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Low Soo Peng Korea Higher Education

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Low Soo Peng Korea Higher Education

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Low Soo Peng Korea Higher Education

  1. 1. Feb. 2009. Hye-Jung Lee, Ph.D. Center for Teaching & Learning Seoul National University, Korea Higher Education in Korea 1
  2. 2. South Korea at a Glance  Area: 99.6 K Sq. Km (107th)  Population: 48 Million (27th)  Economy and ICT (World rank) - OECD member economy in 1996 - Economy (11th) - Broadband diffusion (2nd) - Home PC diffusion (3rd) - Internet use 78% - Average hours of internet use 13.7 hr/week Higher Education in Korea 2
  3. 3. I. Overview I Overview Higher Education in Korea 3
  4. 4. Education in General  Socio-cultural context - Homogeneity of Korean society: prevalence of the egalitarian ideal - Confusion tradition: meritocracy, “education fever”  Formal Education - Primary(6) - Middle(3) - High School(3) – Universities/Colleges(4) - Primary & Secondary: 10,948 schools, 7.8M students, 389K teachers - Universities/Colleges: 376 institutions, 3.5M students, 60K+ FT teachers  Non-formal Education & Training - Public/private job training institutions; private tutoring institutions, adult education centers; in-plant training institutions, etc. Higher Education in Korea 4
  5. 5. Budget  One year budget (2008) : 35.9 trillion Korean won : 5.06% of the GNP : 19.6% of total Government budget  the Biggest portion : Elementary & Secondary Education 86.2% : Higher Education 12.3% 5
  6. 6. Statistics Public educational expenditures (% GDP) Higher Education in Korea 6
  7. 7. School System 7
  8. 8. Types of Higher Education Institutions  University  Industrial University  University of Education  Junior College  Open University  Technical College  Cyber College & University  College in the Company  Miscellaneous Schools  Others  Enrollment rate 70.5% (2008) Higher Education in Korea 8
  9. 9. Types of Higher Education Institutions  Junior College(2 or 3 yr)  817,994 students in 152 Junior colleges (2006)  13 national/public, 139 private  University(4 yr)  43 national/public, 178 private  6 year program : medicine, oriental medicine, dentistry  2,434,112 students in 221 colleges and universities (2006)  Others(4 yr)  1 Broadcast & Correspondence University (300,000 enrollments each year)  18 Cyber Colleges & Universities (28,000 newly entrance each year) Higher Education in Korea 9
  10. 10. Types of Higher Education Institutions  Cyber Colleges & Universities Higher Education in Korea 10
  11. 11. Statistics Schools, Students, and Teachers Higher Education in Korea 11
  12. 12. Statistics Percentage of Female Students by Year 40 % 35 % 30 % 25 % Higher Education in Korea 12
  13. 13. Statistics Enrollment Rate Elite Mass Universal 70 % 50 % 30 % 10 % Higher Education in Korea 13
  14. 14. Statistics International Comparison: Tertiary attainment for age group 25-34 Higher Education in Korea 14
  15. 15. Statistics International Comparison: Tertiary attainment for age group 55-64 Higher Education in Korea 15
  16. 16. Statistics Advancement Rate: High School  Higher Education (Total) 90 % 70 % 50 % 30 % Higher Education in Korea 16
  17. 17. Statistics Advancement Rate: High School  Higher Education General High School  Higher Education Vocational High School  Higher Education Higher Education in Korea 17
  18. 18. Statistics Number of Students in Higher Education Institutions by Field of Study (2008) Higher Education in Korea 18
  19. 19. Statistics Employment Rate of the Graduates of Higher Education Institutions by Year Higher Education in Korea 19
  20. 20. Statistics Changes in Admission Rate by Year Higher Education in Korea 20
  21. 21. Statistics Degrees Awarded by Year Higher Education in Korea 21
