Miscellaneous Topics on Urban Planning


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Miscellaneous Topics on Urban Planning

  2. 2. Preservation and archeology <ul><li>‘‘ Preservation’’ seeks to understand our human fabric as defined by the physical structures built and left by people before our time. </li></ul><ul><li>Archeology tells the story of people at a particular time or within a particular place based upon the physical ‘‘things’’ left behind. </li></ul><ul><li>Together they provide history. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Process <ul><li>Land development is a continual process that reshapes our physical environment in response to the needs of people. </li></ul><ul><li>By serving such needs, land development contributes to the inventory of historic resources for preservationist and archeological professionals tomorrow. </li></ul>
  4. 4. THE FORMAL AND INFORMAL PUBLIC AND QUASI-PUBLIC SYSTEM <ul><li>All levels of government that govern to a particular location define the ‘‘public’’ or formal system. The ‘‘quasi-public’’ or informal system centers on non-profit, organized, and often incorporated, community associations that play a variety of roles, direct and indirect, in historic preservation and archeology. </li></ul><ul><li>Often their role is defined by the perceived effect that a development project will have on a location. </li></ul><ul><li>Government involvement with the land development process is exercised in three ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislature: laws and ordinances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxation: payment, credits, penalties, liens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eminent Domain: acquisition or condemnation for government use with ‘‘just compensation’’ </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The extent and use of each regulatory power varies with state and local concerns, funding sources, permit requirements, penalties and precedent examples of similar preservation situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion of the public sector is divided into three parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Agencies; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Tools; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) Strategies. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Tools: Public Policies </li></ul>
  7. 7. Master Plans: <ul><li>Master Plans are public documents that forecast and designate appropriate land-uses, areas for conservation, and often places of historic significance over a time span, typically five, seven, ten or twenty years. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Tax Policies: <ul><li>Taxation policies usually address value assessments, rate credits or penalties designed to protect or promote a particular type of resource. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Land Use Planning: <ul><li>Two sides typically include: </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Assessment: the process of study to determine if land use or prospective changes will affect existing physical and natural environs of a locale. Part of this process specifically includes the examination of archeological and historic resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Impact: the location of a building or site adjacent to or nearby a historic site, landmark, conservation district, or historic district frequently warrants preservation assessment as a function of potential negative impact. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Permits: <ul><li>Permits are issued for demolition, remodeling or new construction. Permits frequently flag preservation resources and issues, and immediate attention is drawn to a particular land tract where existing improvements, based on the age or location of an improvement, merit further study. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Zoning: <ul><li>Founded on the principle of directing land changes over time, zoning often works in conflict with preservation, as a resource once identified may introduce a land-use incompatible with the existing zone. Changing a land-use typically requires zoning review and public approval. During this process the issues of preservation and site resources are commonly broached. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Tax Assessments: <ul><li>Every local jurisdiction assesses property to define land values relative to taxes due. Tax assessors field-inspect properties in support of land-value definition. </li></ul><ul><li>Those inspections often identify potential resources for file notation. </li></ul><ul><li>Such documentation aids in the public review and identification process. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Public Process: A Strategy for Working Together <ul><li>Public involvement and participation within the land development and historic resource processes have been institutionalized in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>They include legislated laws mandating that certain actions take place often within specific time periods. Select financial and tax incentives, as well as penalties and fees, assist in the enforcement and cost of such activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, the power of eminent domain fosters the government’s right to ‘‘take’’ property for a public good for ‘‘fair’’ and ‘‘just’’ compensation. All are examples of how participation is enacted. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Community Involvement <ul><li>It is precisely this mechanism that provides individual citizens and other quasi-public entities with an entrance into the public arena. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood citizen groups, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>homeowners’ associations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tenant organizations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>historical societies, </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Land development professionals should be prepared in most cases to discuss the following information items: <ul><li>Is the property of known importance to the heritage of our nation, state or local region? </li></ul><ul><li>Were there important historic events, people, etc. associated with the property? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any physiographic features that warrant further site study (cemeteries, land depressions, mounds, caves, swamps, etc.)? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the land improved with structures? Do those buildings 50 years or older have distinctive architectural styles, building materials or structural features? </li></ul>
  16. 16. ENVIRONMENTAL SITE ASSESSMENT AND HISTORIC AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL PRESERVATION <ul><li>focus of early assessment should have two objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) to identify any unique property characteristics that may render a site unsuitable or unsafe for the intended use; and </li></ul><ul><li>(2) to identify potential historic and archeological resources. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Property Data </li></ul><ul><li>Initial Field Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Corroborative Research </li></ul><ul><li>Revisit the Deed Records and Start Documentation </li></ul>
  18. 18. LEGAL ISSUES PERTAINING TO PRESERVATION <ul><li>Questions and Information to Gather </li></ul><ul><li>ENGINEERING—ARCHITECTURE—LANDSCAPE </li></ul><ul><li>ARCHITECTURE: CONTRIBUTING TECHNICAL SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>1. Instruct the survey crew to identify all site features remotely perceived as having potential historic or archeological s ignificance. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ask for field notations of material changes, vegetation, water, pits, fences, rocks, and similar elements, all of which could aid in the future design studies and findings for environmental study. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ask for ‘‘footprint’’ measurements of on-site improvements, including buildings, walls, wells, and ruins. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Take pictures of existing conditions. </li></ul>