THE ATOMIC BOMB   Presented by                  Steve Sosa
1.    A Brief History         OUTLINE2.    Key People3.    The Atomic Bomb4.    Ground Zero5.    Aesthetics and Ethics
A BRIEF HISTORY
SEPTEMBER 1939¡    China and Japan 3 r d year of conflict¡    Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany¡    United Kingdom ena...
DECEMBER 7, 1941¡  Imperial Japanese Navy’s surprise attack    on U.S. naval base Pearl Harbor¡  President Franklin D. R...
CONVENTIONAL WARFARE¡  Used conventional militar y    weapons, battlefield tactics, well-    defined forces, weapons targ...
GERMAN WARFARE¡  Tactics   §  Chemical weapons since WWI   §  Human tests with mustard and nerve       gas   §  Produc...
JAPANESE WARFARE¡  Their weapons modern but thinking 2000      years out of date ¡  Japanese belief of fighting for a Go...
FEAR LEADS TO ATOMIC RESEARCH¡  Einstein-Szilard letter to Roosevelt   §  “…that it may become possible to set up a     ...
RESEARCH & DESIGN¡  Manhattan Project¡  Joint ef for t by U.S., U.K., and Canada¡  Employed more than 130,000 people¡ ...
KEY PEOPLE
KEY PEOPLE¡  Leo Szilard   §  Jewish Hungarian physicist   §  1933 conceived nuclear chain reaction and       patented ...
KEY PEOPLE¡  Alber t Einstein   §    German theoretical physicist   §    “Father of modern physics”   §    1933 escape...
KEY PEOPLE¡  Julius Rober t Oppenheimer  §    Brilliant American theoretical physicist  §    Taught at Berkley  §    M...
THE ATOMIC BOMB
TRINIT Y TEST¡  Code for first nuclear weapon test¡  Conducted in 1945¡  First fission test produces explosion    equal...
TRINIT Y TEST¡  Oppenheimer famously recalls    Bhagavad Gita (Hindu God): “If the radiance of a thousand suns were to bu...
LITTLE BOY DESIGN¡    Codename for atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima¡    Design not tested in advance¡    Explosive powe...
FAT MAN DESIGN¡    Codename for bomb dropped on Nagasaki¡    Complex implosion-type, plutonium-based design¡    Equal t...
GROUND ZERO
GROUND ZERO¡  Hiroshima  §  Spared conventional      bombing to serve as a      pristine target  §  Desire to measure i...
GROUND ZERO¡  Above Ground Detonation  §  Bombs detonated 1800+ feet above      ground so radioactive parts would      d...
GROUND ZERO¡  Initial Blast Damage  §  Fireball shock wave in all directions      faster than speed of sound  §  Temper...
GROUND ZERO¡  Fire Damage  §  Firestorm produced blinding      light, radiant heat  §  Buildings burst, humans      vap...
GROUND ZERO¡  Radiation Damage  §  Local fallout is dust,      carbon, ash, contamination  §  Exposure in form of rain,...
GROUND ZERO¡  Radiation Damage  §  Ate through clothing  §  Skin fell off bodies  §  Increased rates of cancer, leukem...
THE AESTHETICS    AND ETHICS
ETHICAL SIGNIFICANCE¡  Aesthetics / Ethics   §  Aesthetics focus on philosophical, not physical   §  Potential use on c...
ETHICAL SIGNIFICANCE¡  Forced mankind to ask tough questions   §  Are the use of nuclear weapons humane?   §  Should al...
MEANING OF ATOMIC BOMB¡  C o nve nt io nal war f are is now ove r¡  Up to 2 0 count rie s now posse ss nucle ar we apons...
THANK YOU
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

LWIT BTAD: The Atomic Bomb

551 views

Published on

My final presentation on the Atomic Bomb.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
551
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
21
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

