GE515 Midterm Reviewer


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GE515 Midterm Reviewer

  1. 1. Urban Design
  2. 2. Urban Design <ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Urban geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban growth - physical and demographic expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban sprawl - undesirable type of urban growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urban Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban Growth - spatial and demographic process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanisation - spatial (non-spatial) and social process </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Urban Design <ul><li>Effects of urbanisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>change in urban density and administration services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changes in the economic, social and political structures of a region </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rapid urbanisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many environmental and social changes in the urban environment, global change issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rapid growth of cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strains their capacity to provide services </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Urban Design <ul><li>System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a group of connected entities and activities which interact for a common purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural, Abstract, manmade, descriptive/normative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urban Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a hybrid system, integrates physical, social, economic, ecological, environmental, infrastructure and institutional subsystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are the consequences of the intrinsic nature of humans as social beings to live together in towns and cities </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Urban Design <ul><li>Urban Sprawl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unauthorised and unplanned development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>normally at the fringe areas of cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>especially haphazard and piecemeal construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generally along the major lines of communications or roads adjacent to specified city limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a situation where urban development adversely interferes with urban environment </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Urban Design <ul><li>Urban Growth- a sum of increase in developed land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion - metropolitan fringe development/urban fringe development/edge development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infill - the development of a small tract of land mostly surrounded by urban land-cover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlying growth - from non-developed to developed land-cover occurring beyond existing developed areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>isolated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>linear branch – dissection and fragmentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clustered branch </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Consequences of Urban Growth and Urban Sprawl <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>higher economic production </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities for the </li></ul><ul><li>underemployed and </li></ul><ul><li>unemployed, </li></ul><ul><li>better life because of better </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>better services such as transportation, sewer, and water </li></ul><ul><li>specialist services such as better educational facilities, health care facilities </li></ul><ul><li>better lifestyles </li></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Inflated Infrastructure and Public Service Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Inefficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Disparity in Wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts on Wildlife and Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Farmland </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in Temperature (HIE) </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Air Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts on Water Quality and Quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts on Public and Social Health </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic impacts </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sustainable development <ul><li>Sustainable development - development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability - process which tells of a development of all aspects of human life affecting sustenance </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sustainability and Urban Design <ul><li>Smart Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Compact Neighbourhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed-use development </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion of parks and recreation areas </li></ul><ul><li>Transit-Oriented Development </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrian- and Bicycle-Friendly Design </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving open space, farmland, critical ecological habitats, and natural beauty. </li></ul><ul><li>Reusing of land </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting water and air quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Transparent, predictable, fair and cost-effective rules for development. </li></ul><ul><li>Taking advantage of compact building design. </li></ul><ul><li>Historic preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion around already developed areas </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging community and stakeholder collaboration in development decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Shared municipal services </li></ul>
  10. 10. Transportation
  11. 11. Transportation <ul><li>Causes of Traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid population and job growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensified use of automobile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to build new roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire for low density residential development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to require the drivers to pay the full marginal cost of their behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long-term causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration of work trips in time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to choose where to live and work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire for low-density neighbourhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preference for low-density workplaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to travel in private vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts between land use and transportation </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Transportation <ul><li>In CLUP, to delineate transportation network and proposed circulation pattern these must be achieved: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient internal and external linkages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate development in identified development areas or growth nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved community access to basic social services and facilities/infrastructures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desired impacts on service provision and influence on development pattern of the LGU </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Guiding Criteria for Transport Planning <ul><li>Assessment of the traffic, parking and other impacts the proposed use or development is likely to generate </li></ul><ul><li>Is the proposal appropriate for the site or the area generally? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the site or the proposed development layout sufficient for the provision of off-street parking? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the proposed scale of the use or development appropriate for the hierarchy or importance of the road in the road network? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the proposal generally positively satisfy the relevant Decision Guidelines? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Important Issues on Transportations <ul><li>Understanding the Importance of Road Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate strip development along major arterial/distributor roads </li></ul><ul><li>Parking policies, standards and enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Inefficient Public Transport system/Management </li></ul>
