22Questions to ConsiderQuestions to Consider1.1. Is it sufficient to focus HRD efforts onIs it sufficient to focus HRD efforts onindividuals, or should we also considerindividuals, or should we also considerinterventions at the group andinterventions at the group andorganizational level?organizational level?2.2. How can we assist individuals, groups,How can we assist individuals, groups,and organizations in successfullyand organizations in successfullydealing with change?dealing with change?
33Questions to ConsiderQuestions to Consider –– 223.3. Is it really possible to “transform” anIs it really possible to “transform” anentire organization?entire organization?4.4. What might a “high performance workWhat might a “high performance worksystem” look like?system” look like?
44Organization Development (OD)Organization Development (OD)Definition:Definition:““A process used to enhance both theA process used to enhance both theeffectiveness of an organization andeffectiveness of an organization andthe well-being of its members throughthe well-being of its members throughplanned interventions.”planned interventions.”
55Organization DevelopmentOrganization DevelopmentTheoriesTheoriesTwo main categories of OD theories:Two main categories of OD theories: Change process theoryChange process theory–– How does change take place?How does change take place? Implementation theoryImplementation theory–– How can change strategies be putHow can change strategies be putinto practice?into practice?
66Organization DevelopmentOrganization DevelopmentTheoriesTheories Change process theoryChange process theory – seeks to– seeks toexplain how organizations improve andexplain how organizations improve andchange. According to Lewin andchange. According to Lewin andSchein, there are three stages:Schein, there are three stages:– UnfreezingUnfreezing– Change through cognitive restructuringChange through cognitive restructuring– RefreezingRefreezing
77Organization DevelopmentOrganization DevelopmentTheoriesTheories Implementation theoryImplementation theory – how specific– how specificintervention strategies are designedintervention strategies are designedand carried out. Four main types:and carried out. Four main types:– Human process-based theoryHuman process-based theory– Technostructural theoryTechnostructural theory– Sociotechnical systems theorySociotechnical systems theory– Organization transformation theoryOrganization transformation theory
88Caution About OrganizationCaution About OrganizationDevelopment ResearchDevelopment Research Concerns have been expressed about muchConcerns have been expressed about muchof the OD research that has been conducted:of the OD research that has been conducted:– Lack of experimental designsLack of experimental designs– Lack of resources availableLack of resources available– Limitations in field research designs usedLimitations in field research designs used– Potential bias by researchersPotential bias by researchers– Lack of motivation to conduct strongLack of motivation to conduct strongresearchresearch
99Model of Planned ChangeModel of Planned ChangeBy Permission: Porres & Silvers (1991)
1212Model of Planned ChangeModel of Planned Change – 4– 4Porras & Silvers ModelPorras & Silvers Model::4.4. Organizational outcomes:Organizational outcomes:– Improved organizational performanceImproved organizational performance– Enhanced individual developmentEnhanced individual development Question: What is the value of thisQuestion: What is the value of thismodel?model?
1313Designing an InterventionDesigning an InterventionStrategyStrategySpecific RolesSpecific Roles:: Change ManagerChange Manager– Oversees the design of the strategy; bearsOversees the design of the strategy; bearsultimate responsibilityultimate responsibility Change AgentChange Agent– Assists the change manager; facilitates theAssists the change manager; facilitates theactivities involvedactivities involved Internal Change Agent (often an HRD professional)Internal Change Agent (often an HRD professional) External Change Agent (consultant)External Change Agent (consultant) IndividualsIndividuals Labor UnionsLabor Unions
1414Designing an InterventionDesigning an InterventionStrategyStrategy –– 22Systems ApproachSystems Approach:: Diagnose the EnvironmentDiagnose the Environment– e.g., force field analysise.g., force field analysis Develop an Action PlanDevelop an Action Plan– objectives, activities, “details”objectives, activities, “details” Evaluate the Results of the InterventionEvaluate the Results of the Intervention
1515Force Field AnalysisForce Field AnalysisBy Permission: Center for Effective Performance (1997)
1616Types of Interventions:Types of Interventions:Human Process-BasedHuman Process-Based Survey FeedbackSurvey Feedback– The systematic collection of survey dataThe systematic collection of survey data– Fed back to groups to promote problemFed back to groups to promote problemsolving and changesolving and change Team BuildingTeam Building– A process to improve a group’s problem-A process to improve a group’s problem-solving abilitiessolving abilities– Example: process consultationExample: process consultation
1717Types of Interventions:Types of Interventions:TechnostructuralTechnostructural Job EnlargementJob Enlargement– Adding variety through similar tasksAdding variety through similar tasks Job EnrichmentJob Enrichment– Increasing responsibility, knowledge ofIncreasing responsibility, knowledge ofresults, and meaningfulness of workresults, and meaningfulness of work Alternative Work SchedulesAlternative Work Schedules– Compressed workweekCompressed workweek– Flextime work scheduleFlextime work schedule
1818Types of Interventions:Types of Interventions:Sociotechnical SystemsSociotechnical Systems Quality CirclesQuality Circles– Involving employees in work decisionsInvolving employees in work decisions Total Quality Management (TQM)Total Quality Management (TQM)– Continuous improvement effortsContinuous improvement efforts Self-Managing Teams (SMTs)Self-Managing Teams (SMTs)– Team members have authority to makeTeam members have authority to makedecisions and regulate the team’sdecisions and regulate the team’sactivitiesactivities
