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Feb. 2009.
Hye-Jung Lee, Ph.D.
Center for Teaching & Learning
Seoul National University, Korea
Higher Education in Korea

1
South Korea at a Glance
 Area: 99.6 K Sq. Km (107th)
 Population: 48 Million (27th)
 Economy and ICT (World rank)
- OECD member economy in 1996
- Economy (11th)
- Broadband diffusion (2nd)
- Home PC diffusion (3rd)
- Internet use 78%
- Average hours of internet use
13.7 hr/week

Higher Education in Korea

2
I. Overview

I

Overview

Higher Education in Korea

3
Education in General


Socio-cultural context
- Homogeneity of Korean society: prevalence of the egalitarian ideal
- Confusion tradition: meritocracy, “education fever”



Formal Education
- Primary(6) - Middle(3) - High School(3) – Universities/Colleges(4)
- Primary & Secondary: 10,948 schools, 7.8M students, 389K teachers
- Universities/Colleges: 376 institutions, 3.5M students, 60K+ FT teachers



Non-formal Education & Training
- Public/private job training institutions; private tutoring institutions,
adult education centers; in-plant training institutions, etc.

Higher Education in Korea

4
Budget
 One year budget (2008) : 35.9 trillion Korean won
: 5.06% of the GNP
: 19.6% of total Government budget



the Biggest portion
: Elementary & Secondary Education 86.2%
: Higher Education 12.3%

5
Statistics
Public educational expenditures (% GDP)

Higher Education in Korea

6
School System

7
Types of Higher Education Institutions
 University
 Industrial University
 University of Education
 Junior College
 Open University
 Technical College
 Cyber College & University
 College in the Company
 Miscellaneous Schools
 Others

 Enrollment rate 70.5% (2008)

Higher Education in Korea

8
Types of Higher Education Institutions
 Junior College(2 or 3 yr)
 817,994 students in 152 Junior colleges (2006)
 13 national/public, 139 private

 University(4 yr)
 43 national/public, 178 private
 6 year program : medicine, oriental medicine, dentistry
 2,434,112 students in 221 colleges and universities (2006)
 Others(4 yr)
 1 Broadcast & Correspondence University
(300,000 enrollments each year)
 18 Cyber Colleges & Universities
(28,000 newly entrance each year)
Higher Education in Korea

9
Types of Higher Education Institutions
 Cyber Colleges & Universities

Higher Education in Korea

10
Statistics
Schools, Students, and Teachers

Higher Education in Korea

11
Statistics
Percentage of Female Students by Year

40 %
35 %
30 %
25 %

Higher Education in Korea

12
Statistics
Enrollment Rate
Elite

Mass

Universal

70 %
50 %
30 %
10 %

Higher Education in Korea

13
Statistics
International Comparison: Tertiary attainment for age group 25-34

Higher Education in Korea

14
Statistics
International Comparison: Tertiary attainment for age group 55-64

Higher Education in Korea

15
Statistics
Advancement Rate: High School  Higher Education (Total)

90 %
70 %
50 %
30 %

Higher Education in Korea

16
Statistics
Advancement Rate: High School  Higher Education

General High School  Higher Education
Vocational High School  Higher Education
Higher Education in Korea

17
Statistics
Number of Students in Higher Education Institutions by Field of Study (2008)

Higher Education in Korea

18
Statistics
Employment Rate of the Graduates of Higher Education Institutions by Year

Higher Education in Korea

19
Statistics
Changes in Admission Rate by Year

Higher Education in Korea

20
Statistics
Degrees Awarded by Year

Higher Education in Korea

21
Statistics
University Graduates by Field of Study (%)
Education Humanities
Social
& Art
Sciences,
Business,
Law

Services

Engineering, Manufacturing

Agriculture

Health &
Welfare

Physical
sciences

Korea

5.2

21.4

22.3

2.9

27.4

2.6

7.1

3.5

U.S.A.