  15. 15. Action Points for LTTMSP <ul><li>Identification and documentation of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Registration of all public transport operators </li></ul><ul><li>Development of an LGU road hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the condition of the road networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the VCC, MRW&SC and ATV of roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the most efficient mix of vehicle types for certain sizes regarding accessibility needs of the resident population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>land-uses and activities contributing to particular types of traffic and problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>traffic hot spots and their causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parking hot spots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The need for a computerized road maintenance and replacement system linked to design and annual budget allocations </li></ul><ul><li>Plans for comprehensive education campaign highlighting the real cost benefits of effective traffic management and compliance with regulations </li></ul>
  16. 16. Transportation Solution at the Local Level <ul><li>Better coordination betweenb LGUS departments </li></ul><ul><li>Better management practices </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership by example </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced road maintenance and maintenance systems </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate budgeting for road maintenance and reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Real Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Real political commitment to effective enforcement of regulations and prosecution of lawbreakers irrespective of influence </li></ul>
  17. 17. Action Points for LTTMSP <ul><li>Enforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal driving standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Off-street parking standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions against unlawful parking in streets and on footpaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions against unlawful occupation of footpaths and/or roads by vendors, squatters and others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulations that penalizes developers unlawfully occupying footpaths and roads with construction materials and vehicles </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Historic Preservation and Archeology <ul><li>Preservation - seeks to understand our human fabric as defined by the physical structures built and left by people before our time. </li></ul><ul><li>Archeology - tells the story of people at a particular time or within a particular place based upon the physical ‘‘things’’ left behind. </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation + Archeology = History </li></ul>
  19. 19. Historic Preservation and Archeology
  20. 20. Historic Preservation and Archeology <ul><li>Historic preservation and archeology Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public/formal system –all levels of government that govern a particular location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quasi-public/informal system - non-profit, organized, and often incorporated, community associations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eminent Domain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion of the public sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Tools: Public Policies <ul><li>Master Plans are public documents that forecast and designate appropriate land-uses, areas for conservation, and often places of historic significance over a time span, typically five, seven, ten or twenty years. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax Policies usually address value assessments, rate credits or penalties designed to protect or promote a particular type of resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Land Use planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Assessment: the process of study to determine if land use or prospective changes will affect existing physical and natural environs of a locale. Part of this process specifically includes the examination of archeological and historic resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Impact: the location of a building or site adjacent to or nearby a historic site, landmark, conservation district, or historic district frequently warrants preservation assessment as a function of potential negative impact. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Tools: Public Policies <ul><li>Permits - These are issued for demolition, remodeling or new construction. Permits frequently flag preservation resources and issues, and immediate attention is drawn to a particular land tract where existing improvements, based on the age or location of an improvement, merit further study. </li></ul><ul><li>Zoning - Founded on the principle of directing land changes over time, zoning often works in conflict with preservation, as a resource once identified may introduce a land-use incompatible with the existing zone. Changing a land-use typically requires zoning review and public approval. During this process the issues of preservation and site resources are commonly broached. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax Assessments- Every local jurisdiction assesses property to define land values relative to taxes due. Tax assessors field-inspect properties in support of land-value definition. Those inspections often identify potential resources for file notation. Such documentation aids in the public review and identification process. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Public Process <ul><li>Community Involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood citizen groups, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>homeowners’ associations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tenant organizations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>historical societies, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land development professionals should be prepared in most cases to discuss the following information items: </li></ul><ul><li>Is the property of known importance to the heritage of our nation, state or local region? </li></ul><ul><li>Were there important historic events, people, etc. associated with the property? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any physiographic features that warrant further site study (cemeteries, land depressions, mounds, caves, swamps, etc.)? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the land improved with structures? Do those buildings 50 years or older have distinctive architectural styles, building materials or structural features? </li></ul>
  24. 24. ESA AND H&AP <ul><li>Focus of early assessment should have two objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to identify any unique property characteristics that may render a site unsuitable or unsafe for the intended use; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to identify potential historic and archeological resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Property Data </li></ul><ul><li>Initial Field Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Corroborative Research </li></ul><ul><li>Revisit the Deed Records and Start Documentation </li></ul>
  25. 25. Settlements