LWIT BTAD: The Atomic Bomb

  1. 1. THE ATOMIC BOMB Presented by Steve Sosa
  2. 2. 1.  A Brief History OUTLINE2.  Key People3.  The Atomic Bomb4.  Ground Zero5.  Aesthetics and Ethics
  3. 3. A BRIEF HISTORY
  4. 4. SEPTEMBER 1939¡  China and Japan 3 r d year of conflict¡  Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany¡  United Kingdom enacted full draf t¡  Britain, Australia, India, New Zealand, France declare war¡  Within hours British cruise ship torpedoed by German sub and “Battle of the Atlantic” begins¡  Japan and United States declare neutrality¡  Newfoundland, South Africa, Canada declare war on Germany¡  Soviet Union and Germany join forces
  5. 5. DECEMBER 7, 1941¡  Imperial Japanese Navy’s surprise attack on U.S. naval base Pearl Harbor¡  President Franklin D. Roosevelt, “a date which will live in infamy”¡  2,402 killed, 188 U.S. aircraf t, 12 U.S. Navy ships destroyed¡  Profound shock to American people¡  December 8, 1941 U.S. declares war on Japan
  6. 6. CONVENTIONAL WARFARE¡  Used conventional militar y weapons, battlefield tactics, well- defined forces, weapons target opposing army¡  Did not include chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons
  7. 7. GERMAN WARFARE¡  Tactics §  Chemical weapons since WWI §  Human tests with mustard and nerve gas §  Produced about 78,000 tons of chemical weapons §  Perfected the use of gas chambers §  Created extermination and concentration camps §  Estimated over 6 million Jews killed §  Feared development of atomic weapons
  8. 8. JAPANESE WARFARE¡  Their weapons modern but thinking 2000 years out of date ¡  Japanese belief of fighting for a God §  U.S. saw Hirohito as criminal of war §  To Japanese Hirohito was Japan §  General MacArthur, “hanging of the Emperor to them would be comparable to the crucifixion of Christ to us”¡  Japan had never been defeated in war¡  Death before dishonor mentality¡  Kamikaze pilots¡  Mass suicide
  9. 9. FEAR LEADS TO ATOMIC RESEARCH¡  Einstein-Szilard letter to Roosevelt §  “…that it may become possible to set up a nuclear chain reaction in a large mass of uranium, by which vast amounts of power and large quantities of new radium-like elements would be generated. Now it appears almost certain that this could be achieved in the immediate future. ”¡  Advisor y Committee on Uranium formed¡  National Defense Research Committee and Of fice of Scientific Research and Development vigorously pursued development as a weapon
  10. 10. RESEARCH & DESIGN¡  Manhattan Project¡  Joint ef for t by U.S., U.K., and Canada¡  Employed more than 130,000 people¡  Cost nearly $2 billion (equivalent of $22 billion today)¡  Research occurred at more than 30 sites §  Hanford site in WA developed plutonium §  Oak Ridge site in TN enriched uranium §  Los Alamos site in NM led weapons research and design
  11. 11. KEY PEOPLE
  12. 12. KEY PEOPLE¡  Leo Szilard §  Jewish Hungarian physicist §  1933 conceived nuclear chain reaction and patented idea of nuclear reactor §  1938 given offer to conduct research at Columbia University in Manhattan §  Recognized impurities in manufactured graphite stopped German attempts to control chain-reactions §  1939 wrote letter for Einstein to sign §  1942 manufactured impurity-free graphite and first human-controlled chain reaction §  Hoped that mere threat of using such a weapon would force Germany and Japan to surrender
  13. 13. KEY PEOPLE¡  Alber t Einstein §  German theoretical physicist §  “Father of modern physics” §  1933 escaped Nazi Germany §  Signed joint letter with Szilard §  Pivotal role in lending validity to atomic bomb research
  14. 14. KEY PEOPLE¡  Julius Rober t Oppenheimer §  Brilliant American theoretical physicist §  Taught at Berkley §  Member of Communist parties §  Selected to oversee Manhattan Project §  Suggested Los Alamos site §  “Father of the Atomic Bomb”
