 241
2011-
12
32222825 808475.99 3246.89 249
2010-
11
5623 154.33 0.61 255
2009-
10
9028 234.06 1.04 224
2008-
09
496502 11774.83 48.46 243
2007-
08
7453371 242308.41 965.37 251
2006-
07
1781220 59006.62 259.94 227
2005-
06
203 8.78 0.14 61
2004-
05
531719 16112.32 77.09 209
31
Product Wise Turnover of futures at BSE
Year Index
Futures
Turnover
(Rs Cr)
Equity
Futures
Turnover (Rs. Cr.)
Trading
Days
2013-14 215647.78 32560.80 247
2012-13 194188.65 21390.60 241
2011-12 178448.83 10215.70 249
2010-11 154.08 0.00 255
2009-10 96.00 0.30 224
2008-09 11757.22 8.49 243
2007-08 234660.16 7609.24 251
2006-07 55490.86 3515.50 227
2005-06 5.00 0.49 61
2004-05 13599.66 212.85 209
2003-04 3082.63 1680.34 62
Product Wise Turnover of Option at BSE
Year Index option Call
Turnover (Rs.
Cr.)
Index Option
Put Turnover
(Rs. Cr.)
Equity Option
Call Turnover
(Rs. Cr.)
Equity option
Put Turnover
(Rs. Cr.)
Trading
days
2013-
14
17680872.23 9063791.85 1487.98 298.54 247
2012-
13
1967091.23 1812758.37 1367.87 245.32 241
32
2011-
12
200089.57 418252.79 1277.27 191.82 249
2010-
11
0.00 0.25 0.00 0.00 255
2009-
10
137.76 0.00 0.00 0.00 224
2008-
09
6.11 3.01 0.00 0.00 243
2007-
08
31.00 7.66 0.21 0.14 251
2006-
07
0.06 0.00 0.16 0.04 227
2005-
06
3.20 0.00 0.09 0.00 61
2004-
05
1470.61 826.62 2.08 0.50 209
2003-
04
0.00 0.00 139.07 119.77 62
Number of Contracts Traded at BSE in Future Segment
Year Index Futures Contracts Equity Futures Contracts Trading Days
2013-14 42440004 1958052 247
2012-13 14146668 652684 241
2011-12 7073334 326342 249
2010-11 5613 0 255
2009-10 3744 8 224
2008-09 495830 299 243
33
2007-08 7157078 295117 251
2006-07 1638779 142433 227
2005-06 89 12 61
2004-05 44630 6725 209
2003-04 103777 33437 62
Number of Contracts Traded at BSE in Options Segment
Year Index Options
Call Contracts
Index Options
Put Contracts
Equity Options
Call Contracts
Equity Options
Put Contracts
Trading
Days
2013-
14
28387467 278474689 5425 39584 247
2012-
13
14413028 143044388 3498 15314 241
2011-
12
7206514 17569130 39848 7657 249
2010-
11
0 10 0 0 255
2009-
10
5276 0 0 0 224
2008-
09
251 122 0 0 243
2007-
08
951 210 9 6 251
2006-
07
2 0 5 1 227
2005-
06
100 0 2 0 61
2004- 48065 27210 72 17 209
34
05
2003-
04
0 0 3466 2544 62
Average Daily Turnover at BSE in All Segment
Year Total
Contracts
Total Turnover (Rs.
Cr.)
Average Daily Turnover
(Rs. Cr.)
Trading
Days
2013-
14
698497492 127464748 128344.60 247
2012-
13
300067817 6884370.9 60828.43 241
2011-
12
32222825 808475.99 3246.89 249
2010-
11
5623 154.33 0.61 255
2009-
10
9028 234.06 1.04 224
2008-
09
496502 11774.83 48.46 243
2007-
08
7453371 242308.41 965.37 251
2006-
07
1781220 59006.62 259.94 227
2005-
06
203 8.78 0.14 61
2004-
05
531719 16112.32 77.09 209
2003-
04
143224 5021.81 81.00 62
35
CONCLUSION
Derivatives have existed and evolved over a long time, with roots in commodities market. In the
recent years advances in financial markets and the technology have made derivatives easy for the
investors. Derivatives market in India is growing rapidly unlike equity markets. Trading in
derivatives require more than average understanding of finance. Being new to markets maximum
number of investors have not yet understood the full implications of the trading in derivatives.
SEBI should take actions to create awareness in investors about the derivative market.
Introduction of derivatives implies better risk management. These markets can give greater
depth, stability and liquidity to Indian capital markets. Successful risk management with
derivatives requires a thorough understanding of principles that govern the pricing of financial
derivatives. In order to increase the derivatives market in India SEBI should revise some of their
regulation like contract size, participation of FII in the derivative market. Contract size should be
minimized because small investor cannot afford this much of huge premiums.
In cash market the profit/loss is limited but where in F & O an investor can enjoy unlimited
profits/loss. At present scenario the Derivatives market is increased to a great position. Its daily
turnover teaches to the equal stage of cash market. The derivatives are mainly used for hedging
purpose. In cash market the investor has to pay the total money, but in derivatives the investor
has to pay premiums or margins, which are some percentage of total money. In derivative
segment the profit/loss of the option holder/option writer is purely depended on the fluctuations
of the underlying asset.
In terms of the growth of derivatives markets, and the variety of derivatives users, the Indian
market has equalled or exceeded many other regional markets. While the growth is being
spearheaded mainly by retail investors, private sector institutions and large corporations, smaller
companies and state-owned institutions are gradually getting into the act. Foreign brokers such as
JP Morgan Chase are boosting their presence in India in reaction to the growth in derivatives.
The variety of derivatives instruments available for trading is also expanding.
There remain major areas of concern for Indian derivatives users. Large gaps exist in the range
of derivatives products that are traded actively. In equity derivatives, NSE figures show that
almost 90% of activity is due to stock futures or index futures, whereas trading in options is
36
limited to a few stocks, partly because they are settled in cash and not the underlying stocks.
Exchange-traded derivatives based on interest rates and currencies are virtually absent.
Liquidity and transparency are important properties of any developed market. Liquid markets
require market makers who are willing to buy and sell, and be patient while doing so. In India,
market making is primarily the province of Indian private and foreign banks, with public sector
banks lagging in this area. A lack of market liquidity may be responsible for inadequate trading
in some markets. Transparency is achieved partly through financial disclosure. Financial
statements currently provide misleading information on institutions’ use of derivatives. Further,
there is no consistent method of accounting for gains and losses from derivatives trading. Thus, a
proper framework to account for derivatives needs to be developed.
Further regulatory reform will help the markets grow faster. For example, Indian commodity
derivatives have great growth potential but government policies have resulted in the underlying
spot/physical market being fragmented (e.g. due to lack of free movement of commodities and
differential taxation within India). Similarly, credit derivatives, the fastest growing segment of
the market globally, are absent in India and require regulatory action if they are to develop.