13.2

14.4

41.4

3.5

6.3

2.3

9.6

1.4

Germany

8.0

14.7

27.4

1.8

17.6

1.9

15.2

5.0

Hungary

20.0

8.7

38.7

8.4

9.1

3.7

8.5

0.7

Poland

11.5

6.5

40.0

3.6

7.3

1.7

1.9

1.2

* Source : Education at a Glance (OECD Indicators, 2002)

Higher Education in Korea

22
Statistics
Students Studying Abroad by Year

Higher Education in Korea

23
Statistics
The Rank of Korea’s Major Universities in International Evaluation (The Times)

Higher Education in Korea

24
I. Overview

II

Issues and Challenges

Higher Education in Korea

25
Trajectory of Educational Expansion
Step-by-step attainment of universal education:



primary → secondary → higher education
* Trow, “Forms and Phases of Higher Education”: Elite(<15%) → Mass(15-50) → Universal(>55%)
110

Elite

Mass

Universal

90
70
50
30
10
-10

1970

1975
Primary

1980

1990

1995

2000

Lower Secondary
Higher Education in Korea

2003

Upper Secondary

2005

2006
Tertiary
26
Mobilization of Private Resources
< Private School Enrollment Share(2006) >
(Unit: %)

Primary Schools

98.8

1.2

Middle Schools

18.7

High Schools

81.3

51.9

48.1

Universities/
Colleges

74.6
0%

20%

40%

Private
Higher Education in Korea

25.4
60%

80%

100%

National/Public
27
Shrinking School Pop. Amidst Ageing

Low
Fertility

Ageing

Total fertility rate
No. of birth

Proportion, over 65 and 75
No. of the elderly

Higher Education in Korea

28
College Admission Dominates K-12 Education
 College-Entrance-Driven System
- Extreme competition at high schools to enter top 4~5
universities
obstructing the well-rounded growth of students
→ Inordinate expansion of private education aggravating equity
imbalance between different SES groups
(private education costs: 1.9% of GDP in 2002)
→ Large volumes of study abroad leading to educational trade deficit

Higher Education in Korea

29
Increasing “Education Exodus”
Korean Students Studying Abroad
’97
Countries

’99

’01

’03

’04

’05

69

71

72

73

83

86

# Students 133,249 120,170 149,933 159,903 187,683 192,254
* Foreign student share in the U.S.(2006): Korea 93,728/ India 76,708/ China 60,850

Trade Deficit in Education
’01

’02

’03

’04

’05*

Exports

10.8

16.9

14.8

15.9

10.2

Imports

1,070.0

1,426.6

1,854.7

2,493.8

3,371.4

(Unit : million US$)
Higher Education in Korea

30
Excess supply in graduate students

Unemployment rate (engineering) : 9.8%(’97)  16.6%(’03)
139 of 200 4-year universities offer doctoral degree

Korea
US

44%

4% 13%

53%

Associate

39%
19%

Bachelor

Master

Higher Education in Korea

20%

8%

Doctorate

31
HE is not pertinent enough
Extent of dissatisfaction: CEO’s view on HE
75%
Creativity

87%
Practice&field exp

68%
Field experience
of
faculty

Federation of Korean Industries,
2002.

72%
Curriculum

70%
instructions

Mismatch between jobs and majors

(%)

Badly
Mismatched
Jr.College
University

Mismatched

Matched

Well Matched

33.3
25.4

15.8
15.0

26.7
27.9

24.1
31.6

Source: Office of Statistics, 2003
Higher Education in Korea

32
Stakeholders are disconnected
Limited university-industry partnership



Low mobility between academia and business
University portion of industry's R&D investment:
2.4%(’00) → 1.7% (’03) (MOST, ‘04)

Low commercialization of university-based IPRs


Patent share (90~’01) : universities 0.5%, companies 78.8%,
research institutes 2.9%, individuals 17.8%

Un-coordinated financial support to universities


Duplication of funding for the same purpose by several line
ministries

Higher Education in Korea

33
HE is not prepared for an aging population

<Source : National Statistical
Office>
Higher Education in Korea

34

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Korea's Higher Education System and Future Challenges