  26. 26. Settlements <ul><li>Kinds of settlements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>According to size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single Buildings to Conurbations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleated, Linear, Dispersed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial, Market town, Ports, Seaside etc </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Settlements <ul><li>Rural vs Urban </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land Area and Usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population Density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Megacities – pop>10M </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Urbanisation </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Urban Poor <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>commoditization (reliance on the cash economy); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overcrowded living conditions (slums); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental hazard (stemming from density and hazardous location of settlements, and exposure to multiple pollutants); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social fragmentation (lack of community and inter-household mechanisms for social security, relative to those in rural areas); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crime and violence; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>traffic accidents; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>natural disaster </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient Incomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate Housing and Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health Burdens </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Case Studies on Settlements <ul><li>Karachi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The existence of a controlling authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and technical support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of parks and open spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation of roads, their widths and the ultimate height of buildings and their relationship to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slovenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralisation and recentralisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reurbanisation and suburbanisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deindustrialisation and relocation of production and distribution from the centres of gravity to the periphery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The periphery, near the city borders, are being urbanised </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Singapore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Public Housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant Green Space </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Settlements in the Philippines <ul><li>Government Offices on Housing and Settlements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HUDCC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NHA – Infrastructure and Utilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NGC – Cash Flow Guaranty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NHMFC – Amortization support and Developmental Financing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HLURB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>*Pag-IBIG – Pagtutulungan sa Kinabukasan: Ikaw, Bangko, Industria at Gobyerno </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Settlements in the Philippines <ul><li>Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential Decree No. 957 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batas Pambansa 220 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic Act 7279  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the latest price ceilings?   The current price ceilings as set by the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC) as per MC No. 5 Series of 2007 Re: Redefinition of Loan Ceilings/Packages  are as follows:  Socialized housing = PHP 400,000.00 and below  (per HUDCC MC No. 1, Dec. 11, 2008) ;  Low Cost  - Level 1 = above PHP 300,000.00 to PHP 1,250, 000.00 (BP 220 standard);  - Level 2 = above PHP 1,250,000.00 to PHP 2,000,000.00 (PD 957 standard);  Medium cost = PHP 2,000,000.00 up to PHP 4,000,000.00;  Open Housing = above PHP 4,000,000.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Are the revised IRRs for PD 957 and BP 220 already in effect?   The revised IRRs which were approved per Board Resolutions No. 699 and 700, Series of 2001 took effect last 06 May 2002. Amendments approved per Board Resolution No. 725, Series of 2002 took effect on 26 July 2002.  </li></ul>
  32. 32. Settlements in the Philippines <ul><li>Under BP 220 </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum lot area   Single Detached - 72 sqm for economic housing; 64 sqm for socialized housing  </li></ul><ul><li>Duplex/Single Attached - 54 sqm for economic housing; 48 sqm for socialized housing  </li></ul><ul><li>Rowhouse - 36 sqm for economic housing; 28 sqm for socialized housing (per BR 824, s. 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum floor area  22 sqm for economic housing; 18 sqm for socialized housing </li></ul><ul><li>Under PD 957 </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum lot area   Single Detached - 120 sqm for open market; 100 sqm for medium cost </li></ul><ul><li>Duplex/Single Attached - 96 sqm for open market housing; 80 sqm for medium cost housing  </li></ul><ul><li>Rowhouse - 60 sqm for open market housing; 50 sqm for medium cost housing </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum floor area  42 sqm for open market housing; 30 sqm for medium cost housing </li></ul>
  33. 33. Environment
  34. 34. The Values and Benefits of Trees and Open Spaces <ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Space definition and articulation </li></ul><ul><li>Screening undesirable views </li></ul><ul><li>Complementing or softening architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a sense of unity among inharmonious buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Providing textural and pattern variety </li></ul><ul><li>Buffering incompatible land uses </li></ul><ul><li>Attracting wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Intercepting, filtering, or blocking unwanted solar radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Blocking undesirable wind by obstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Directing wind flow by deflection </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing wind velocities by filtration </li></ul><ul><li>Moderating temperature changes (although this is more directly a function of solar radiation interception) </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Values and Benefits of Trees and Open Spaces <ul><li>Decreasing storm water runoff directly through interception of rainfall and water uptake through the root system, as well as filtering pollutants contained in runoff from the adjacent watershed </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilization of soils </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing the glare & reflection characteristically generated by the combination of buildings &/or roadways and natural and/or artificial light </li></ul><ul><li>Acting as noise attenuators </li></ul><ul><li>Interacting with the particulate matter and gasses known to cause air pollution to significantly reduce the concentrations of these pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Adding extra oxygen to the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Recreational opportunities (gardening, ballfields,hiking trails) </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Non-polluting transportation (bike trails) </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Flood protection </li></ul>
  36. 36. The wetlands <ul><li>Wetlands are known to act as chemical sinks or transformers that can improve water quality. They act as ‘‘kidneys of the landscape’’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As natural filter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recharge/discharge aquifers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Instruments for Environmental Integration <ul><li>Policy instruments provide guiding principles for urban decision-makers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information, Voluntary, Economic, Regulatory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process instruments provide ways of doing something, steps that can be taken to reach a desired goal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visioning, Participation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning instruments offer a variety of methods by which urban development plans can be developed and implemented. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Profiles, SWOT Analysis, REFA, MSI, SEA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management instruments provide tools to direct and administer urban planning decisions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EBA, EQM </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Government Agencies on Environment <ul><li>DENR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FMB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LMB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MGB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAMRIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PAWB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EMB </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Laws <ul><li>PD1586 – EISS </li></ul><ul><li>RA6969 – Toxic and Hazardous Waste Act </li></ul><ul><li>RA8749 – Clean Air Act </li></ul><ul><li>RA9003 – ESWM Act </li></ul><ul><li>RA9275 – Clean Water Act </li></ul>