Training and development #3


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Training and development #3

  1. 1. Training and DevelopmentProfessor Jayashree Sadriand Dr. Sorab Sadri
  2. 2. Definition Training and Development are notsynonymous terms. Training is a process of learning through asequence of planned and programmedbehavior. It tries to improve present jobperformance and prepare employees forfuture or intended performance.
  3. 3. Contd.. It is therefore :- a short term process.- An activity based concept.- Skills are learned, unlearned or relearned.- The aim is to enhance individualeffectiveness on the job.- It involves practical application ofprogrammed knowledge.
  4. 4. Contd.. Development is a wider term than training, thathas job specific as well as culture specificimprovement methods. Therefore it involves:- Personality development- Essentially a thought based concept- A long run intervention- Relates individuals to the organization in terns ofgoals, skills, attitudes, behaviors and values.
  6. 6. Training Need Assessment Before undertaking trainingprogrammes, organization shouldmake a thorough assessment about theactual need of undertaking trainingprogrammes.
  7. 7. Training need analysis Training need assessment would lead to trainingneed analysis. Three types of analyses are used to ascertaintraining needs.1. Organizational Analysis.2. Job Analysis.3. Person Analysis.
  8. 8. Organizational Analysis Organizational Analysis answer thequestion WHERE the training emphasisshould be placed in organization.
  9. 9. Data for Organizational analysis1. Organizational goals2. Personnel Inventories3. Climate Index4. Job Satisfaction Index5. Efficiency Index6. Allocation of training Budget
  10. 10. Job Analysis Job Analysis tries to answer what shouldbe taught so that the job can be efficientlyperformed. KASOCs are effectivelyaddressed in the training programmes.
  11. 11. Data for Job Analysis Job Descriptions Job Specifications Performance Standards Review Literature on the job Work Sampling Analysis of operating problems
  12. 12. Person Analysis Person Analysis tries to answer who needstraining in what areas and in what depth.Altered skills, attitudes, behaviors andvalues can be focused upon in the trainingprogrammes.
  13. 13. Data for Person Analysis Performance appraisal Data Interviews Questionnaires Attitude Surveys Tests (KASOCs) Assessment Centers
  14. 14. Final stageAfter the compilation of the threeanalysis, objectives for the trainingprogrammes can be derived.
  15. 15. Training has a link to career development The organization has a vision, mission, goaland role. HRD initiatives are meant tofacilitate achieving these. An individual also has aims and hopes andcareer aspirations. HRD initiatives are alsomeant to take cognizance of these.
  16. 16. Assumptions about the organization and thepeople.1. The organizationhas objectives.2. These objectivescan be achievedonly through theemployees.3. Therefore, peoplemust know whatthey need to learn inorder to achieveorganizational goals.1. People haveaspirations.2. In order to learn anduse new abilities peopleneed appropriateopportunities, resourcesand conditions.3. Therefore, organizationsmust provide effectiveresources andconditions.
  17. 17.  Therefore, there is a need to have a matchbetween achieving organizational goals andproviding attractive learning opportunities.
  18. 18.  Hence on the one hand training needassessments help to develop the rightperson for the right job. On the otherhand, training helps employees tobecome what they wish to be.
  19. 19. Training methodology/Training Tools
  20. 20. Three main methods of impartingtraining are:1. Didactic Method2. Participative Method3. Simulation Method
  21. 21. Didactic Method Lecture Seminars Programmed Learning
  22. 22. Participative Case Studies Syndicates Sensitivity Analysis
  23. 23. Simulation Method Business Games Role Play In-Basket Exercises Fish Bowel
  24. 24. Contd.. In any effective training intervention theparticipant is exposed to all three types ofmethods although only one or two toolswithin each type may be used.
  25. 25. Contd.. Which tool is eventually used depends on :(a) Its assessed need by the trainer(b) Level of participants’ knowledge & Skill(c) Expertise of trainer and experience gained(d) Time and cost constraints
  26. 26. The Lecture Method Oldest tool Can be very powerful Both the trainer and trainee is committed Most effective when an exam is involved
  27. 27. 4 points to be kept in mind Who is your audience? What is the purpose of your talk? What is the time available? What is the subject matter?