As Indian derivatives markets grow more sophisticated, greater investor awareness will become
essential. NSE has programmes to inform and educate brokers, dealers, traders, and market
personnel. In addition, institutions will need to devote more resources to develop the business
processes and technology necessary for derivatives trading.
The investors can minimize risk by investing in derivatives. The use of derivative equips the
investor to face the risk, which is uncertain. Though the use of derivatives does not completely
eliminate the risk, but it certainly lessens the risk. It is advisable to the investor to invest in the
derivatives market because of the greater amount of liquidity offered by the financial derivatives
and the lower transactions costs associated with the trading of financial derivatives.
The derivatives products give the investor an option or choice whether to exercise the contract or
not. Options give the choice to the investor to either exercise his right or not. If on expiry date
the investor finds that the underlying asset in the option contract is traded at a less price in the
stock market then, he has the full liberty to get out of the option contract and go ahead and buy
the asset from the stock market. So in case of high uncertainty the investor can go for options.
37
However, these instruments act as a powerful instrument for knowledgeable traders to expose
them to the properly calculated and well understood risks in pursuit of reward, i.e., profit.
Financial derivatives have earned a well-deserved extremely significant place among all the
financial instruments (products), due to innovation and revolutionized the landscape. Derivatives
are tool for managing risk. Derivatives provide an opportunity to transfer risk from one to
another. Launch of equity derivatives in Indian market has been extremely encouraging and
successful. The growth of derivatives in the recent years has surpassed the growth of its
counterpart globally.
The Notional value of option on the NSE increased from 1195.691178 lakhs USD in 2003 to
354648.1941 lakhs USD in 2012 and notional value of NSE futures increased from 14329.35627
lakhs USD in 2003 to 39228.38563 lakhs USD in 2012. India is one of the most successful
developing country in terms of a vibrate market for exchange-traded derivatives. The equity
derivatives market is playing a major role in shaping price discovery. Volatility in financial asset
price, integration of financial market internationally, sophisticated risk management tools,
innovations in financial engineering and choices at risk management strategies have been driving
the growth of financial derivatives worldwide, also in India. Finally we can say there is big
significance and contribution of derivatives to financial system.
38
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. www.bseindia.com
2. www.nseindia.com
3. www.world-exchanges.org
4. www.sebi.gov.in
5. Publications of National Stock Exchange

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Fm project

  • 1. 1 A PROJECT ON “A study of Derivatives Instrument in Indian Capital Market ” IN THE SUBJECT ADVANCE FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SUBMITTED BY SOUMEET SARKAR A030 M.Com Part-II in Advance Accountancy UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF PROF. MEGHNA CHOTALIYA TO UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI FOR MASTER OF COMMERCE PROGRAMME (SEMESTER - IV) In ADVANCE ACCOUNTANCY YEAR: 2014-15 SVKM’S NARSEE MONJEE COLLEGE OF COMMERCE &ECONOMICS VILE PARLE (W), MUMBAI – 400056
  • 2. 2 EVALUATION CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the undersigned have assessed and evaluated the project on “A study of Derivatives Instrument in Indian Capital Market ”submitted by SOUMEET SARKAR student of M.Com. – Part – II (Semester – IV) In ADVANCE ACCOUNTANCY for the academic year 2014-15. This project is original to the best of our knowledge and has been accepted for Internal Assessment. Name & Signature of Internal Examiner Name & Signature of External Examiner PRINCIPAL Shri Sunil B. Mantri
  • 3. 3 DECLARATION BY THE STUDENT I, SOUMEET SARKAR student of M.Com (Part – II) In ADVANCE ACCOUNTANCY Roll No. A030 hereby declare that the project titled “ A study of Derivatives Instrument in Indian Capital Market ” for the subject ADVANCE FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT submitted by me for Semester – IV of the academic year 2014-15, is based on actual work carried out by me under the guidance and supervision of PROF. MEGHNA CHOTALIYA. I further state that this work is original and not submitted anywhere else for any examination. Place: MUMBAI Date: Name & Signature of Student: Name: SOUMEET SARKAR Signature
  • 4. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is indeed a great pleasure and proud privilege to present this project work. I thank my project guide Prof. Meghna Chotaliya & my M.Com. Co- ordinator Prof. Hardik Pathak of SVKM’s Narsee Monjee College of Commerce and Economics. Their co-operation and guidance have helped me to complete this project. I would sincerely like to thank the principal of our college Shri Sunil B. Mantri for his support and guidance. I would also like to thank the college library and staff for helping and guiding me, the class representatives and my family and friends who supported me in this project. THANK YOU
  • 5. 5 CONTENT Sr. No. PARTICULARS Page No. 1 INTRODUCTION 6 2 STUDY of DERIVATIVE in DETAIL 8 3 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DERIVATIVE MARKET IN INDIA 20 4 GROWTH OF INDIAN DERIVATIVES MARKET 23 5 CONCLUSION 35 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY 38
  • 6. 6 INTRODUCTION While trading in derivatives products has grown tremendously in recent times, the earliest evidence of these types of instruments can be traced back to ancient Greece. Even though derivatives have been in existence in some form or the other since ancient times, the advent of modern day derivatives contracts is attributed to farmers’ need to protect themselves against a decline in crop prices due to various economic and environmental factors. Thus, derivatives contracts initially developed in commodities. The first “futures” contracts can be traced to the Yodoya rice market in Osaka, Japan around 1650. The farmers were afraid of rice prices falling in the future at the time of harvesting. To lock in a price (that is, to sell the rice at a predetermined fixed price in the future), the farmers entered into contracts with the buyers. These were evidently standardized contracts, much like today’s futures contracts. In 1848, the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) was established to facilitate trading of forward contracts on various commodities. From then on, futures contracts on commodities have remained more or less in the same form, as we know them today. While the basics of derivatives are the same for all assets such as equities, bonds, currencies, and commodities, we will focus on derivatives in the equity markets and all examples that we discuss will use stocks and index (basket of stocks). The global economic order that emerged after World War II was a system where many less developed countries administered prices and centrally allocated resources. Even the developed economies operated under the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchange rates. The system of fixed prices came under stress from the 1970s onwards. High inflation and unemployment rates made interest rates more volatile. The Bretton Woods system was dismantled in 1971, freeing exchange rates to fluctuate. Less developed countries like India began opening up their economies and allowing prices to vary with market conditions. Price fluctuations make it hard for businesses to estimate their future production costs and revenues. Derivative securities provide them a valuable set of tools for managing this risk. This article describes the evolution of Indian derivatives markets, the popular derivatives instruments, and the main users of derivatives in India.