  22. 22. Statistics University Graduates by Field of Study (%) Education Humanities Social & Art Sciences, Business, Law Services Engineering, Manufacturing Agriculture Health & Welfare Physical sciences Korea 5.2 21.4 22.3 2.9 27.4 2.6 7.1 3.5 U.S.A. 13.2 14.4 41.4 3.5 6.3 2.3 9.6 1.4 Germany 8.0 14.7 27.4 1.8 17.6 1.9 15.2 5.0 Hungary 20.0 8.7 38.7 8.4 9.1 3.7 8.5 0.7 Poland 11.5 6.5 40.0 3.6 7.3 1.7 1.9 1.2 * Source : Education at a Glance (OECD Indicators, 2002) Higher Education in Korea 22
  23. 23. Statistics Students Studying Abroad by Year Higher Education in Korea 23
  24. 24. Statistics The Rank of Korea’s Major Universities in International Evaluation (The Times) Higher Education in Korea 24
  25. 25. I. Overview II Issues and Challenges Higher Education in Korea 25
  26. 26. Trajectory of Educational Expansion Step-by-step attainment of universal education:  primary → secondary → higher education * Trow, “Forms and Phases of Higher Education”: Elite(<15%) → Mass(15-50) → Universal(>55%) 110 Elite Mass Universal 90 70 50 30 10 -10 1970 1975 Primary 1980 1990 1995 2000 Lower Secondary Higher Education in Korea 2003 Upper Secondary 2005 2006 Tertiary 26
  27. 27. Mobilization of Private Resources < Private School Enrollment Share(2006) > (Unit: %) Primary Schools 98.8 1.2 Middle Schools 18.7 High Schools 81.3 51.9 48.1 Universities/ Colleges 74.6 0% 20% 40% Private Higher Education in Korea 25.4 60% 80% 100% National/Public 27
  28. 28. Shrinking School Pop. Amidst Ageing Low Fertility Ageing Total fertility rate No. of birth Proportion, over 65 and 75 No. of the elderly Higher Education in Korea 28
  29. 29. College Admission Dominates K-12 Education  College-Entrance-Driven System - Extreme competition at high schools to enter top 4~5 universities obstructing the well-rounded growth of students → Inordinate expansion of private education aggravating equity imbalance between different SES groups (private education costs: 1.9% of GDP in 2002) → Large volumes of study abroad leading to educational trade deficit Higher Education in Korea 29
  30. 30. Increasing “Education Exodus” Korean Students Studying Abroad ’97 Countries ’99 ’01 ’03 ’04 ’05 69 71 72 73 83 86 # Students 133,249 120,170 149,933 159,903 187,683 192,254 * Foreign student share in the U.S.(2006): Korea 93,728/ India 76,708/ China 60,850 Trade Deficit in Education ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05* Exports 10.8 16.9 14.8 15.9 10.2 Imports 1,070.0 1,426.6 1,854.7 2,493.8 3,371.4 (Unit : million US$) Higher Education in Korea 30
  31. 31. Excess supply in graduate students Unemployment rate (engineering) : 9.8%(’97)  16.6%(’03) 139 of 200 4-year universities offer doctoral degree Korea US 44% 4% 13% 53% Associate 39% 19% Bachelor Master Higher Education in Korea 20% 8% Doctorate 31
  32. 32. HE is not pertinent enough Extent of dissatisfaction: CEO’s view on HE 75% Creativity 87% Practice&field exp 68% Field experience of faculty Federation of Korean Industries, 2002. 72% Curriculum 70% instructions Mismatch between jobs and majors (%) Badly Mismatched Jr.College University Mismatched Matched Well Matched 33.3 25.4 15.8 15.0 26.7 27.9 24.1 31.6 Source: Office of Statistics, 2003 Higher Education in Korea 32
  33. 33. Stakeholders are disconnected Limited university-industry partnership   Low mobility between academia and business University portion of industry's R&D investment: 2.4%(’00) → 1.7% (’03) (MOST, ‘04) Low commercialization of university-based IPRs  Patent share (90~’01) : universities 0.5%, companies 78.8%, research institutes 2.9%, individuals 17.8% Un-coordinated financial support to universities  Duplication of funding for the same purpose by several line ministries Higher Education in Korea 33
  34. 34. HE is not prepared for an aging population <Source : National Statistical Office> Higher Education in Korea 34

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