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Nickel and Titanium alloys


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here u can see the alloys of Nickel and Titanium

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Nickel and Titanium alloys

  2. 2. NICKEL
  3. 3. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>SILVERY WHITE METAL </li></ul><ul><li>HARD AND DUCTILE </li></ul><ul><li>MAGNETIC UPTO 355 DEGREE CELSIUS </li></ul><ul><li>FCC WITH LATTICE PARAMETER OF 0.352 NM AND ATOMIC RADIUS OF 0.124 NM </li></ul><ul><li>MELTING PT. = 1728K </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT OF FUSION = 17.48 KJ/MOLE </li></ul>
  4. 4. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY = 90.9 W/M/K </li></ul><ul><li>YOUNG'S MODULUS = 200 GPa </li></ul><ul><li>SHEAR MODULUS = 76 GPa </li></ul><ul><li>BULK MODULUS = 180 GPa </li></ul><ul><li>POISSON'S RATIO = 0.31 </li></ul>
  5. 5. OCCURENCE <ul><li>LATERITE ORES : (Fe, Ni)O(OH) </li></ul><ul><li>GARNIERITE ORES : (a hydrous nickel silicate): (Ni, Mg) 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 </li></ul><ul><li>PENTLANDITE ORES : Ni, Fe)9S8 </li></ul><ul><li>ABOUT 40% FROM RUSSIA AND 30% FROM CANADA </li></ul>
  6. 6. EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION <ul><li>Commercial extraction is from sulphide ores. </li></ul><ul><li>Nickel is recovered through extractive metallurgy . </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration is done by froth floatation </li></ul><ul><li>Next stage is roasting and reduction of the sulphide ore which yields 75% pure nickel </li></ul><ul><li>Refining is done by “Monds Process” </li></ul><ul><li>Nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide at around 50 °C to form volatile nickel carbonyl . Any impurities remain solid while the nickel carbonyl gas passes into a large chamber at high temperatures in which tens of thousands of nickel spheres, called pellets, are constantly stirred. The nickel carbonyl decomposes, depositing pure nickel onto the nickel spheres. Alternatively, the nickel carbonyl may be decomposed in a smaller chamber at 230 °C to create fine nickel powder. The resultant carbon monoxide is re-circulated through the process. The highly pure nickel produced by this process is known as carbonyl nickel. </li></ul>
  7. 7. APPLICATIONS <ul><li>Household : Magnets, Coins, Rechargeable cells, Electric guitar strings </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial : Alloys, Wires, electric gadgets. </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory: Catalyst for hydrogenation </li></ul><ul><li>Biology : Present in enzymes </li></ul>
  9. 9. ALNICO <ul><li>“ ALNICO” = Al + Ni+ Co + Cu(traces) + Ti (traces) + Fe </li></ul><ul><li>It is ferromagnetic and used in permanent magnets </li></ul><ul><li>8–12% Al, 15–26% Ni, 5–24% Co6% Cu, up to 1% Ti and balance is Fe. </li></ul>
  10. 10. GERMAN SILVER <ul><li>Cu + Ni + Zn </li></ul><ul><li>60% copper, 20% nickel and 20% zinc. </li></ul><ul><li>Applications : </li></ul><ul><li>silver plated cutlery </li></ul><ul><li>zippers & jewellery </li></ul><ul><li>musical instruments </li></ul><ul><li>pipe fittings </li></ul>
  11. 11. INCONEL <ul><li>Family of austenitic nickel - chromium based superalloys </li></ul><ul><li>PROPERTIES: </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation & corrosion resistent </li></ul><ul><li>High heat resistence </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to machine </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATIONS : </li></ul><ul><li>Gas turbine combustors and blades. </li></ul><ul><li>Shafts </li></ul><ul><li>Rocket skins. </li></ul>
  12. 12. MONEL METAL <ul><li>COMPOSITION : nickel (up to 67%) and copper , with some iron and other trace elements </li></ul><ul><li>PROPERTIES : </li></ul><ul><li>difficult to machine </li></ul><ul><li>highly corrosion resistent </li></ul><ul><li>highly sonorous </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>submerged pumpsets </li></ul><ul><li>musical instruments </li></ul><ul><li>oilfield industry </li></ul><ul><li>earth moving drills </li></ul><ul><li>lab apparatus </li></ul>
  13. 13. NICHROME <ul><li>80% nickel and 20% chromium </li></ul><ul><li>PROPERTIES: </li></ul><ul><li>high melting point </li></ul><ul><li>high electrical resistivity </li></ul><ul><li>good stability from deforming </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>resistance heating coils </li></ul><ul><li>rocket igniters </li></ul><ul><li>jewellery casting supports </li></ul><ul><li>ceramic manufacturing industry </li></ul>
  14. 14. HASTELLOY <ul><li>COMPOSITION : </li></ul><ul><li>Nickel + molybdenum + chromium </li></ul><ul><li>PROPERTIES : </li></ul><ul><li>High wear resistence </li></ul><ul><li>high corrosion resistance </li></ul><ul><li>high stress service </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES : A,B,C,D & its variants </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATIONS : </li></ul><ul><li>Bearings, pressure vessel linings, chemical reactor pipes.... </li></ul>
  15. 15. MU-METAL <ul><li>75% nickel , 15% iron , plus copper and molybdenum </li></ul><ul><li>PROPERTIES : </li></ul><ul><li>very high magnetic permeability </li></ul><ul><li>low hysteresis loss. </li></ul><ul><li>more ductile and workable. </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION: </li></ul><ul><li>Electric power </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Cathode-ray tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic phonograph cartridges </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic resonance imaging </li></ul><ul><li>The magnetometers used in magnetoencephalography and magnetocardiography </li></ul><ul><li>Photomultiplier </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuum chambers </li></ul><ul><li>Superconducting </li></ul>
