Trade unions


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Trade unions

  1. 1. Trade unions Theoretical Foundations and Legal FrameworkSooraj R,
  2. 2. Introduction Trade unions are voluntary organizations of workers formed to promote and protect their interests through collective action.Sooraj R,
  3. 3. Theories of trade unionmovement Karl Marx: Class Conflict and Communist Manifesto Sydney and Beatrice Webb – The Socialist Pattern of Society Robert Hoxie – Unions under the American Capitalist system Mahatma Gandhi – The Concept of TrusteeshipSooraj R,
  4. 4. Trade unions of India Trade union movement emerged between the 1850s and 1870s. All India Trade Union Congress was the first national federation of trade unions.Sooraj R,
  5. 5. Trade unions and economicdevelopment Key role of trade union is to act as a countervailing power to ensure that considerations of enterprise and efficiency are balanced by equity. It also prevent exploitation and ensure that economic development is not an end in itself, but a means to human development and progress.Sooraj R,
  6. 6. Legal framework ILO Convention No 87: Freedom of Association Indian Constitution and the Freedom of Association Trade Unions Act, 1926 – Salient FeaturesSooraj R,
  7. 7. Definition of trade and „Trade union‟ According to 2(h) if Trade Unions Act, 1926 defines a trade union as “any combination , whether temporary or permanent, former primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workmen and employers or between workmen and workmen, or between employers and employers, or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business and includes any federation or two or more trade unions” Distinction between Registration and Recognition Privileges of Recognized, Representative UnionsSooraj R,
  8. 8. Trade Union Recognition Closed shop/Union shop Membership Verification Check-off Secret Ballot Code of DisciplineSooraj R,
  9. 9. Union Recognition Agreement These agreement stipulates dos and don‟ts for both management and union Specify the benefits that management would provide to the unions The facilities are accorded to unions subject to the latter agreeing to fulfill certain obligationsSooraj R,
  10. 10. The Problem of the Free RiderEmployees may participate in 4 types of election 1. To elect office-bearer for unions 2. To elect a representative union for collective bargaining purpose, 3. To elect workers representatives for works committees, departmental councils, etc 4. To take decisions on whether to go on strike, etcSooraj R,
  11. 11. Non union firms The law in India does not make it mandatory for management  To have unions  To recognize them (except in some states), or  To engage in collective bargainingSooraj R,
  12. 12. Trade Union StructureSooraj R,
  13. 13. Introduction Evolution of different models of national trade union movements - how they are linked to the evolution of capital. Emergence of the international trade union movement - during the middle of the 12th century special characteristics of unionism - among managers and women - issues relation to multiplicity of unions Brief analysis of the future trendsSooraj R,
  14. 14. Models of National Trade UnionMovements Occupational Unions Industrial Unions General Unions Territorial Unions Enterprise Unions State – sponsored UnionsSooraj R,
  15. 15. Challenges Facing trade Unions Decline in membership Decline in state support or state neutrality Deregulation, decentralization and consequent reduction in the job, income, and social security, creating anxiety among workers about the effectiveness and utility of unions(s) Repudiation of their rights by employers, consumers and other actors, institutions in civil society. Changing aspirations and needs of new generation workforce Reduced capacity to mobilize workers for conflict Sooraj R, Imperative need to cooperate with managements
  16. 16. International trade union federations International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) International Federation of Christian Unions (IFCU) Regional Trade Union Organizations at International Level International Trade Union Organizations in Specific Industries Occupations Global Union Federations (GUFs) – Objective of GUF  Promotion of worldwide solidarity  Securing and enforcing human and trade union rights  Establishing a just economic and social order Trade Union Internationals (TUIs)Sooraj R,
  17. 17. Trade Union Structure at the NationalLevel Structuring of a trade union is composed of  Several layers of geographical and sectoral levels  Staff in various departments depending on the type of activities  Rules and regulation concerning decision-making to carry on activities, and mechanisms for rewarded, review and refinement  Committees with specific tasks.Sooraj R,
  18. 18. A union formal structure influencedby the following factors Size Spread Role and function/activities Responsibility and accountabilitySooraj R,
  19. 19. A trade union structure has 3dimensions Formal organization The people The Human resource systemSooraj R,
  20. 20. Managerial Trade Unions Managerial response to Managers Unions Relations between Workers and Managers UnionsSooraj R,