  • 7. 7 A derivative security is a security whose value depends on the value of together more basic underlying variable. These are also known as contingent claims. Derivatives securities have been very successful in innovation in capital markets. The emergence of the market for derivative products most notably forwards, futures and options can be traced back to the willingness of risk adverse economic agents to guard themselves against uncertainties arising out of fluctuations in asset prices. By their very nature, financial markets are markets by a very high degree of volatility. Through the use of derivative products, it is possible to partially or fully transfer price risks by locking – in asset prices. As instruments of risk management these generally don’t influence the fluctuations in the underlying asset prices. However, by locking-in asset prices, derivative products minimize the impact of fluctuations in asset prices on the profitability and cash-flow situation of risk-averse investor. Derivatives are risk management instruments which derives their value from an underlying asset. Underlying asset can be Bullion, Index, Share, Currency, Bonds, Interest, etc. Among all the innovations that have flooded the international financial markets, financial derivatives occupy the driver's seat. These specialized instruments facilitate the shuffling and redistribution of the risks that an investor faces. Thus aids in the process of diversifying ones portfolio. The volatility in the equity markets over the past years has resulted in greater use of equity derivatives. The volume of the exchange traded equity futures and options in most of the mature markets have seen a significant growth. It goes beyond that the local derivative in the emerging markets has witnessed widespread use of the derivative instrument for a variety of reasons. This continuous growth and development by the emerging market participants has resulted in capital inflows as well as helped the investors in risk protection through hedging. The emergence of the market for derivatives products, most notably forwards, futures and options, can be tracked back to the willingness of risk-averse economic agents to guard themselves against uncertainties arising out of fluctuations in asset prices. By their very nature, the financial markets are marked by a very high degree of volatility. Through the use of derivative products, it is possible to partially or fully transfer price risks by locking-in asset prices. As instruments of risk management, these generally do not influence the fluctuations in the underlying asset prices. However, by locking-in asset prices, derivative product minimizes
  • 8. 8 the impact of fluctuations in asset prices on the profitability and cash flow situation of risk- averse investors. Derivatives are risk management instruments, which derive their value from an underlying asset. The underlying asset can be bullion, index, share, bonds, currency, interest, etc. Banks, Securities firms, companies and investors to hedge risks, to gain access to cheaper money and to make profit, use derivatives. Derivatives are likely to grow even at a faster rate in future. DERIVATIVES With the opening of the economy to multinational and the adoption of the liberalized economic policies the economy is driven more towards the free market economy. The complex nature of the financial structuring is self involves the utilization of multicurrency transaction. It exposes the clients, particularly corporate clients to various risks such as exchange rate risk, interest risk, economic risk & political risk. In the present state of the economy there is an imperative need for the corporate clients to protect their operating profits by shifting some of the uncontrollable financial risk to those who are able bear and manage them. Thus, risk management becomes a must for survival since there is a high volatility in the present’s financial markets. In the context, derivatives occupy an important place as a risk reducing machinery. Derivatives are useful to reduce many of the risks. In fact, the financial service companies can play a very dynamic role in dealing with such risk. They can ensure that the above risks are hedged by using derivatives like forwards, futures, options, swaps In a broad sense, many commonly used instruments can be called derivatives since they derive their value from underlying assets. For instance, equity share its self is a derivatives, since it derives its value from the underlying assets. Similarly one takes an insurance against his house covering all risks. The emergence of the market for derivative products, most notably forwards, futures and options, can be traced back to the willingness of risk-averse economic agents to guard themselves against uncertainties arising out of fluctuations in asset prices. By their very nature, the financial markets are marked by a very high degree of volatility. Through the use of derivative products, it is
  • 9. 9 possible to partially or fully transfer price risks by locking –in asset prices. As instruments of risk management, these generally do not influence the fluctuations underlying prices. However, by locking – in asset prices, derivative products minimizes the impact of fluctuations in asset prices on the profitability and cash flow situation of risk–averse investors. DEFINITION Understanding the word itself, Derivatives is a key to mastery of the topic. The word originates in mathematics and refers to a variable, which has been derived from another variable. For example, a measure of weight in pound could be derived from a measure of weight in kilograms by multiplying by two. In financial sense, these are contracts that derive their value from some underlying asset. Without the underlying product and market it would have no independent existence. Underlying asset can be a Stock, Bond, Currency, Index or a Commodity. Someone may take an interest in the derivative products without having an interest in the underlying product market, but the two are always related and may therefore interact with each other. Derivatives are the financial instruments, which derive their value from some other financial instruments, called the underlying. The foundation of all derivatives market is the underlying market, which could be spot market for gold, or it could be a pure number such as the level of the wholesale price index of a market price. A derivative is a financial instrument whose value depends on the Value of other basic underlying variables. The term Derivative has been defined in Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act 1956, as:-  A security derived from a debt instrument, share, loan whether secured or unsecured, risk instrument or contract for differences or any other form of security.  A contract, which derives its value from the prices, or index of prices, of underlying securities. Therefore, derivatives are specialized contracts to facilitate temporarily for hedging which is protection against losses resulting from unforeseen price or volatility changes. Thus, derivatives are a very important tool of risk management. Derivatives perform a number of economic functions like price discovery, risk transfer and market completion. The simplest kind of
  • 10. 10 derivative market is the forward market. Here a buyer and seller write a contract for delivery at a specific future date and a specified future price. In India, a forward market exists in the form of the dollar- rupee market. But forward market suffers from two serious problems; Counter party risk resulting in comparatively high rate of contract non-compliance and poor liquidity. Futures markets were invented to cope with these two difficulties of forward markets. Futures are standardized forward contracts traded on an organized stock exchange. In essence, a future contract is a derivative instrument whose value is derived from the expected price of the underlying security or asset or index at a pre-determined future date. Derivatives are financial contracts that are designed to create market price exposure to changes in an underlying commodity, asset or event. In general they do not involve the exchange or transfer of principal or title. Rather their purpose is to capture, in the form of price changes, some underlying price change or event. The term derivative refers to how the prices of these contracts are derived from the price of some underlying security or commodity or from some index, interest rate, exchange rate or event. Examples of derivatives include futures, forwards; options and swaps, and these can be combined with each other or traditional securities and loans in order to create hybrid instruments or structured securities. IMPORTANCE of DERIVATIVES Derivatives are becoming increasingly important in world markets as a tool for risk management. Derivatives instruments can be used to minimize risk. Derivatives are used to separate risks and transfer them to parties willing to bear these risks. The kind of hedging that can be obtained by using derivatives is cheaper and more convenient than what could be obtained by using cash instruments. It is so because, when we use derivatives for hedging, actual delivery of the underlying asset is not at all essential for settlement purposes. Moreover, derivatives would not create any risk. They simply manipulate the risks and transfer to those who are willing to bear these risks. For example, Mr. A owns a bike If he does not take insurance, he runs a big risk. Suppose he buys insurance [a derivative instrument on the bike] he reduces his risk. Thus, having an insurance policy reduces
  • 11. 11 the risk of owing a bike. Similarly, hedging through derivatives reduces the risk of owing a specified asset, which may be a share, currency, etc. CHARACTERISTICS of DERIVATIVES  Their value is derived from an underlying instrument such as stock index, currency, etc.  They are vehicles for transferring risk.  They are leveraged instruments. RATIONALE BEHIND the DEVELOPMENT of DERIVATIVES Holding portfolio of securities is associated with the risk of the possibility that the investor may realize his returns, which would be much lesser than what he expected to get. There are various influences, which affect the returns. 1. Price or dividend (interest). 2. Sum are internal to the firm like:- a. Industry policy, b. Management capabilities, c. Consumer’s preference, d. Labour strike, etc. These forces are to a large extent controllable and are termed as “Non-systematic Risks”. An investor can easily manage such non- systematic risks by having a well-diversified portfolio spread across the companies, industries and groups so that a loss in one may easily be compensated with a gain in other. There are other types of influences, which are external to the firm, cannot be controlled, and they are termed as “systematic risks”. Those are  Economic  Political
  • 12. 12  Sociological changes are sources of Systematic Risk Their effect is to cause the prices of nearly all individual stocks to move together in the same manner. We therefore quite often find stock prices falling from time to time in spite of company’s earnings rising and vice –versa. Rational behind the development of derivatives market is to manage this systematic risk, liquidity. Liquidity means, being able to buy & sell relatively large amounts quickly without substantial price concessions. In debt market, a much larger portion of the total risk of securities is systematic. Debt instruments are also finite life securities with limited marketability due to their small size relative to many common stocks. These factors favor for the purpose of both portfolio hedging and speculation. India has vibrant securities market with strong retail participation that has evolved over the years. It was until recently a cash market with facility to carry forward positions in actively traded “A” group scripts from one settlement to another by paying the required margins and borrowing money and securities in a separate carry forward sessions held for this purpose. However, a need was felt to introduce financial products like other financial markets in the world. MAJOR PLAYERS in DERIVATIVE MARKET There are three major players in the derivatives trading:- 1. Hedgers:- The party, which manages the risk, is known as “Hedger”. Hedgers seek to protect themselves against price changes in a commodity in which they have an interest. For protecting against adverse movement. Hedging is a mechanism to reduce price risk inherent in open positions. Derivatives are widely used for hedging. A Hedge can help lock in existing profits. Its purpose is to reduce the volatility of a portfolio, by reducing the risk.
