You may wonder why we are on earth? Why we need to take the course of sociology? Sociology is one of the several disciplines in social science. Social science address social world. In addition to sociology, there are other fields in social science like anthropology, psychology, and some others. As a scientific discipline, sociology seeks to explain why sth happens, and then predict what will happen based on knowledge gathered
Social Interactions are everyday events in which people involved take one another into account by consciously and unconsciously attaching meaning to the situation, interpreting what others are saying, and then responding accordingly.
identifiable |ʌɪdentɪˈfaɪəb(ə) adjective : able to be recognized; distinguishable: there are no easily identifiable features on the shoreline .
Rear (v.) to bring up and care Manifestation (n.) event Sociability (n.) quality of being sociable
political system – law, economic, cultural and others that shows the views of people who have authority and religion that they believe and practice and influence of government on its people and economy
Organic: relating to or derived from living matter.
For example, the biological functioning of a human body where each part plays a role in the total system and all are dependent on each other for survival.
legitimize |lɪˈdʒɪtɪmʌɪz|(also legitimise ) verb [ with obj. ] make legitimate: voters legitimize the government through the election of public officials . docile |ˈdəʊsʌɪl| (adj.) ready to accept control or instruction; submissive
deficiency |dɪˈfɪʃ(ə)nsi| Noun = a lack or shortage perpetuate |pəˈpɛtʃʊeɪt, -tjʊ-| verb [ with obj. ] make (something) continue indefinitely
commodity |kəˈmɒdɪti| noun ( pl. commodities ) a raw material or primary agricultural product that can be bought and sold, such as copper or coffee. Cultural Capital only provides more benefit to those who are in upper classes.
Sopha_Topic 1_Sociology of Education
Topic 1:Sociology of educationPresented by Mr. SoeungSophaEducational SociologyTopic
Content1- Sociology as a Discipline2- Primary Social Institutions3- Sociology of Education4- Theoretical Approaches5- Summary of the Topic 13
Objectives of Topic 1By the end of this topic, you will be able to:Discuss the basic concepts in sociology;Identify the social institution; andDefine the concept and theories of sociology ofeducation4
1- Sociology As A Discipline When? Who invented this term? Connected fields? How it is defined Works of Sociologists Why “Sociology”?5
A- When and Who? In 1780 by a French essayist – EmmanuelJoseph Sieyes in an unpublished manuscript. Auguste Comte (French thinker) known as “Father of Sociology” in 19 centaury.6
B- Connected Fields Sociology ties with other disciplines that alsodiscuss the study of society: Anthropology, Economics, Political sciences, andPsychology. Why are these connected? Prescribes suitable remedies for social ills; and Responding to the academic challenges of modernityand urbanization ( based on Auguste Comte’sargument)7
Connected field (con.)8Auguste Comte stated that a society’sacquisition of knowledge passes through 3basic stages:
D- How It is Defined Is a systematic study of social life created bypeople and in turn influencing their behavior in acontinuous interaction. (Meighan & Siraj-Blatchford) Is not a question of truth, but of social aspects(Schaefer) Is the study of human behavior as they are affectedby social interactions within groups, organizations,societies and the planet (Ferrante)9
Definition (con.)10 Is the study of human social behavior, especiallythe study of origins, organizations, institutions,and development of human society. Analysis of asocial institution or societal segment as a self-contained entity or in relation to society as awhole. (American Heritage Dictionary of EnglishLanguage) Is the study of development, organization,functioning, and classification of human societies.(Collins Essential English Dictionary)
E- Works of Sociologists11 To study social interaction, whether they occuron a local, national, or global scale (Ferrante,2005). To study social facts which are ideas, feelingsand ways of behaving “that possess theremarkable property of existing outside theconsciousness of the individual (Durkheim, 1895).
Discussion13 Work with your friends to explore theimportance of sociology to future teachers,list and briefly explain why it is useful for youto study and understand the field of sociology
2- Primary Social Institutions14 Social Institutions? Basic areas Basic performances
Social Institutions (SI.)15 Social Institution V.S Social Group? (Ferrante, 2008) Group is only composed of a specific identifiablepeople. Institution is a standardized way of doingsomething and is a relatively stable and predicablearrangement among people that have emerged overtime to coordinate human interaction and behaviors inways that meet some human needs (food, shelter,clothing or medical attention) SI. is a set of organized beliefs and rules that
Basic Areas16Sports &MilitaryScience &MedicineMassmediaideologies and standardized patternof behaviors that organizes familylifesocial construction where itspatterns act back to define our worldKnowledge acquired by learning andinstructiondeal with the production,distribution and consumption ofgoods and services and theirmanagementthe activities or affairs engaged in bya government, politicians, or politicalparty
2-a. Family17 What does “Family” mean? Family is a universal social institution. It isclaimed as a social group that lives together,sharing resources, works as a unit and rearschildren (Murdock, 1949). Family is also known as a Domestic Societyand it is the original and primary manifestationof human sociability.