  15. 15. THE ATOMIC BOMB
  16. 16. TRINIT Y TEST¡  Code for first nuclear weapon test¡  Conducted in 1945¡  First fission test produces explosion equal to 20 kilotons tons of TNT¡  Largest deliberate chemical explosion set off, fear of setting fire to atmosphere¡  Heard over 200 miles away¡  Flash seen over 450 miles away¡  America had won the race
  17. 17. TRINIT Y TEST¡  Oppenheimer famously recalls Bhagavad Gita (Hindu God): “If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst at once into the sky, that would be like the splendor of the mighty one…Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.”
  18. 18. LITTLE BOY DESIGN¡  Codename for atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima¡  Design not tested in advance¡  Explosive power derived from nuclear fission of uranium¡  600 milligrams of mass were conver ted to energy¡  Equal to 13-18 kilotons of TNT¡  Estimated 130-150,000 people killed
  19. 19. FAT MAN DESIGN¡  Codename for bomb dropped on Nagasaki¡  Complex implosion-type, plutonium-based design¡  Equal to 21 kilotons of TNT (75 million sticks of dynamite)¡  Estimated 60–80,000 people killed
  20. 20. GROUND ZERO
  21. 21. GROUND ZERO¡  Hiroshima §  Spared conventional bombing to serve as a pristine target §  Desire to measure impact an effect on city and people, factories and residential areas §  City and civilians were primary targets…ran contrary to rules of war which U.S. did more than any other nation to uphold
  22. 22. GROUND ZERO¡  Above Ground Detonation §  Bombs detonated 1800+ feet above ground so radioactive parts would dissipate into the stratosphere
  23. 23. GROUND ZERO¡  Initial Blast Damage §  Fireball shock wave in all directions faster than speed of sound §  Temperatures at center reached 100 million degrees §  2 mile diameter damage, turned everything into shrapnel §  Any building not concrete reinforced imploded §  Human shadows burned into buildings
  24. 24. GROUND ZERO¡  Fire Damage §  Firestorm produced blinding light, radiant heat §  Buildings burst, humans vaporized, metal and glass instantly melted §  Waterlines shattered in 70,000 places
  25. 25. GROUND ZERO¡  Radiation Damage §  Local fallout is dust, carbon, ash, contamination §  Exposure in form of rain, water, any contact
  26. 26. GROUND ZERO¡  Radiation Damage §  Ate through clothing §  Skin fell off bodies §  Increased rates of cancer, leukemia, non-cancer diseases from survivors and children who were exposed §  Cause of future atomic causalities
  27. 27. THE AESTHETICS AND ETHICS
  28. 28. ETHICAL SIGNIFICANCE¡  Aesthetics / Ethics §  Aesthetics focus on philosophical, not physical §  Potential use on civilian populations §  Balance between destroying or saving great numbers of human lives¡  Necessity of Bombings §  Japan was in the process of surrender §  Talks with Soviet Union §  Could not hold off invasion of mainland much longer¡  Need for Retribution §  U.S. had spent billions §  American sentiment from Pearl Harbor §  Need to demonstrate overwhelming power to Soviet Union §  First bomb successfully accomplished mission
  29. 29. ETHICAL SIGNIFICANCE¡  Forced mankind to ask tough questions §  Are the use of nuclear weapons humane? §  Should all countries be able to develop nuclear weapons? §  Should man have ever created such a weapon?¡  Our values §  What is the value of human life? §  Which values did we choose to uphold? Fight for? Protect? Defend? Enforce?
  30. 30. MEANING OF ATOMIC BOMB¡  C o nve nt io nal war f are is now ove r¡  Up to 2 0 count rie s now posse ss nucle ar we apons“ T h e s plit t ing of t h e atom h as c h ang e d eve r yt h ing , s ave m an’s m ode of t h ink ing .”¡  H is to r y h as yet to re nde r t h e final ve rdic t¡  B alance of m oralit y of m as s de s t ruct ion ag ains t 5 0 ye ar e ra of com parat ive g lo bal pe ac e
  31. 31. THANK YOU

×