  • 13. 13 2. Speculators:- They are traders with a view and objective of making profits. They are willing to take risks and they bet upon whether the markets would go up or come down. To make quick fortune by anticipating/forecasting future market movements. Hedgers wish to eliminate or reduce the price risk to which they are already exposed. Speculators, on the other hand are those classes of investors who willingly take price risks to profit from price changes in the underlying. While the need to provide hedging avenues by means of derivative instruments is laudable, it calls for the existence of speculative traders to play the role of counter-party to the hedgers. It is for this reason that the role of speculators gains prominence in a derivatives market. 3. Arbitrageurs:- Risk less profit making is the prime goal of arbitrageurs. They could be making money even without putting their own money in, and such opportunities often come up in the market but last for very short time frames. They are specialized in making purchases and sales in different markets at the same time and profits by the difference in prices between the two centers. To earn risk-free profits by exploiting market imperfections. Arbitrageurs profit from price differential existing in two markets by simultaneously operating in the two different markets. TYPES of DERIVATIVES:- 1. Forwards:- A forward contract or simply a forward is a contract between two parties to buy or sell an asset at a certain future date for a certain price that is pre-decided on the date of the contract. The future date is referred to as expiry date and the pre-decided price is referred to as Forward Price. It may be noted that Forwards are private contracts and their terms are determined by the parties involved. A forward is thus an agreement between two parties in which one party, the buyer, enters into an agreement with the other party, the seller that he would buy from the seller an underlying asset on the expiry date at the forward price. Therefore, it is a commitment by both the parties to engage in a transaction at a later date with the price set in advance. This is different from a spot market contract, which involves immediate payment and immediate transfer of asset. The party that agrees to buy the asset on a future date is referred to as a long investor and is said to have a long position. Similarly the party that
  • 14. 14 agrees to sell the asset in a future date is referred to as a short investor and is said to have a short position. The price agreed upon is called the delivery price or the Forward Price. Forward contracts are traded only in Over the Counter (OTC) market and not in stock exchanges. OTC market is a private market where individuals/institutions can trade through negotiations on a one to one basis. A forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell an asset on a specified date for a specified price. One of the parties to the contract assumes a long position and agrees to buy the underlying asset on a certain specified future date for a certain specified price. The other party assumes a short position and agrees to sell the asset on the same date for the same price; other contract details like delivery date, price and quantity are negotiated bilaterally by the parties to the contract. The forward contracts are normally traded outside the exchange. The salient features of forward contracts are:-  They are bilateral contracts and hence exposed to counter-party risk,  Each contract is custom designed, and hence is unique in terms of contract size, expiration date and the asset type and quality,  The contract price is generally not available in public domain,  On the expiration date, the contract has to be settled by delivery of the asset, or net settlement. The forward markets face certain limitations such as:-  Lack of centralization of trading,  Illiquidity, and  Counterparty risk A forward contract is a customized contract between two entities where settlement takes place on a specific date in the futures at today’s pre-agreed price. Forward contracts offer tremendous flexibility to the party’s to design the contract in terms of the price, quantity, quality, delivery, time and place. Liquidity and default risk are very high. For example, on 1st June, X enters into an agreement to buy 50 bales of cotton for 1st December at Rs.1000 per bale from Y, a cotton dealer. It is a case of a forward contract where X has to pay Rs.50000 on 1st December to Y and Y has to supply 50 bales of cotton.
