WORLD HISTORY SECTION IINote: This exam uses the chronological designations B.C.E. (before the common era)and C.E. (common era). These labels correspond to B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (annoDomini), which are used in some world history textbooks. Part A (Suggested writing time—40 minutes) Percent of Section II score—33 1/3 Directions:The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-9. (The documentshave been edited for the purpose of this exercise.) Write your answer on the linedpages of the Section II free-response booklet.This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historicaldocuments.Write an essay that:• Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents.• Uses all of the documents.• Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible. Does not simply summarize the documents individually.• Takes into account the sources of the documents and analyzes the authors’ points of view.• Identifies and explains the need for at least one additional type of document.You may refer to relevant historical information not mentioned in the documents.1. Using the documents, analyze Japanese attitude toward education between the 19th and 20th century.
Document #1Source: Bentley, Jerry H., and Herbert F. Ziegler. Traditions and encounters: A globalPerspective on the Past. 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006. Print. “Economic initiatives matched efforts at political reconstruction. Convincedthat powerful economy was the foundation of national strength, the Meiji governmentcreated a modern transportation, communications, and educational infrastructure,The establishment of telegraph, railroad, and steamship, lines tied local and andregional markets into a national economic network. the government also removedbarriers to commerce and trade by abolishing guild restrictions and internal tariffs.Aiming to improve literacy rates--40 percent of males and 15 for females in thenineteenth century--the government introduced a system of universal primary andsecondary education. Universities provided advanced instruction for the beststudents, especially in scientific and technical fields, This infrastructure supportedrapid industrialization and economic enterprises were privately owned, thegovernment controlled military industries and established pilot programs to stimulateindustrial development. During the 1880’s the government sold most of itsenterprises to private investors who had close ties to government officials. the resultswas a concentration of enormous economic power in the hands of a small group ofpeople, collectively known as zaibatsu, or financial cliques. By the early twentieth
Document #2"Japan." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition.Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Web. 9 Dec. 2010.<http://www.school.eb.com/eb/article-23295> “Japans modern education system has been a key element in the countrysemergence as a highly industrialized country. The social and economic benefits ofeducation long have been recognized in Japan, and education has been seen as theall-important means to achieve personal advancement. Thus, attending the “right”schools tends to become the critical factor in determining an individuals ultimate socialstatus and earning power. From the elementary to the university level, students arescreened and selected for advancement, and students from a young age workextremely hard to qualify for the best possible schools. Merit-based admission has ledto strict ranking among the schools and severely intensified competition, which has Document #3Adams, Francis O. "Francis Ottiwell Adams: The Schools of Japan." The Worlds Story: AHistory of the World in Story, Song and Art Volume 1 (1914): 443-446. NetTrekker. Web. 9Dec. 2010. <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/ottwell-japanschools.html>. “In general the disciplinary rules of the schools were strictly observed. Each scholarmust wear the hakama, or trousers formerly distinguishing the samurai. If late, he could notenter the school for that day. When once in, he was not allowed to leave till school was out.The rewards at the end of the year were pieces of silk, inkstones, brush-pens, paper, silvercoin; and the highest, at the Chinese college in Yedo, was a robe on which the crest of theshogun was embroidered, with the privilege of always wearing the garment in public. Themost common punishments were conﬁnement to the room or house, whipping on the front ofthe leg or on the back, walking up and down for several hours with one of the small writing-tables on the head, having the moxa burned on the foreﬁnger, etc. Of the teachers, some taughtonly the sound of the characters, others the meaning of the separate characters, others wereexpounders or exegetes. Writing, arithmetic, and each athletic exercise were taught by specialinstructors. Few of the teachers made teaching their permanent work, and of the scholars,probably not more than a third completed the full course of studies. It was absolutelynecessary, however, that a samurai should have been at least through the Small School.Without this rudimentary education he could not become a householder.”
Document #4 "History of education in Japan." Wikipedia. N.p., 24 Oct. 2010. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_education_in_Japan>. “After 1868 new leadership set Japan on a rapid course of modernization. The Meiji leaders established a public education system to help Japan catch up with the West and form a modern nation. Missions like the Iwakura mission were sent abroad to study the education systems of leading Western countries. They returned with the ideas of decentralization, local school boards, and teacher autonomy. Such ideas and ambitious initial plans, however, proved very difficult to carry out. After some trial and error, a new national education system emerged. As an indication of its success, elementary school enrollments climbed from about 40 or 50 percent of the school- Document #5Ember, Melvin, and Carol R. Ember. Counters and their Cultures. 2nd ed. Print.Half of high school graduates receive advanced education, there are 165 public and460 private universities and 4 year colleges and almost 600 2 year colleges. A collegedegree is a prerequisite for most middle-class occupations, and many companiesformally restrict their recruiting to graduates of specific universities. Document #6Nakane, Chie. Japanese Society. Print.Education plays an important role in contributing to the very high systemization ofvarious institutions in modern Japan. Employment with a foreign firm in Japan isregarded somehow as out of the system. In spite of the very high salary, very few well-qualified men are ready to take a job in these firms. A common educational backgroundcomes next to institution or place of work in degree of function and is more effective
Document #7Peak, Lois. Learning To Go To School In Japan. Los Angeles, CA: Print.5 Goals for getting into Preschool Education:1. To cultivate the foundation of a sound body and mind through training the basic attitudes and habits necessary for healthy, safe, and happy life.2. To develop affection for and confidence in other people and to cultivate the attitudes of independence, cooperation, and the seed of moral character.3. To develop interest in and appreciation of nature and the phenomena around one, fine and wholesome sentiments toward them, and the understanding of them.4. To develop interest in and appreciation of the words used in everyday life and to cultivate and attitude of pleasures in speaking and listening and a sense of the meaning of words. Document #8Wikipedia. "Education in Japan." Wikipedia. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Japan>.5. In Japan, education is compulsory at the elementary and lower secondary levels. Virtually all students progress to the upper secondary level, which is voluntary.The latter law deﬁned the school system that is still in effect today: six years of elementary school, three years of junior high school, three years of high school, two or four years of university. After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the methods and structures of Western learning were adopted as a means to make Japan a strong, modern nation. Students and even high-ranking government ofﬁcials were sent abroad to study.