1919Types of Interventions:Types of Interventions:Sociotechnical SystemsSociotechnical Systems – 2– 2 Total Quality Management (TQM)Total Quality Management (TQM)– Five basic components:Five basic components: Total commitment from senior managementTotal commitment from senior management Quality standards and measures in placeQuality standards and measures in place Training in quality for all employeesTraining in quality for all employees(including Statistical Process Control)(including Statistical Process Control) Programs/ways to reward, recognize, andPrograms/ways to reward, recognize, andcelebrate quality achievementscelebrate quality achievements Strong quality communication effortsStrong quality communication efforts
2020Types of Interventions:Types of Interventions:Sociotechnical SystemsSociotechnical Systems – 3– 3 Self-Managing TeamsSelf-Managing Teams– Basic components:Basic components: Interdependence among team membersInterdependence among team members Individual members have discretion/authorityIndividual members have discretion/authorityto make important work decisionsto make important work decisions Individual members possess a variety ofIndividual members possess a variety ofskills, so that they can perform multiple tasksskills, so that they can perform multiple tasks The team receives regular performanceThe team receives regular performancefeedbackfeedback
2121Types of Interventions:Types of Interventions:Organizational TransformationOrganizational Transformation Cultural InterventionsCultural Interventions– Efforts to change the values, norms, or ways ofEfforts to change the values, norms, or ways ofthinking in an organizationthinking in an organization Strategic ChangesStrategic Changes– Fundamental changes in the purpose or missionFundamental changes in the purpose or missionof an organizationof an organization Becoming a Learning OrganizationBecoming a Learning Organization– Beyond TQM, to continuous learning andBeyond TQM, to continuous learning andimprovement for all employeesimprovement for all employees High Performance Work SystemsHigh Performance Work Systems
2222Types of Interventions:Types of Interventions:Organizational TransformationOrganizational Transformation – 2– 2 Becoming a Learning OrganizationBecoming a Learning Organization– Dimensions that support learning:Dimensions that support learning: Organization Structure – more collaborativeOrganization Structure – more collaborativeand team-basedand team-based Information Acquisition, Sharing, andInformation Acquisition, Sharing, andRetention – effective knowledge andRetention – effective knowledge andinformation sharinginformation sharing HRM Practices – all reinforce learningHRM Practices – all reinforce learning Organizational Culture – promotes learningOrganizational Culture – promotes learning Leadership – supportive (at all levels)Leadership – supportive (at all levels)
2323Types of Interventions:Types of Interventions:Organizational TransformationOrganizational Transformation – 3– 3 High Performance Work SystemsHigh Performance Work Systems– Eight core principles:Eight core principles:1.1. AlignmentAlignment to organizational strategyto organizational strategy2.2. Clear goals and outcomes (all levels, all aligned)Clear goals and outcomes (all levels, all aligned)3.3. Work is organized around processesWork is organized around processes4.4. Process-oriented tracking and management of resultsProcess-oriented tracking and management of results5.5. Work units are linked to identified processesWork units are linked to identified processes6.6. Accountability, cycle time, and responsivenessAccountability, cycle time, and responsivenessemphasizedemphasized7.7. Collaboration, trust, and mutual support are presentCollaboration, trust, and mutual support are present8.8. Emphasis on strategic change managementEmphasis on strategic change management
2424High Performance WorkHigh Performance WorkSystems FrameworkSystems FrameworkBy Permission: Van Buren & Werner (1996)
2525Some Concluding Thoughts onSome Concluding Thoughts onOrganization DevelopmentOrganization Development1.1. Effectiveness: There is evidence forEffectiveness: There is evidence forthe effectiveness of particular ODthe effectiveness of particular ODinterventions. However, there isinterventions. However, there ismuch room for improvement (in themuch room for improvement (in theresearch designs used, and theresearch designs used, and theresults obtained).results obtained).2.2. Recent efforts have stressed “changeRecent efforts have stressed “changemanagement.”management.”
2626Some Concluding Thoughts onSome Concluding Thoughts onOrganization DevelopmentOrganization Development –– 223.3. Many HRD applications can be viewedMany HRD applications can be viewedas OD interventions:as OD interventions:– Human Process-BasedHuman Process-Based: career: careerdevelopment, coaching, orientationdevelopment, coaching, orientation– TechnostructuralTechnostructural: skills/technical training: skills/technical training– SociotechnicalSociotechnical: team and quality training: team and quality training– Organization transformationOrganization transformation: EAPs,: EAPs,management developmentmanagement development
2727SummarySummary Organization development can be difficult!Organization development can be difficult!– Reluctance/resistance to changeReluctance/resistance to change Success is most likely with:Success is most likely with:– An appropriate model of changeAn appropriate model of change– The appropriate methods/interventionsThe appropriate methods/interventions– A systems approach (e.g., high performance workA systems approach (e.g., high performance worksystems, HRD process model)systems, HRD process model) Need a dual focus on organizational performanceNeed a dual focus on organizational performanceandand employee well-beingemployee well-being