Cultural Food Presentation:
Nadine Brown-Winter: 0978213
Caitlin Gepp: 8798222
Sophie Gunn: 8580324
• Location: surrounded by Syria, Israel and the
• Population: Approximately 4 million (July
2012) with 87% living in urban regions.
• Official language is Arabic
• 2 main religions: Muslim-60%, Christian-39%
• 17 Religious sects recognised within the
Muslim and Christian denominations
• Lebanon was under Arab power from the 8th Century
until the end of World War I
• The French took control from this time until Lebanon
gained independence in 1943
• Both introduced different cultures and beliefs to
• ‘Eating in Lebanon is tied to family’ and ‘people
almost never eat alone’ (Arwiche 2013)
• This is common amongst both the Muslim and
Christian populations of Lebanon
Lebanon and Australia
• 74 thousand Lebanese-born residents in
• 350 thousand claim Lebanese ancestry
• Three main waves of Lebanese migration
between 1880 and 1975
• The Lebanese population within Australia are
most concentrated within the states of NSW
Influences on the Lebanese
• Small Mediterranean Country of only 10,452km²
• Rugged terrain with very few rivers means only
30% of land mass can support crop production.
• Typical Mediterranean climate: mild to cool, wet
winters & hot, dry summers.
• Not uncommon for Lebanese families to grow
their own fruit, vegetables and herbs.
• Location of Lebanon has meant that its diet has
been influenced by many surrounding countries
and cultures over time.
Influences on the Lebanese
Diet: Culture & Religion
• Eating together as a family is very important in Lebanese culture
• Religion has a major impact on how food is prepared as well as
what food can/can’t be eaten and when.
• It is vital to acknowledge these religious influences which include:
Recognising appropriate food and beverages
Serving a selection of meat and vegetarian foods on separate trays
Providing a variety of non-alcoholic beverages
If religion is Islamic then foods need to be Halal
Islamic tradition does not allow for consumption of alcohol
During Ramadam, Muslims do not eat or drink from break of dawn to sunset
During Lent, Christians eat meatless dishes
Checking individual requirements as some Muslim persons follow a vegetarian diet
• Antiochian Orthodox religion provides a fasting calendar which
details food items that are to be abstained from and when.
Food Laws in Lebanon
• With 60% of religious people in Lebanon being Muslim,
Halal food laws and regulations are very important in the
• The laws of Halal are revealed in the Quran from God to
Muhammad for all the people.
• Halal foods are those that are free from any component
that Muslims are prohibited from consuming.
• These laws are intended to advance wellness
• Halal means permissible and lawful. It applies not only to
meat and poultry, but also to other food products,
cosmetics, and personal care products
(Riaz, Chaundry. 2004).
Food Laws in Lebanon
• The following food products are not
considered to be Halal and therefore
are Haram (unlawful) and
unacceptable for Muslims to
Carrion or dead animals
Flowing or congealed blood
Swine, including all by-products
Animals slaughtered without
pronouncing the name of God on them
Animals killed in a manner that
prevents their blood from being fully
drained from their body
Animals slaughtered while pronouncing
a name other than God
Intoxicants of all types, including
alcohol and drugs
Carnivorous animals with fangs, such as
lions, dogs, wolves, or tigers
Birds with sharp claws (birds of prey),
such as falcons, eagles, owls, or vultures
Land animals such as frogs or snakes
• The rules of Halal food not only
applies for Muslims living in Lebanon
but is also relevant to Lebanese
people who are part of the Islamic
religion living in Australia or
anywhere else in the world.
• The tradition of coming
together as a family during
meal times in the Lebanese
culture is extremely
important whether the
families are part of Christian
or Islamic religion.
• This tradition remains
strong in the Lebanese
culture today in contrast to
the Australian culture
where family meals are
becoming less common.
• Lebanon is a county of diverse geography and religion. It is
essentially urbanized and its cuisine is Mediterranean.
• Lebanese- born Australians and their descendants have
added their own healthy, unique flavours and ingredients to
Australian cuisine whilst maintaining their individual tastes
from the homeland.
• The Lebanese attitude to food is one of “family and
• Religious rituals are followed by Muslims and Christians in
relation to meal times and types.
• Australian climate and infrastructure ensures that the
majority of Lebanese food staples are available in Australia
or able to be sourced via specialty food stores.
• Al Winn. (2004, ). Come here for cuisine, traditions: LEBANON edition. The Patriot - News, pp. B.01.
• Bee Macguire. (1994, ). International CUISINE ON YOUR DOORSTEP; A taste of lebanon, india and indonesia: FINAL edition. The
Gazette, pp. D.1.BRE.
• Consulate-General of Lebanon in Melbourne (2013). Lebanese in Australia: Facts and Figures. Retrieved from
• Countries and Their Cultures (2013)Retrieved from http://www.everyculture.com/Ja-Ma/Lebanon.html#b
• Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australian Government (2013). Lebanon Country Brief. Retrieved from
• Department of Immigration and Citizenship, Australian Government (2013). The Lebanon-born Community. Retrieved from
• Farah Naja, Lara Nasreddine, Leila Itani, Marie Claire Chamieh, Nada Adra, Abla Mehio Sibai, & Nahla Hwalla. (2011). Dietary
patterns and their association with obesity and sociodemographic factors in a national sample of lebanese adults. Public Health
Nutrition, 14(9), 1570. doi:10.1017/S136898001100070X
• Helou, A. (1996, ). A healthy taste of lebanon: Anissa helou enthuses about the cuisine of her home country: London edition.
Financial Times, pp. 15.
• Hwalla, N., & Tannous Dit El Khoury D. (2008) Wild-Type Food in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention: The Columbus
Concept, Chapter 34: Lebanese Traditional Diets and Health Effects. Retrieved from
• Iraqi cuisine makes its mark in lebanon's restaurants. (2011, ). Al - Shorfa
• Juergensmeyer, M., & Clarke Root, W. (2007). Encyclopaedia of Global Religion. Doi: 10.4135/9781412997898
• Riaz, M.N., & Chaundry, M.M.(2004). Halal Food & Production. Retrieved from
• The Good Shepard: Australian Orthodox Mission (2013). Fasting Calendar. Retrieved from
• The World Factbook (2013)Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/
• Western Australian Government (2013). Culture and Religion Information Sheet: Lebanon. Retrieved from