  28. 28. 4 Necessities Good preparation and plan Clear flow of thought Good Oratory Effective backup
  29. 29. 4 Styles Podium oratory Black board Questions at the end Clarification when needed
  30. 30. 4 Pitfalls Poor communication Irrelevance of matter No logical sequence Audience is passive
  31. 31. Contd.. While giving lecture you have toremember that you are imparting a skillor knowledge NOT showing of yourown knowledge.
  32. 32. Seminars Panel – Chosen few experts discuss specifictopics. Round Table- Experts exchange views with aclear goal in mind.
  33. 33. Point to be kept in mind: Prepare agenda in clear terms and stick to it. Choose speakers based on their expertise. Ensure free flow of ideas within parameters. Keep desired end in view always. Have expert moderator to control speakers. Introduce and conclude proceedings well.Remember that high level of maturity is needed to pulloff a good seminar.
  34. 34. Participative Methods. Case Study:- Scenario to be analyzed for learning.- Linking theory to practice through example
  35. 35. Facilitator should: Monitor discussion without participating in it. Insist on participants doing their home work. Link learning gained to theoretical construct.
  36. 36. Syndicate Method (Participative) This means working in a small group to achieve aparticular purpose. It is designed to provide anenvironment to help a participant to :- Critically reflect on his own work and experience.- Update his knowledge of new skills and conceptswith the help of co-participants.- Learn to work in teams where members havedivergent skills but convergent goals.
  37. 37. Syndicate method .. Contd.. A syndicate is usually a group of 10. Is functioning as a team to complete anassignment. Each syndicate is placed under a directingstaff. Each syndicate has to submit a report that iscirculated to other syndicates. Chairman of each syndicate makes a formalpresentation of the views of his team.
  38. 38. Business Games (Simulation Method) Business games are classroom simulationexercises in which teams of individualscompete against one another or against anenvironment in order to achieve a givenobjective. These games are designed to berepresentative of real life condition. Underthese an atmosphere is created on which theparticipants play a dynamic role and enrichtheir skills through involvement.
  39. 39. Contd.. Business Games assumes that the maturity,Knowledge and experience of the participants arehigh. Advantages of Business Games are:1. It aids innovation,2. Learning is very effective,3. Helps bringing about a change.
  40. 40. In-Basket exercises (Simulation method) A simulation of a manager’s workload on a typicalday. It stresses on:1. Time Management.2. Setting Priorities.3. Delegating Duties.
  41. 41. Positive and negative aspects of In-Basketexercises:(-) Difficult to administer unless trainer hasmanagerial experience.(+) It enhances managerial skills likedelegation, initiative taking and planning.
  42. 42. Contd..(-) These exercises are individualistic and non-interactive .(+) Highly adaptive, focused and reality basedlearning.
  43. 43. Fish Bowl Exercise (Simulation Method) Another experiential method of training involving theactive participation of trainees to enhance theirlearning experience. It is essentially used in providing skills inunderstanding human behavior. It effectively uses group interaction to develop in theparticipants a degree of self awareness.
  44. 44. Contd.. It inculcates the discipline of observingothers. To learn about oneself through the eyes ofothers.- In order for the exercise to be effective thethe number of participants in the groupshould be 24.
  45. 45. TASK ROLES BUILDING ROLES SELF CENTRED ROLES•Initiator•Information/Opinion Seeker•Information/Opinion Giver•Clarifier•Coordinator•OrientorS•Supporter•Harmonizer•Tension Reliever•Encourager•Blocker•Recognition Seeker•Clown•Dominator•Aggressor
  46. 46. Generic Type Ideal TargetParticipantsTRAINING TOOL•Didactic•Participative•SimulationTraining ToolsLectureSeminarProgrammed LearningCase StudiesSyndicate GroupsSensitivity TrainingLarge AudiencesMature AudiencesSelf Motivated learnersManagersSubset at a seminaror conferenceMatured ManagersBusiness Games,RolePlay,In Basket Exercises,T.A, Fish bowl exerciseStrategists, JuniorManager, Middlelevel Mngr,Sr.Mngr,Junior-Middle level
  47. 47. Training Aids Chalk and talk Over head Projector Power Point Management Films
  48. 48. Evaluation of training programmes
  49. 49. Evaluation of Training Programmes It is well documented that whereasmost managements recognize theimportance of evaluation, few actuallydo so.