Family (con.) Family is a small group that serves basicfunction for the larger society (Talcott Parsons,1951). Family is the cornerstone of society(Murdock,1949): Nuclear family Extended family18
2-b. Education19 Education? Abroad Sense: Edu. refers to any act or experience that hasformative effects on the mind, character, orphysical ability of individual (George F. Kneller,1941) Edu. is the influence exercised by adultgenerations on those that are not yet ready for
Education (con.) Technical Sense: Edu. is the process by which society, through schools,colleges, universities, and other institutions, deliberatelytransmits its cultural heritage – its accumulatedknowledge, values and skills – from one generation toanother (George F. Kneller, 1941) limit our thought to the context of teachers instructingstudents. Understand a particular subject to impart knowledge20
Education (Con.) Edu. refers to all experiences in which studentscan learn something: Instruction (intentional facilitating of learning towardsidentified goals, delivered either by an instructor or otherforms) Teaching (the actions of a real live instructor designed toimpact learning to the students) Training (learning with a view toward preparing learners withspecific knowledge, skills, or abilities that can be appliedimmediately upon completion)21
223 Mainstreams ofGlobal EducationTo be a means of overcoming handicaps, achieving greater equality &acquiring wealth and status for all by developing every individual to their
2.c. Religion23 Religion? Is an institution that provides answers toquestions of ultimate concern like (Schaefer,1995): Why is there so much suffering in the world? What will happen to me when I die? Is a unified set of beliefs and practices relative toscared things
2-d. Economic and PoliticalInstitutions24 Economic institution is defined as theorganizing, production and distribution ofgoods and service for basic needs of human. Political Institution demonstrates types ofpolitical system a country adhere to andbelieve in.
Basic Performances26 Replacing member Teaching/socialize new members Producing, distributing, and consuming goodsand services Preserving order Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose
Discussion27 Why do we have so many forms of socialinstitutions? How do these forms of social institutiondevelop and when do the forms of theseinstitutions change?
3. Sociology of Education28 Definition Areas concerned
a fundamentally optimistic human endeavorcharacterized by aspirations for progress andbetterment. Is a means to overcoming handicaps,achieving greater equality, and acquiringwealth and status. Is a place where children can develop andgrow based on their unique needs and29
What will we exactly study in the areaof sociology? We will study on How public institutions andindividual experiences affect education and itsoutcomes30 Sociology of Education began with EmileDurkheim’s work on Moral Education as abasic for Organic Solidarity.
What is the idea of education? To impart knowledge to students, BUT To equip students with habits and attitudes whichthey can successfully face the future. Our social and technical skills are acquired viadeliberate institution called Education (Worsley,1998)31
3.1 Definition of Education32 Durkheim (1895) convinced education as thesocialization of the younger generation, whichis a continuous effort to impose on the childways of seeing, feeling and acting which hecould not have arrived at spontaneously. Formal education is designed to inculcatecrucial skills and values central to the survivalof society or to those who hold effective
Definitions SE. Is the study on How public institutions andindividual experiences affect education and itsoutcomes (Corwin, 1965) SE focuses much on public schooling system(Marshall, 1998) SC. is philosophical and sociological concept, thatdenotes ideologies, curricula, and pedagogicaltechniques of inculcation and management ofknowledge as well as the social reproduction of33
3.2 Main Areas of Concern (Ballantine,2001)34 Are children of parents who are involved in theirschooling more successful in school? How effective are different teaching techniques,styles of learning, and classroom organizationin teaching students of various types andabilities? What are some community influences of theschool, and how these affect decision marking
How does professionalization of teachers affect theschool system? Do teacher proficiency exams increase teachingquality? How do issues such as equal opportunity andintegration affect schools? Can minority students learn better in anintegrated school? How does education affect income potential?35Ballantine, 2001 (Con.)
4.1.1 Functionalism or StructuralFunctionalism38 Assumes that institutions within a society aremade up interdependent parts all workingtogether, each contributing some necessaryactivities to the functioning of the wholesociety (Ballantine, 2001) Emily Durkheim (1895-1917) centered muchon the relationship between society and itsinstitutions which he strongly believed are all
What Durkheim are concerned: With parts of community and with solidarityand cohesion as it moves from the traditionalto modern society (of Ballantine, 2001). The needs of different segments in society inrelation to education, discipline in school, andthe role of schools in preparing young peoplefor society.39
Durkheim Pointed: The importance of education in creating moralvalues as the function of the society that helpsto instil values in children.40
4.1.2 Conflict Theory Sadonilk (2001) claims that society is heldtogether by the ability of dominant groups tokeep others subordinate, thus inequality islegitimized. Argues that schools train those in workingclasses to accept their position as a lower-class member of society. Besides that,education is assumed as a powerful means of41
Compare with Functionalists Agree with functionalist that social institutionswere organized to meet basic social needs However, do not agree that social institutionswork for the common good of everyone in thesociety.42
4.1.3 Interpretivistic and InteractionTheory Interpretivist: understanding one’s behavior isto discover how they interpret their actions. Sociologists: how people experience the worldand explore for the reasons why they behave acertain way. Interactionist: limit their analysis to whathappening in classroom. More, the result ofability grouping of students and school as43
4.2.1 Code Theory To connect macro understanding of class relationsto micro understanding of educational process inschool. Low-class students: forms of communication“Restrict code”. Middle and High-class students: “Elaborated code” School tends to have different teaching and curricula)45
4.2.2 Cultural Capital & SymbolicViolence School appears to serveeveryone, but actually itbenefits those of higherSES. High-SES students are scommodity that can betraded in high status inschool and later in46
4.2.3 Critical Education Theory Localization by connecting theory and practiceto response to authoritarianism andtotalitarianism. All socio-political discourse is related to power. Encourages teachers and students to exploreconflicts to realize greater understanding. Sees classroom as a site for political action,and teachers are agents of change.47
Critical Edu turns to CriticalPedagogy Schools must provide s democratic education. Ethics is a part of education process. Classroom must be made for competing viewsand challenges. Critical pedagogy creates new knowledge +previously silenced voices where educationshould enrich students with new form ofknowledge that reflects our pluralistic society.48
Discussion How do you use of standardized testscontribute to the problems of inequality in ourschool today? What are the major problems confrontingschools in your country today? What do youthink you should do about these problem?49
5. Summary What are the basic concepts of education? What is Social Institution? How many theories have you learnt so far? Which one do you think it works best?50