  • 15. 15 2. Futures:- Like a forward contract, a futures contract is an agreement between two parties in which the buyer agrees to buy an underlying asset from the seller, at a future date at a price that is agreed upon today. However, unlike a forward contract, a futures contract is not a private transaction but gets traded on a recognized stock exchange. In addition, a futures contract is standardized by the exchange. All the terms, other than the price, are set by the stock exchange (rather than by individual parties as in the case of a forward contract). Also, both buyer and seller of the futures contracts are protected against the counter party risk by an entity called the Clearing Corporation. The Clearing Corporation provides this guarantee to ensure that the buyer or the seller of a futures contract does not suffer as a result of the counter party defaulting on its obligation. In case one of the parties defaults, the Clearing Corporation steps in to fulfill the obligation of this party, so that the other party does not suffer due to non-fulfillment of the contract. To be able to guarantee the fulfillment of the obligations under the contract, the Clearing Corporation holds an amount as a security from both the parties. This amount is called the Margin money and can be in the form of cash or other financial assets. Also, since the futures contracts are traded on the stock exchanges, the parties have the flexibility of closing out the contract prior to the maturity by squaring off the transactions in the market. The basic flow of a transaction between three parties, namely Buyer, Seller and Clearing Corporation is depicted in the diagram below:-
  • 16. 16 Futures contract is a standardized transaction taking place on the futures exchange. Futures market was designed to solve the problems that exist in forward market. A futures contract is an agreement between two parties, to buy or sell an asset at a certain time in the future at a certain price, but unlike forward contracts, the futures contracts are standardized and exchange traded To facilitate liquidity in the futures contracts, the exchange specifies certain standard quantity and quality of the underlying instrument that can be delivered, and a standard time for such a settlement. Futures’ exchange has a division or subsidiary called a clearing house that performs the specific responsibilities of paying and collecting daily gains and losses as well as guaranteeing performance of one party to other. A futures' contract can be offset prior to maturity by entering into an equal and opposite transaction. More than 99% of futures transactions are offset this way. Yet another feature is that in a futures contract gains and losses on each party’s position is credited or charged on a daily basis, this process is called daily settlement or marking to market. Any person entering into a futures contract assumes a long or short position, by a small amount to the clearing house called the margin money The standardized items in a futures contract are:-  Quantity of the underlying,  Quality of the underlying,  The date and month of delivery,  The units of price quotation and minimum price change,  Location of settlement. 3. Options:- Like forwards and futures, options are derivative instruments that provide the opportunity to buy or sell an underlying asset on a future date. An option is a derivative contract between a buyer and a seller, where one party (say First Party) gives to the other (say Second Party) the right, but not the obligation, to buy from (or sell to) the First Party the underlying asset on or before a specific day at an agreed- upon price. In return for granting the option, the party granting the option collects a payment from the other party. This payment collected is called the “premium” or price of the option. An option is a contract, or a provision of a contract, that gives one party (the option holder) the right, but not the obligation, to perform a specified transaction with another
  • 17. 17 party (the option issuer or option writer) according to the specified terms. The owner of a property might sell another party an option to purchase the property any time during the next three months at a specified price. For every buyer of an option there must be a seller. The seller is often referred to as the writer. As with futures, options are brought into existence by being traded, if none is traded, none exists; conversely, there is no limit to the number of option contracts that can be in existence at any time. As with futures, the process of closing out options positions will cause contracts to cease to exist, diminishing the total number. Thus an option is the right to buy or sell a specified amount of a financial instrument at a pre-arranged price on or before a particular date. The right to buy or sell is held by the “option buyer” (also called the option holder); the party granting the right is the “option seller” or “option writer”. Unlike forwards and futures contracts, options require a cash payment (called the premium) upfront from the option buyer to the option seller. This payment is called option premium or option price. Options can be traded either on the stock exchange or in over the counter (OTC) markets. Options traded on the exchanges are backed by the Clearing Corporation thereby minimizing the risk arising due to default by the counter parties involved. Options traded in the OTC market however are not backed by the Clearing Corporation. There are two types of options:-  Call Option:- A call option is an option granting the right to the buyer of the option to buy the underlying asset on a specific day at an agreed upon price, but not the obligation to do so. It is the seller who grants this right to the buyer of the option. It may be noted that the person who has the right to buy the underlying asset is known as the “buyer of the call option”. The price at which the buyer has the right to buy the asset is agreed upon at the time of entering the contract. This price is known as the strike price of the contract (call option strike price in this case). Since the buyer of the call option has the right (but no obligation) to buy the underlying asset, he will exercise his right to buy the underlying asset if and only if the price of the underlying asset in the market is more than the strike price on or before the expiry date of the contract. The buyer of the call option does not have an obligation to buy if he does not want to.
  • 18. 18  Put Option:- A put option is a contract granting the right to the buyer of the option to sell the underlying asset on or before a specific day at an agreed upon price, but not the obligation to do so. It is the seller who grants this right to the buyer of the option. The person who has the right to sell the underlying asset is known as the “buyer of the put option”. The price at which the buyer has the right to sell the asset is agreed upon at the time of entering the contract. This price is known as the strike price of the contract (put option strike price in this case). Since the buyer of the put option has the right (but not the obligation) to sell the underlying asset, he will exercise his right to sell the underlying asset if and only if the price of the underlying asset in the market is less than the strike price on or before the expiry date of the contract. The buyer of the put option does not have the obligation to sell if he does not want to. 4. Warrants:- Longer – dated options are called warrants and are generally traded over the counter. Options generally have life up to one year, the majority of options traded on options exchanges having a maximum maturity of nine months. 5. Swaps Contract:- A swap is an agreement between two or more people or parties to exchange sets of cash flows over a period in future. Swaps are agreements between two parties to exchange assets at predetermined intervals. Swaps are generally customized transactions. The swaps are innovative financing which reduces borrowing costs, and to increase control over interest rate risk and FOREX exposure. The swap includes both spot and forward transactions in a single agreement. Swaps are at the centre of the global financial revolution. Swaps are useful in avoiding the problems of unfavorable fluctuation in FOREX market. The parties that agree to the swap are known as counter parties. The two commonly used swaps are interest rate swaps and currency swaps. Interest rate swaps which entail swapping only the interest related cash flows between the parties in the same currency. Currency swaps entail swapping both principal and interest between the parties, with the cash flows in one direction being in a different currency than the cash flows in the opposite direction.