  • 1. Feb. 2009. Hye-Jung Lee, Ph.D. Center for Teaching & Learning Seoul National University, Korea Higher Education in Korea 1
  • 2. South Korea at a Glance  Area: 99.6 K Sq. Km (107th)  Population: 48 Million (27th)  Economy and ICT (World rank) - OECD member economy in 1996 - Economy (11th) - Broadband diffusion (2nd) - Home PC diffusion (3rd) - Internet use 78% - Average hours of internet use 13.7 hr/week Higher Education in Korea 2
  • 4. Education in General  Socio-cultural context - Homogeneity of Korean society: prevalence of the egalitarian ideal - Confusion tradition: meritocracy, “education fever”  Formal Education - Primary(6) - Middle(3) - High School(3) – Universities/Colleges(4) - Primary & Secondary: 10,948 schools, 7.8M students, 389K teachers - Universities/Colleges: 376 institutions, 3.5M students, 60K+ FT teachers  Non-formal Education & Training - Public/private job training institutions; private tutoring institutions, adult education centers; in-plant training institutions, etc. Higher Education in Korea 4
  • 5. Budget  One year budget (2008) : 35.9 trillion Korean won : 5.06% of the GNP : 19.6% of total Government budget  the Biggest portion : Elementary & Secondary Education 86.2% : Higher Education 12.3% 5
  • 6. Statistics Public educational expenditures (% GDP) Higher Education in Korea 6
  • 8. Types of Higher Education Institutions  University  Industrial University  University of Education  Junior College  Open University  Technical College  Cyber College & University  College in the Company  Miscellaneous Schools  Others  Enrollment rate 70.5% (2008) Higher Education in Korea 8
  • 9. Types of Higher Education Institutions  Junior College(2 or 3 yr)  817,994 students in 152 Junior colleges (2006)  13 national/public, 139 private  University(4 yr)  43 national/public, 178 private  6 year program : medicine, oriental medicine, dentistry  2,434,112 students in 221 colleges and universities (2006)  Others(4 yr)  1 Broadcast & Correspondence University (300,000 enrollments each year)  18 Cyber Colleges & Universities (28,000 newly entrance each year) Higher Education in Korea 9
  • 10. Types of Higher Education Institutions  Cyber Colleges & Universities Higher Education in Korea 10
  • 11. Statistics Schools, Students, and Teachers Higher Education in Korea 11
  • 12. Statistics Percentage of Female Students by Year 40 % 35 % 30 % 25 % Higher Education in Korea 12
  • 13. Statistics Enrollment Rate Elite Mass Universal 70 % 50 % 30 % 10 % Higher Education in Korea 13
  • 14. Statistics International Comparison: Tertiary attainment for age group 25-34 Higher Education in Korea 14
  • 15. Statistics International Comparison: Tertiary attainment for age group 55-64 Higher Education in Korea 15
  • 16. Statistics Advancement Rate: High School  Higher Education (Total) 90 % 70 % 50 % 30 % Higher Education in Korea 16
  • 17. Statistics Advancement Rate: High School  Higher Education General High School  Higher Education Vocational High School  Higher Education Higher Education in Korea 17
  • 18. Statistics Number of Students in Higher Education Institutions by Field of Study (2008) Higher Education in Korea 18
  • 19. Statistics Employment Rate of the Graduates of Higher Education Institutions by Year Higher Education in Korea 19
  • 20. Statistics Changes in Admission Rate by Year Higher Education in Korea 20
  • 21. Statistics Degrees Awarded by Year Higher Education in Korea 21
  • 22. Statistics University Graduates by Field of Study (%) Education Humanities Social & Art Sciences, Business, Law Services Engineering, Manufacturing Agriculture Health & Welfare Physical sciences Korea 5.2 21.4 22.3 2.9 27.4 2.6 7.1 3.5 U.S.A. 13.2 14.4 41.4 3.5 6.3 2.3 9.6 1.4 Germany 8.0 14.7 27.4 1.8 17.6 1.9 15.2 5.0 Hungary 20.0 8.7 38.7 8.4 9.1 3.7 8.5 0.7 Poland 11.5 6.5 40.0 3.6 7.3 1.7 1.9 1.2 * Source : Education at a Glance (OECD Indicators, 2002) Higher Education in Korea 22
  • 23. Statistics Students Studying Abroad by Year Higher Education in Korea 23
  • 24. Statistics The Rank of Korea’s Major Universities in International Evaluation (The Times) Higher Education in Korea 24
  • 25. I. Overview II Issues and Challenges Higher Education in Korea 25
  • 26. Trajectory of Educational Expansion Step-by-step attainment of universal education:  primary → secondary → higher education * Trow, “Forms and Phases of Higher Education”: Elite(<15%) → Mass(15-50) → Universal(>55%) 110 Elite Mass Universal 90 70 50 30 10 -10 1970 1975 Primary 1980 1990 1995 2000 Lower Secondary Higher Education in Korea 2003 Upper Secondary 2005 2006 Tertiary 26
  • 27. Mobilization of Private Resources < Private School Enrollment Share(2006) > (Unit: %) Primary Schools 98.8 1.2 Middle Schools 18.7 High Schools 81.3 51.9 48.1 Universities/ Colleges 74.6 0% 20% 40% Private Higher Education in Korea 25.4 60% 80% 100% National/Public 27
  • 28. Shrinking School Pop. Amidst Ageing Low Fertility Ageing Total fertility rate No. of birth Proportion, over 65 and 75 No. of the elderly Higher Education in Korea 28
  • 29. College Admission Dominates K-12 Education  College-Entrance-Driven System - Extreme competition at high schools to enter top 4~5 universities obstructing the well-rounded growth of students → Inordinate expansion of private education aggravating equity imbalance between different SES groups (private education costs: 1.9% of GDP in 2002) → Large volumes of study abroad leading to educational trade deficit Higher Education in Korea 29
  • 30. Increasing “Education Exodus” Korean Students Studying Abroad ’97 Countries ’99 ’01 ’03 ’04 ’05 69 71 72 73 83 86 # Students 133,249 120,170 149,933 159,903 187,683 192,254 * Foreign student share in the U.S.(2006): Korea 93,728/ India 76,708/ China 60,850 Trade Deficit in Education ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05* Exports 10.8 16.9 14.8 15.9 10.2 Imports 1,070.0 1,426.6 1,854.7 2,493.8 3,371.4 (Unit : million US$) Higher Education in Korea 30
  • 31. Excess supply in graduate students Unemployment rate (engineering) : 9.8%(’97)  16.6%(’03) 139 of 200 4-year universities offer doctoral degree Korea US 44% 4% 13% 53% Associate 39% 19% Bachelor Master Higher Education in Korea 20% 8% Doctorate 31
  • 32. HE is not pertinent enough Extent of dissatisfaction: CEO’s view on HE 75% Creativity 87% Practice&field exp 68% Field experience of faculty Federation of Korean Industries, 2002. 72% Curriculum 70% instructions Mismatch between jobs and majors (%) Badly Mismatched Jr.College University Mismatched Matched Well Matched 33.3 25.4 15.8 15.0 26.7 27.9 24.1 31.6 Source: Office of Statistics, 2003 Higher Education in Korea 32
  • 33. Stakeholders are disconnected Limited university-industry partnership   Low mobility between academia and business University portion of industry's R&D investment: 2.4%(’00) → 1.7% (’03) (MOST, ‘04) Low commercialization of university-based IPRs  Patent share (90~’01) : universities 0.5%, companies 78.8%, research institutes 2.9%, individuals 17.8% Un-coordinated financial support to universities  Duplication of funding for the same purpose by several line ministries Higher Education in Korea 33
  • 34. HE is not prepared for an aging population <Source : National Statistical Office> Higher Education in Korea 34