  21. 21. National Trade Union Centers Regional Political Parties and their Trade Union Wings Industrial/Sectoral Federations Enterprise-level UnionSooraj R,
  22. 22. Women in Trade Unions Unionization Among Women Workers Organizing Women Workers in the Unorganized Sector Why Women Do Not Join Unions Women‟s Representation and Gender issued in Collective BargainingSooraj R,
  23. 23. Role on International Trade UnionMovementICFTU Charter of Rights of Working Women as follows  Equal rights and opportunities at work  Maternity protection for all working women  Sharing of work in the family  A place for women at all levels of trade union hierarchy  Actions in all spheres to respond to women‟s needsSooraj R,
  24. 24. Monitoring Gender Equality in TradeUnionsTrade unions should discuss the following issues in their meetings at the local, regional, national and international levels:  Sexual division of labor  Percentage of women in the total workforce  Percentage of leadership positions helf by women in the union  Membership in tripartite and bipartite for a at the national, regional and local levels  Training programmes conducted at the international, national, regional and local levels  Paid positions in trade union secretariats at the international, national, regional and local levelsSooraj R,
  25. 25. Trade Union Unity and Trade UnionMergers It gives an opportunity to represent their collective interests. It is based on the belief: “United we stand, divided we fall”Sooraj R,
  26. 26. Future Directions Cyber Unionism Towards E-UnionsSooraj R,
  27. 27. Management of Trade Unions of IndiaSooraj R,
  28. 28. Introduction Theoretical and legal foundations of trade unions as well as their structure at various levels Constitution and functions of trade unions and the internal and external challenges they face. Issues for leadership and organization, including internal democracy in there functioning of the union.Sooraj R,
  29. 29. Trade Union Constitution Every registered trade union in India is supposed to have a constitution of its own endorsed by its members.Sooraj R,
  30. 30. Essential elements of a union‟sconstitution Preamble Name Declaration of principles Membership Rights and obligation of members General assembly conference: election at al levels Duties and responsibilities of officials Executive committee Standing committee Meeting rules Finance Collection of dues Auditing AllowancesSooraj R,
  31. 31. Trade Union Functions Objectives Economic and Job Regulation  Decrease in labor intensity through avoidance of wasteful practices  Increase in workload through multiskilling  Increase in wages of skilled workers but decrease in unit wage/labor costs  Growing informalization of jobs  Increase in dualism in the labor market  Shift in control over jobs to management Non-Bargaining Roles and Social ActivitiesSooraj R,
  32. 32. Internal Challenges Low Membership Density Declining Union Membership Representativity Poor FinancesSooraj R,
  33. 33. Major Sources and Uses ofFundsSources Monthly membership subscriptions Donations from members at the time of wage revision, etc Interest on savings Contributions for political fundsUses Activities/services to members Wages and salaries of staff Travel Printing, postage, stationery, etc Legal expenditure on court fee, lawyers fee, etc Meetings, conference, campaigns, etc.Sooraj R,
  34. 34. Financial Strength of TradeUnionsCritical indicators of the factors that determine the financial strength of a trade union: Composition of revenue Relative size of expenses and/or revenues Amount of surplus or deficit over a period or time Number of activities carried out by a union‟s own fundsSooraj R,
  35. 35. External challenges Global competition Rapid changes in Technology Shifting attitudes of Government Managerial Strategies and HRM Policies Assertion of their Rights by the Community and ConsumersSooraj R,
  36. 36. Leadership and organizational issues Leadership Changing workforce Demographics Internal democracy Declining Union Power and InfluenceSooraj R,
  37. 37. Strategies for strengthening Unionsand Unionism Organize, organize, and organize. Membership drive is most critical Expand membership base Unity within the trade union movementSooraj R,
  38. 38. NINE PRINCIPLES OF TRADE UNION UNITY1. Unreserved acceptance of, and respect for democratic functioning of trade unions.2. Regular and democratic elections of the executive bodies and office bearers3. Proper representation of all trades in the leading organs of the common organization.4. Right of every worker and trade unionist to belong to any political party of his own choice.5. Freedom from interference in the internal affairs of the organization by the Government, employers, and political parties.6. All vital decisions affecting the workers interests including important collective agreements with the employers to be endorsed by the general body of the workers.7. All decisions on political issues to be conditional on 75% majority.8. In the normal course, strike action to be taken only as a last resort and after properly ascertaining with the wishes of the workers.9. Rival unions in the same factory, industry, or undertaking be wound Sooraj R, up either by