  50. 50. Evaluation involves collection ofdata on:(A) Participants satisfaction, reg:1. Programmes2. Material3. Applicability
  51. 51. Contd..(B) Functional Satisfaction:Did the department gain out of thetraining programme.© Organizational Satisfaction :Was it worthwhile.
  52. 52. Kirkpatrick Model of Evaluation Reaction Learning Behavior Organizational Results
  53. 53. Reactions Through QuestionnairesWhat the questionnaire seeks:(a) Degree of satisfaction with :- Trainer- Training Methods- Content of Training- Material supplied- Environment and comfort- Relevance(b) What aspects to include or delete.
  54. 54. What the guidance achieves: Fine tune learning Apply learning to job Create zeal to improveHR professionals should assess trainees’ reactionsseveral months after the programme to determinehow relevant trainees felt the training was to theirjobs.
  55. 55. (2) Learning This level assess the learning that has takenplace, the degree to which the trainees havemastered the concepts, knowledge andskills.
  56. 56. Contd.. Usually measured through :- Paper pencil tests- On line tests- Performance tests- Simulation Exercises
  57. 57. Contd.. Tests are used to measure:- Level of understanding- Level of Knowledge Impact- Level of ApplicabilityTrainees should be tested on their level ofunderstanding before and after training to determinethe effects of training on their knowledge.
  58. 58. (3) Behavior This is important because one goal of training is tomodify the on-the job behavior or performance oftrainees. Measurement of behavior change :1. Through performance appraisal2. Through observation3. Through peer opinion
  59. 59. Point to remember: The instrument or method used to measurePre-training and Post-training Behavior mustbe the same.
  60. 60. (4) Organizational Results The purpose of collecting organizational results isto examine the impact of training on the workgroup or entire company. To determine impact of training on :a) Individual Role Fulfillmentb) Work Group Performancec) Meeting Company Targets
  61. 61. Contd.. So HRD Managers seek pre-training and post-training data on:- Productivity - Grievance- Discipline and Diligence- Turnover - Willingness to experiment- Quality of work - Willingness to learn further- Absenteeism- Sales- Customer Satisfaction
  62. 62. Evaluation should address two questions: Whether change has taken place in thedesired criteria or not. Whether this change can be attributed to thetraining programmes or not.
  63. 63. Most commonly used designs: One-shot Post -Test-Only Designa. Evaluation as after thought.b. Any one of the four types of criteria isused.c. Change cannot be measured.Training-----------Measure
  64. 64. Contd. One Group Pre-Test Post-Test Designa) Some planning is involved.b) Can assess whether change has occurredc) Cannot attribute change to trainingMeasure----------Training----------Measure
  65. 65. Contd.. Both these methods are prevalent incompanies where H.R.D. has little influenceon Top Management. Try to avoid them aspossible.
  66. 66. More Systematic Method of Evaluation. Post Test Only Control Group Designa) Two groups are used and individuals arerandomly chosen.b) Random selection help to equalise andreduce biasc) Used when quick results are needed topilot test an intervention.
  67. 67. Contd.. Group A Training--------Measure Group B No Training------Measure-
  68. 68. Contd.. Implements, environment, tools, resources,incentives, timings, and targets for bothgroup A and group B must be the same. If successful group B must be trained later.
  69. 69. Contd.. Pre-Test Post-Test Control Group Design- Both groups chosen randomly as before.- Criteria measures are collected on both groups, andcompared. Differences noted.- Yet only one group receives training.- If after task is over, compared measures improve inthe control group then we can surely say trainingcontributed to it.- All other conditions as in © remain.
  70. 70. Contd.. Group A Measure---Training------Measure Group B Measure-No Training---Measure
  71. 71. Contdd. Multiple Time Series Design- Allows HRD to observe changes in both groups over aperiod of time (several months).- Preferred when a training intervention is novel and isused for the first time and no benchmarks are available.
  72. 72. Contd.. Group A Measure----Measure----MeasureTraining-----Measure----MeasureGroup B Measure---Measure----MeasureNo Training---Measure----Measure
  73. 73. Points to remember1. Always evaluate training so as to justify your role.2. Share findings openly so that colleagues feelinvolved.3. Seek inputs for improvement of content ,contextcommunication.4. Implement new inputs/ideas and give due credit.5. Training is not an end in itself nor is it only a funthing.6. Keep an eye on cost-benefit analysis and convert itinto monetary terms while keeping topmanagement informed.
  74. 74. Thank you