Editor's Notes

  1. {"27":"Private resources contributed to expansion of education, primarily in the higher education level. Three quarters of students go to private colleges and universities. \n","28":"Despite our accomplishments, we are facing new challenges. \n","7":"This chart shows the school system of Korea. After 12 years of primary and secondary education, students choose to advance in higher education. As of now, there are 376 HEIs, more than 60 thousand full time teachers working in HE, and 3.5 million student are enrolled.\n","2":"The Korean peninsula is about the same size as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. With the division of South and North Korea, South Korea’s territory is about a hundred square kilometers. Population of south Korea is 49 million and the GNI per capita is 20,045 US dollars. Korea became a member country of the OECD in 1996 and the size of Korean economy is 11th largest in the world. ICT is well advanced sector in Korea although natural resources are scarce. \n","19":"취업률 통계임… 참고로 우리나라의 15세-64세 평균 취업률은 최근 63%임 (2008년 통계이며, 2009년 아직 안 나왔음)\n","8":"There are various types of higher education institutions in Korea. \n","20":"Admission Rate이 100%가 안되는 이유를 간단히 설명… 대학정원을 정치 논리에 의해 너무 늘려놓아 초래된 부정적인 결과이며 이로 인해 많은 지방대학들이 재정 악화에 시달리고 있음. \n","26":"Over the past decades, Korean education experienced a rapid expansion. The government invested resources in primary and secondary education first…\n","4":"Korea is a very homogeneous society that consists of Korean people with few other ethnic backgrounds. Moreover, we tend to place an important value on egalitarianism. With Confucian tradition, Korean society runs based on meritocracy. Education fever is a very unique phenomenon in Korea. Almost every Korean is enthusiastic about education and willing to get more education as much as possible. \n","21":"Admission Rate이 100%가 안되는 이유를 간단히 설명… 대학정원을 정치 논리에 의해 너무 늘려놓아 초래된 부정적인 결과이며 이로 인해 많은 지방대학들이 재정 악화에 시달리고 있음. \n"}