  16. 16. TITANIUM
  17. 17. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>Low density </li></ul><ul><li>high strength and ductility </li></ul><ul><li>lustrous </li></ul><ul><li>corrosion resistant and high melting point </li></ul><ul><li>low thermal & electrical conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>Paramagnetic </li></ul>
  18. 18. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>Young's modulus = 116 Gpa </li></ul><ul><li>Shear modulus 44 Gpa </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk modulus 110 Gpa </li></ul><ul><li>Poisson ratio 0.32 </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal conductivity = 21.9 W/m/K </li></ul>
  19. 19. OCCURENCE <ul><li>Titanium is always bonded to other elements in nature </li></ul><ul><li>It is present in most igneous rocks and in sediments derived from them </li></ul><ul><li>living things and natural bodies of water </li></ul><ul><li>Titanium is contained in meteorites </li></ul><ul><li>found in coal ash </li></ul><ul><li>Major ores : anatase,brookite,ilmenite,rutile,titanite,perovs-kite and a few iron ores. </li></ul>
  20. 20. EXTRACTION AND PRODUCTION <ul><li>4 MAJOR STEPS : - </li></ul><ul><li>reduction of titanium ore into &quot;sponge&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>melting of sponge, or sponge plus a master alloy to form an ingot </li></ul><ul><li>primary fabrication, where an ingot is converted into general mill products such as billet, bar, plate, sheet, strip, and tube </li></ul><ul><li>secondary fabrication of finished shapes from mill products </li></ul><ul><li>KROLL'S PROCESS ( COMMERCIAL PROCESS) : - </li></ul><ul><li>2 FeTiO 3 + 7 Cl 2 + 6 C -> 2 TiCl 4 + 2 FeCl 3 + 6 CSSO (900 °C) </li></ul><ul><li>TiCl 4 + 2 Mg -> 2 MgCl 2 + Ti (1100 °C) </li></ul>
  21. 21. APPLICATIONS <ul><li>ALLOYING </li></ul><ul><li>PAINTS,PAPER,TOOTHPASTE,PLASTICS </li></ul><ul><li>CORROSION RESISTANT TOOLS </li></ul><ul><li>SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>AIRCRAFT PARTS AND GEARS </li></ul><ul><li>MARINE VEHICLE PARTS </li></ul><ul><li>PLUMBING EQUIPENTS </li></ul><ul><li>TiCl 4 IS USED TO PRODUCE MANY CATALYSTS. </li></ul><ul><li>SPORTS GOODS </li></ul><ul><li>DEGIGNER JEWELLERY </li></ul><ul><li>ORTHOPAEDIC IMPLANTS </li></ul>
  22. 22. TITANIUM ALLOYS <ul><li>The crystal structure of titanium at ambient temperature and pressure is close-packed hexagonal α phase . At about 890°C, the titanium undergoes an allotropic transformation to a body-centred cubic β phase which remains stable to the melting temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Some alloying elements raise the alpha-to-beta transition temperature (i.e. alpha stabilizers) while others lower the transition temperature (i.e. beta stabilizers). </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminium, gallium, germanium, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen are alpha stabilizers. </li></ul><ul><li>Molybdenum, vanadium, tantalum, niobium, manganese, iron,chromium, cobalt, nickel ,copper and silicon are beta stabilizers. </li></ul>
  23. 23. CATEGORIES <ul><li>Alpha alloys which contain neutral alloying elements (such as tin ) and/ or alpha stabilisers (such as aluminium or oxygen ) only. These are not heat treatable. </li></ul><ul><li>Near-alpha alloys contain small amount of ductile beta-phase. Besides alpha-phase stabilisers, near-alpha alloys are alloyed with 1-2% of beta phase stabilizers such as molybdenum , silicon or vanadium. </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha & Beta Alloys , which are metastable and generally include some combination of both alpha and beta stabilisers, and which can be heat treated. </li></ul><ul><li>Beta Alloys , which are metastable and which contain sufficient beta stabilisers (such as molybdenum, silicon and vanadium to allow them to maintain the beta phase when quenched, and which can also be solution treated and aged to improve strength. </li></ul>
  24. 24. GENERAL PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM ALLOYS <ul><li>It is stronger than steel, but 45% lighter </li></ul><ul><li>It is not easily corroded </li></ul><ul><li>resistance to high temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>low thermal conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>low electrical conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>heat has no or negligible effect on dimension but it hardens on heating </li></ul><ul><li>higher resistance towards metal fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>no harm to biological tissues </li></ul>
  26. 26. Aerospace Applications <ul><li>turbines </li></ul><ul><li>shafts </li></ul><ul><li>sheet metal work </li></ul>
  27. 27. Industrial Applications <ul><li>Increased life of articles. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability of machine parts </li></ul><ul><li>Pipings </li></ul>
  28. 28. AUTOMOTIVE <ul><li>Engine parts such as connecting rods, wrist pins, valves, valve retainers and springs, rocker arms and camshafts, to name a few, lend themselves to fabrication from titanium, because it is durable, strong, lightweight and resists heat and corrosion. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Computer Industry <ul><li>Modern Hard disks </li></ul><ul><li>Modern pendrives </li></ul>
  30. 30. Human Implants <ul><li>Surgical instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Implants to repair facture of bones... </li></ul>