  • 19. 19 Classification of Derivatives Derivative Contracts Traded in India Derivatives Financial Basic FD / FI Futures Forwards Options Warrants & Convertibles Complex FD / FI Swaps & Swaptions Exotic Non Standard Options Commodity Derivative Equity Index Futures & Options Single Stock Futures & Options Debt Interest Rate Futures & Forwards Interest Rate Swaps Commodity Forward Contarcts Cross Currency Swaps Forex Forward Futures
  • 20. 20 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DERIVATIVE MARKET IN INDIA The origin of derivatives can be traced back to the need of farmers to protect themselves against fluctuations in the price of their crop. From the time it was sown to the time it was ready for harvest, farmers would face price uncertainty. Through the use of simple derivative products, it was possible for the farmer to partially or fully transfer price risks by locking-in asset prices. These were simple contracts developed to meet the needs of farmers and were basically a means of reducing risk. Derivative markets in India have been in existence in one form or the other for a long time. In the area of commodities, the Bombay Cotton Trade Association started future trading way back in 1875. This was the first organized futures market. Then Bombay Cotton Exchange Ltd. in 1893, Gujarat Vyapari Mandall in 1900, Calcutta Hesstan Exchange Ltd. in 1919 had started future market. After the country attained independence, derivative market came through a full circle from prohibition of all sorts of derivative trades to their recent reintroduction. In 1952, the government of India banned cash settlement and options trading, derivatives trading shifted to informal forwards markets. In recent years government policy has shifted in favour of an increased role at market based pricing and less suspicious derivatives trading. The first step towards introduction of financial derivatives trading in India was the promulgation at the securities laws (Amendment) ordinance 1995. It provided for withdrawal at prohibition on options in securities. The last decade, beginning the year 2000, saw lifting of ban of futures trading in many commodities. Around the same period, national electronic commodity exchanges were also set up. REGULATION OF DERIVATIVES TRADING IN INDIA The regulatory frame work in India is based on L.C. Gupta Committee report and J.R. Varma Committee report. It is mostly consistent with the international organization of securities commission (IUSCO). The L.C. Gupta Committee report provides a perspective on division of regulatory responsibility between the exchange and SEBI. It recommends that SEBI‟s role should be restricted to approving rules, bye laws and regulations of a derivatives exchange as
  • 21. 21 also to approving the proposed derivatives contracts before commencement of their trading. It emphasizes the supervisory and advisory role of SEBI. It also suggests establishment of a separate clearing corporation. DERIVATIVES MARKET IN INDIA In India, there are two major markets namely National Stock Exchange (NSE) and Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) along with other Exchanges of India are the market for derivatives. Here we may discuss the performance of derivatives products in Indian market. DERIVATIVE PRODUCTS TRADED AT BSE The BSE started derivatives trading on June 9, 2000 when it launched “Equity derivatives (Index futures-SENSEX) first time. It was followed by launching various products as shown below. They are index options, stock options, single stock futures, weekly options, stocks for: Satyam, SBI, Reliance Industries, Tata Steel, Chhota (Mini) SENSEX, Currency futures, US dollar-rupee future and BRICSMART indices derivatives. Date of Commencement Derivative Product 9th June 2000 Equity derivatives (Index futures - SENSEX) 1st June 2001 Index Options – S&P CNX Nifty 9th July 2001 Stock options launched (Stock option on 109 stocks) 9th Nov. 2002 Stock futures launched (Stock futures on 109 Stocks) 13th Sep. 2004 Weekly options on 4 Stocks 1st Jan. 2008 Chhota (mini) SENSEX NA Futures options on sectoral indices (namely BSE TECK, BSE FMCG, BSE metal, BSE Bankex & BSE oil & gas) 1st Oct. 2008 Currency derivative introduced (currency futures on US Dollar) 30th March 2012 Launched BRICSMART indices derivatives
  • 22. 22 DERIVATIVE PRODUCTS TRADED AT NSE The NSE started derivatives trading on June 12, 2000 when it launched “Index Futures S & P CNX Nifty” first time. It was followed by launching various derivative products which are shown in table no.3. They are index options, stock options, stock future, interest rate, future CNX IT future and options, Bank Nifty futures and options, CNX Nifty Junior futures and options, CNX100 futures and options, Nifty Mid Cap-50 future and options, Mini index futures and options, Long term options. Currency futures on USD-rupee, Defty future and options, interest rate futures, SKP CNX Nifty futures on CME, European style stock options, currency options on USD INR, 91 days GOI T.B. futures, and derivative global indices and infrastructures indices. Date of Introduction Derivative Product 12th June 2000 Index futures – S&P CNX Nifty 4th June 2001 Index Options – S&P CNX Nifty 2nd July 2001 Stock options – on 233 stocks 9th Nov. 2001 Stock futures on 233 stocks 23rd June 2003 Interest rate futures – T. Bills & 10 years Bond 29th Aug. 2003 CNX IT futures & options 13th June 2005 Bank Nifty futures & options 1st June 2007 CNX Nifty Junior Futures & Options 1st June 2007 CNX 100 futures & options 5th Oct. 2007 Nifty midcap – 50 futures & options 1st Jan. 2008 Mini index futures & options – S&P CNX Nifty Index 3rd March 2008 Long term options contracts on – S&P CNX Nifty Index 29th Aug. 2008 Currency futures on US Dollar Rupee 10th Dec. 2008 S&P CNX Defty Futures & options August 2009 Launch of Interest rate futures February 2009 Launch of currency futures on additional currency pair July 2010 S&P CNX Nifty futures on CME October 2010 Introduction of European style stock options
  • 23. 23 October 2010 Introduction of Currency options on USD INR July 2011 start 91 day GOI Treasury Bill-futures August 2011 Launch of derivatives on global indices September 2011 Launch of derivatives on CNX PSE & CNX Infrastructure indices GROWTH OF INDIAN DERIVATIVES MARKET The NSE and BSE are two major Indian markets have shown a remarkable growth both in terms of volumes and numbers of traded contracts. Introduction of derivatives trading in 2000, in Indian markets was the starting of equity derivative market which has registered on explosive growth and is expected to continue the same in the years to come. NSE alone accounts 99% of the derivatives trading in Indian markets. Introduction of derivatives has been well received by stock market players. Derivatives trading gained popularity after its introduction in very short time. If we compare the business growth of NSE and BSE in terms of number of contracts traded and volumes in all product categories it shows the NSE traded 636132957 total contracts whose total turnover is Rs.16807782.22 cr in the year 2012-13 in futures and options segment while in currency segment in 483212156 total contracts have traded whose total turnover is Rs.2655474.26 cr in same year. In case of BSE the total numbers of contracts traded are 150068157 whose total turnover is Rs.3884370.96 Cr in the year 2012-13 for all segments. In the above case we can say that the performance of BSE is not encouraging both in terms of volumes and numbers of contracts traded in all product categories. Year Total No. of Contracts Total Turnover (Rs. Cr.) Average Daily Turnover (Rs. Cr.) 2013-2014 911118963 26444804.86 155557.68 2012-2013 1131467418 31533003.96 126638.57
