Fabrication of AGV

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Automation in material handling system

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Fabrication of AGV

  1. 1. MINI PROJECT REPORT<br />FABRICATION OF AN AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLEPresented by:ARVIND.S.ASOORAJ.V.RANKITHA SHARMA ALKA MOHAN PHILIPVISHNU MURALI MENON<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <br />Automated industrial guided vehicle is a robot<br />It<br /> delivers the materials from the supply area to the technician automatically. <br />Is faster and more efficient. <br />Can be accessed wirelessly, a proximity detector has been added which causes the robot to stop as long as there is an obstacle in its way, thus avoiding accidents.<br />
  3. 3. Model Overview<br />Automation in material handling system is the major attractions of the project .<br />Electrical and electronics systems are embedded in this unit to achieve automation.<br />This type is used mainly in mass production system to increase the rate of production and reduce labour cost.<br />
  4. 4. SYSTEMS<br /><ul><li>MECHANICAL
  5. 5. Chassis & Steering
  6. 6. ELECTRICAL
  7. 7. Motor Power
  8. 8. ELECTRONICS
  9. 9. Control Unit
  10. 10. COMPUTER PROGRAM
  11. 11. Path Planning</li></li></ul><li>BLOCK DIAGRAM<br />CENTRAL COMPUTER<br />PROGRAM INSTRUCTION<br />SIGNAL<br />RADIO TRANSMITTER<br />BRIDGE<br />MICRO CONTROLLER<br />MOTOR DRIVER<br />MOTOR<br />RECEIVER<br />
  12. 12. COMPUTER PROGRAM<br /><ul><li>Language Used: Python
  13. 13. Works under any OS
  14. 14. Open source</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>BRIDGE
  15. 15. Converts USB Protocol to UART Protocol
  16. 16. UART Protocol is standard for Microcontroller
  17. 17. TRANSMITTER:
  18. 18. Electronic device that transmit a electronic signal wirelessly
  19. 19. RECIEVER
  20. 20. Electronic device that receives a wireless signal</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>MICROCONTROLLER:</li></ul>Atmega 16 microcontroller is used.<br /><ul><li>Medium cost
  21. 21. High speed grades 0 - 16 MHz
  22. 22. High-performance
  23. 23. operating voltage 4.5V to 5.5V
  24. 24. UART(Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter)
  25. 25. Crystal oscillation speed:16 Mhz</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Technical speciphication</li></ul>Transmission frequency: 433Mhz (Free License)<br />Transmission speed:1200 baud<br />Maximum transmission range:3 m indoors 10m outdoors.<br />Maximum voltage:5 V<br />
  26. 26. ATmega16 Pin-out diagram.<br />
  27. 27. <ul><li>MOTOR DRIVER:
  28. 28. Controls motor using Logical signal from the microcontroller
  29. 29. Controls motor speed using Pulse width modulation
  30. 30. Electronically commands the motor to go forward, reverse, brake, and coast.</li></li></ul><li>Technical specification of l293D<br />Maximum logic voltage:5.5v<br />Minimum logical:4.5v<br />Maximum supply voltage:36v<br />Maximum supplied current: 600mA/channel<br />No of channel:2<br />
  31. 31. <ul><li>MOTOR:
  32. 32. Actuator that converts electrical signal to rotational motion
  33. 33. Contrary to usual belief it is an open loop control, A new technology of Back Emf interference is used to approximate a closed loop</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Motor specification</li></ul>Speed:200 rpm<br />Rated voltage:12v<br />No load current:60 mA<br />Full load current:500 mA<br />Stall current:580 mA<br />Back emf interference: range of 300 to 500 uA<br />Torque:2 kg cm<br />
  34. 34. Movement mechanism<br />The robot consider to be in origin<br />It can move through the lines with the box enclosed by the lines assumed to be machines.<br />By using geometry path can be calculated by the central computer which is sent wirelessly to the AGV.<br />
  35. 35. CHASIS DESIGN<br /><ul><li>Incorporate design for optimal use in a factory environment.
  36. 36. Support for both differential steering and Ackermann mechanism.
  37. 37. Model supports a static load of 12.6 kg of load and 6.3 kg of dynamic load and approximately 1.26 kg of impact load.
  38. 38. Material used Al alloy powder coated designed in catia with help of a friend.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Technical specification of chassis</li></ul>breadth:105mm<br />Length:194mm<br />Hight:42mm<br />Wheel diameter:70mm<br />Wheel thickness:20mm<br />Wheel base:142mm<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
  42. 42. The microcontroller receives the path from the computer after the following considerations<br />The path is not currently in use by other AGV<br />The path does not cross the lines being used by other AGV.<br />The path is under maintenance <br />
  43. 43.
  44. 44. <ul><li>Formulas used for straight line motion</li></ul>For straight line motion between π’™πŸ,π’šπŸΒ and π’™πŸ,π’šπŸ<br />π‘š1=π‘₯2βˆ’π‘₯1𝑦2βˆ’π‘¦1<br />For straight line between π’™πŸ,π’šπŸ and π’™πŸ‘,π’šπŸ‘<br />π‘š2=π‘₯3βˆ’π‘₯2𝑦3βˆ’π‘¦2<br />Formula for taking a turn<br />tanΓΈ = (π‘š2βˆ’π‘š11+π‘š1π‘š2) π‘š2>π‘š1<br /> ΓΈ = π‘‘π‘Žπ‘›βˆ’1(π‘š2βˆ’π‘š11+π‘š1π‘š2)<br />Β <br />
  45. 45.
  46. 46. Formula for calculating distance<br />𝑋2βˆ’π‘‹12+π‘Œ2βˆ’π‘Œ12<br />Β <br />
  47. 47. Different Paths to go to destination<br />
  48. 48. r r r r r r r u u u u<br />Instead of having 6 rights at 4 ups, imagine we start with 10 rights (r rrrrrrrr r).<br />Clearly this won't do: we need to change 4 of those rights into ups. How many ways can we pick 4 rights to change?<br />10!/6!4!=210<br />
  49. 49. STEERING MECHANISM<br />SPINNING STEERING<br />Small radius turning<br />Large radius turning<br />
  50. 50. <ul><li>Project Cost</li></ul>Microprocessor Board: 1100Rs<br />Motor: 350Rs<br />Microprocessor: 210Rs<br />Chassis Outsource: 400<br />Transmitter-Reciever Pair: 500Rs<br />Motor Driver: 50Rs<br />Tyres: 70Rs<br />Bridge: 900Rs<br />Battery: Lead-Acid: 450Rs, LiPo: 900Rs<br />
  51. 51. CONCLUSION<br />The AGV is an productivity increasing feature in a factory that has the following advantages<br />1. Speed of delivery<br />2. Flexibility of path<br />3. Adaptive to changes in factory layouts<br />4. Central control<br />5. Reduction in labour cost<br />6. Reduction in running cost compared to conveyer systems<br />7. Ability to add sensors to detect the payload conditions<br />
  52. 52. DISADVANTAGES<br />1. Should be recharged periodically<br />2. Will stop delivery when the AGV is forced off the path.<br />3. High Initial cost<br />
  53. 53. THANK YOU<br />

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