  • 24. 24 2011-2012 1205045464 31349731.74 125902.54 2010-2011 1034212062 29248221.09 115150.48 2009-2010 679293922 17663664.57 72392.07 2008-2009 657390497 11010482.20 45310.63 2007-2008 425013200 13090477.75 52153.30 2006-2007 216883573 7356242 29543 2005-2006 157619271 4824174 19220 2004-2005 77017185 2546982 10107 2003-2004 56886776 2130610 8388 2002-2003 16768909 439862 1752 2001-2002 4196873 101926 410 2000-2001 90580 2365 11 Business Growth of NSE in CD Segment Year Total Number of Contracts Total Turnover (Rs. Crs) Average Daily Turnover (Rs. Crs) 2013-2014 54,88,48,391 32,94,408.65 19,727.00 2012-2013 95,92,43,448 52,74,464.65 21,705.62 2011-2012 97,33,44,132 46,74,989.91 19,479.12 2010-2011 74,96,02,075 34,49,787.72 13,854.57 2009-2010 37,86,06,983 17,82,608.04 7,427.53 2008-2009 3,26,72,768 1,62,272.43 1,167.43 Below their is statistical data or information about Indian derivatives markets namely: product wise turnover of FO segment at NSE, product wise turnover of CD segment at NSE, Number of contract traded at NSE in FO segment, number of contracts traded at NSE in CD segment, Average daily transaction at NSE in FO segment, average daily transactions at NSE in CD
  • 25. 25 segment, Product wise turnover of futures at BSE, product wise turnover of options at BSE, number of contract traded at BSE in future segment, number of contract, traded at BSE in option segment and average daily transaction at BSE in all segments. After analyzing the data given in table below we can say that they are encouraging growth and developing. Industry analyst feels that the derivatives market has not yet, realized its full potential in terms of growth and trading. Analyst points out that the equity derivative market on the NSE and BSE has been limited to only four product Index-futures, index options and individual stock future and options, which in turn are limited to certain select stock only. Product Wise Turnover at NSE Year Index Futures Turnover ( cr.) Stock Returns Turnover ( cr.) Index Options Notional Turnover ( cr.) Stock Options Notional Turnover ( cr.) Total Turnover ( cr.) Average Daily Turnover ( cr.) 2013- 14 2176314.26 3203112.18 19462635.85 1602742.62 26444804.86 155557.68 2012- 13 2527130.76 4223872.02 22781574.14 2000427.29 31533003.96 126638.57 2011- 12 3577998.41 4074670.73 22720031.64 977031.13 31349731.74 125902.54 2010- 11 4356754.53 5495756.70 18365365.76 1030344.21 29248221.09 115150.48 2009- 10 3934388.67 5195246.64 8027964.20 506065.18 17663664.57 72392.07 2008- 09 3570111.40 3479642.12 3731501.84 229226.81 11010482.20 45310.63
  • 26. 26 2007- 08 3820667.27 7548563.23 1362110.88 359136.55 13090477.75 52153.30 2006- 07 2539574 3830967 791906 193795 7356242 29543 2005- 06 1513755 2791697 338469 180253 4824174 19220 2004- 05 772147 1484056 121943 168836 2546982 10107 2003- 04 554446 1305939 52816 217207 2130610 8388 2002- 03 43952 286533 9246 100131 439862 1752 2001- 02 21483 51515 3765 25163 101926 410 2000- 01 2365 - - - 2365 11 Product Wise Turnover of CD Segment at NSE Year Currency Futures Turnover ( cr.) Currency Options Notional Turnover ( cr.) Total Turnover ( cr.) Average Daily Turnover ( cr.) 2013- 2014 23,66,882.14 9,27,526.51 32,94,408.65 19,727.00 2012- 2013 37,65,105.33 15,09,359.32 52,74,464.65 21,705.62 2011- 2012 33,78,488.92 12,96,500.98 46,74,989.91 19,479.12
  • 27. 27 2010- 2011 32,79,002.13 1,70,785.59 34,49,787.72 13,854.57 2009- 2010 17,82,608.04 - 17,82,608.04 7,427.53 2008- 2009 1,62,272.43 - 1,62,272.43 1,167.43 Number of Contract Traded at NSE in FO Segment Year Index Futures No. of contracts Stock Futures No. of contracts Index Options No. of contracts Stock Options No. of contracts Total No. of contracts 2013- 14 75537352 116676854 663033020 55871737 911118963 2012- 13 96100385 147711691 820877149 66778193 1131467418 2011- 12 146188740 158344617 864017736 36494371 1205045464 2010- 11 165023653 186041459 650638557 32508393 1034212062 2009- 10 178306889 145591240 341379523 14016270 679293922 2008- 09 210428103 221577980 212088444 13295970 657390497 2007- 08 156598579 203587952 55366038 9460631 425013200 2006- 07 81487424 104955401 25157438 5283310 216883573
  • 28. 28 2005- 06 58537886 80905493 12935116 5240776 157619271 2004- 05 21635449 47043066 3293558 5045112 77017185 2003- 04 17191668 32368842 1732414 5583071 56886776 2002- 03 2126763 10676843 442241 3523062 16768909 2001- 02 1025588 1957856 175900 1037529 4196873 2000- 01 90580 - - - 90580 Number of Contract Traded at NSE in CD Segment Year Currency Futures No. of contracts Currency Options No. of contracts Total No. of contracts 2013- 2014 39,00,52,130 15,87,96,261 54,88,48,391 2012- 2013 68,41,59,263 27,50,84,185 95,92,43,448 2011- 2012 70,13,71,974 27,19,72,158 97,33,44,132 2010- 2011 71,21,81,928 3,74,20,147 74,96,02,075 2009- 2010 37,86,06,983 - 37,86,06,983 2008- 2009 3,26,72,768 - 3,26,72,768
  • 29. 29 Average Daily Transaction at NSE in FO Segment Year Total No. of contracts Total Turnover ( cr.) Average Daily Turnover (Rs. Cr.) 2013-14 1279243623 38034680.30 151532.59 2012-13 1131467418 31533003.96 126638.57 2011-12 1205045464 31349731.74 125902.54 2010-11 1034212062 29248221.09 115150.48 2009-10 679293922 17663664.57 72392.07 2008-09 657390497 11010482.20 45310.63 2007-08 425013200 13090477.75 52153.30 2006-07 216883573 7356242 29543 2005-06 157619271 4824174 19220 2004-05 77017185 2546982 10107 2003-04 56886776 2130610 8388 Average Daily Transaction at NSE in CD Segment Year Total No. of contracts Total Turnover ( cr.) Average Daily Turnover (Rs. Cr.) 2013- 2014 47,83,01,579 29,40,885.92 16,444.73 2012- 2013 68,41,59,263 37,65,105.33 21,705.62 2011- 2012 70,13,71,974 33,78,488.92 19,479.12 2010- 2011 71,21,81,928 32,79,002.13 13,854.57
  • 30. 30 2009- 2010 37,86,06,983 17,82,608.04 7,427.53 2008- 2009 3,26,72,768 1,62,272.43 1,167.43 Business Growth at BSE in All Segments Year Total Contracts Total Turnover (Rs Cr) Average Daily Turnover (Rs Cr) Trading Days 2013- 14 7503405 19421854.8 308283.4 247 2012- 13 150068157 3884370.96 30828.34 241 2011- 12 32222825 808475.99 3246.89 249 2010- 11 5623 154.33 0.61 255 2009- 10 9028 234.06 1.04 224 2008- 09 496502 11774.83 48.46 243 2007- 08 7453371 242308.41 965.37 251 2006- 07 1781220 59006.62 259.94 227 2005- 06 203 8.78 0.14 61 2004- 05 531719 16112.32 77.09 209
  • 31. 31 Product Wise Turnover of futures at BSE Year Index Futures Turnover (Rs Cr) Equity Futures Turnover (Rs. Cr.) Trading Days 2013-14 215647.78 32560.80 247 2012-13 194188.65 21390.60 241 2011-12 178448.83 10215.70 249 2010-11 154.08 0.00 255 2009-10 96.00 0.30 224 2008-09 11757.22 8.49 243 2007-08 234660.16 7609.24 251 2006-07 55490.86 3515.50 227 2005-06 5.00 0.49 61 2004-05 13599.66 212.85 209 2003-04 3082.63 1680.34 62 Product Wise Turnover of Option at BSE Year Index option Call Turnover (Rs. Cr.) Index Option Put Turnover (Rs. Cr.) Equity Option Call Turnover (Rs. Cr.) Equity option Put Turnover (Rs. Cr.) Trading days 2013- 14 17680872.23 9063791.85 1487.98 298.54 247 2012- 13 1967091.23 1812758.37 1367.87 245.32 241
  • 32. 32 2011- 12 200089.57 418252.79 1277.27 191.82 249 2010- 11 0.00 0.25 0.00 0.00 255 2009- 10 137.76 0.00 0.00 0.00 224 2008- 09 6.11 3.01 0.00 0.00 243 2007- 08 31.00 7.66 0.21 0.14 251 2006- 07 0.06 0.00 0.16 0.04 227 2005- 06 3.20 0.00 0.09 0.00 61 2004- 05 1470.61 826.62 2.08 0.50 209 2003- 04 0.00 0.00 139.07 119.77 62 Number of Contracts Traded at BSE in Future Segment Year Index Futures Contracts Equity Futures Contracts Trading Days 2013-14 42440004 1958052 247 2012-13 14146668 652684 241 2011-12 7073334 326342 249 2010-11 5613 0 255 2009-10 3744 8 224 2008-09 495830 299 243
  • 33. 33 2007-08 7157078 295117 251 2006-07 1638779 142433 227 2005-06 89 12 61 2004-05 44630 6725 209 2003-04 103777 33437 62 Number of Contracts Traded at BSE in Options Segment Year Index Options Call Contracts Index Options Put Contracts Equity Options Call Contracts Equity Options Put Contracts Trading Days 2013- 14 28387467 278474689 5425 39584 247 2012- 13 14413028 143044388 3498 15314 241 2011- 12 7206514 17569130 39848 7657 249 2010- 11 0 10 0 0 255 2009- 10 5276 0 0 0 224 2008- 09 251 122 0 0 243 2007- 08 951 210 9 6 251 2006- 07 2 0 5 1 227 2005- 06 100 0 2 0 61 2004- 48065 27210 72 17 209
  • 34. 34 05 2003- 04 0 0 3466 2544 62 Average Daily Turnover at BSE in All Segment Year Total Contracts Total Turnover (Rs. Cr.) Average Daily Turnover (Rs. Cr.) Trading Days 2013- 14 698497492 127464748 128344.60 247 2012- 13 300067817 6884370.9 60828.43 241 2011- 12 32222825 808475.99 3246.89 249 2010- 11 5623 154.33 0.61 255 2009- 10 9028 234.06 1.04 224 2008- 09 496502 11774.83 48.46 243 2007- 08 7453371 242308.41 965.37 251 2006- 07 1781220 59006.62 259.94 227 2005- 06 203 8.78 0.14 61 2004- 05 531719 16112.32 77.09 209 2003- 04 143224 5021.81 81.00 62
  • 35. 35 CONCLUSION Derivatives have existed and evolved over a long time, with roots in commodities market. In the recent years advances in financial markets and the technology have made derivatives easy for the investors. Derivatives market in India is growing rapidly unlike equity markets. Trading in derivatives require more than average understanding of finance. Being new to markets maximum number of investors have not yet understood the full implications of the trading in derivatives. SEBI should take actions to create awareness in investors about the derivative market. Introduction of derivatives implies better risk management. These markets can give greater depth, stability and liquidity to Indian capital markets. Successful risk management with derivatives requires a thorough understanding of principles that govern the pricing of financial derivatives. In order to increase the derivatives market in India SEBI should revise some of their regulation like contract size, participation of FII in the derivative market. Contract size should be minimized because small investor cannot afford this much of huge premiums. In cash market the profit/loss is limited but where in F & O an investor can enjoy unlimited profits/loss. At present scenario the Derivatives market is increased to a great position. Its daily turnover teaches to the equal stage of cash market. The derivatives are mainly used for hedging purpose. In cash market the investor has to pay the total money, but in derivatives the investor has to pay premiums or margins, which are some percentage of total money. In derivative segment the profit/loss of the option holder/option writer is purely depended on the fluctuations of the underlying asset. In terms of the growth of derivatives markets, and the variety of derivatives users, the Indian market has equalled or exceeded many other regional markets. While the growth is being spearheaded mainly by retail investors, private sector institutions and large corporations, smaller companies and state-owned institutions are gradually getting into the act. Foreign brokers such as JP Morgan Chase are boosting their presence in India in reaction to the growth in derivatives. The variety of derivatives instruments available for trading is also expanding. There remain major areas of concern for Indian derivatives users. Large gaps exist in the range of derivatives products that are traded actively. In equity derivatives, NSE figures show that almost 90% of activity is due to stock futures or index futures, whereas trading in options is
  • 36. 36 limited to a few stocks, partly because they are settled in cash and not the underlying stocks. Exchange-traded derivatives based on interest rates and currencies are virtually absent. Liquidity and transparency are important properties of any developed market. Liquid markets require market makers who are willing to buy and sell, and be patient while doing so. In India, market making is primarily the province of Indian private and foreign banks, with public sector banks lagging in this area. A lack of market liquidity may be responsible for inadequate trading in some markets. Transparency is achieved partly through financial disclosure. Financial statements currently provide misleading information on institutions’ use of derivatives. Further, there is no consistent method of accounting for gains and losses from derivatives trading. Thus, a proper framework to account for derivatives needs to be developed. Further regulatory reform will help the markets grow faster. For example, Indian commodity derivatives have great growth potential but government policies have resulted in the underlying spot/physical market being fragmented (e.g. due to lack of free movement of commodities and differential taxation within India). Similarly, credit derivatives, the fastest growing segment of the market globally, are absent in India and require regulatory action if they are to develop. As Indian derivatives markets grow more sophisticated, greater investor awareness will become essential. NSE has programmes to inform and educate brokers, dealers, traders, and market personnel. In addition, institutions will need to devote more resources to develop the business processes and technology necessary for derivatives trading. The investors can minimize risk by investing in derivatives. The use of derivative equips the investor to face the risk, which is uncertain. Though the use of derivatives does not completely eliminate the risk, but it certainly lessens the risk. It is advisable to the investor to invest in the derivatives market because of the greater amount of liquidity offered by the financial derivatives and the lower transactions costs associated with the trading of financial derivatives. The derivatives products give the investor an option or choice whether to exercise the contract or not. Options give the choice to the investor to either exercise his right or not. If on expiry date the investor finds that the underlying asset in the option contract is traded at a less price in the stock market then, he has the full liberty to get out of the option contract and go ahead and buy the asset from the stock market. So in case of high uncertainty the investor can go for options.
  • 37. 37 However, these instruments act as a powerful instrument for knowledgeable traders to expose them to the properly calculated and well understood risks in pursuit of reward, i.e., profit. Financial derivatives have earned a well-deserved extremely significant place among all the financial instruments (products), due to innovation and revolutionized the landscape. Derivatives are tool for managing risk. Derivatives provide an opportunity to transfer risk from one to another. Launch of equity derivatives in Indian market has been extremely encouraging and successful. The growth of derivatives in the recent years has surpassed the growth of its counterpart globally. The Notional value of option on the NSE increased from 1195.691178 lakhs USD in 2003 to 354648.1941 lakhs USD in 2012 and notional value of NSE futures increased from 14329.35627 lakhs USD in 2003 to 39228.38563 lakhs USD in 2012. India is one of the most successful developing country in terms of a vibrate market for exchange-traded derivatives. The equity derivatives market is playing a major role in shaping price discovery. Volatility in financial asset price, integration of financial market internationally, sophisticated risk management tools, innovations in financial engineering and choices at risk management strategies have been driving the growth of financial derivatives worldwide, also in India. Finally we can say there is big significance and contribution of derivatives to financial system.
  • 38. 38 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. www.bseindia.com 2. www.nseindia.com 3. www.world-exchanges.org 4. www.sebi.gov.in 5. Publications of National Stock Exchange