NOSHAD ALI SOOMROASSIGNMENT OF CIVILENGINEERINGROLL NO: K-12EL70Mehran university of engineering &technology jamshoro & khairpur
Engineering drawing The art of representation of engineering objects such as buildings, stones, roads, machines etc on a paper is called E.D. The subject of engineering drawing may be divided in to following categories.1. Geometrical drawing2. Solid geometrical drawing3. Mechanical Engineering drawing4. Civil Engineering drawing5. Electrical Engineering drawing
What is leveling and different terms Leveling is the determination of the elevation of a point or difference between points referenced to some datumTerms: 1. Datum – any level surface to which elevations are referenced 2. Mean Sea Level (MSL) – the average height of the surface of the sea for all stages of the tide over a 19 year period at 26 tide stations along Pacific, Atlantic and Gulf 3. National Geodetic Vertical Datum – nationwide reference surface for elevations throughout the U.S. – made available by National Geodetic Survey (NGS), based on 1929 adjustment. 4. Benchmark – relatively permanent object bearing a marked point whose elevation above or below an
Classification of leveling Classification of leveling 1. Different leveling: It is the operation of leveling to determine the elevations of points. Some distance a part or to establish bench marks. 2. Check leveling: It is the operation of running levels for the purpose of checking the series of levels, which have been previously fixed. At the end of each day’s work, a line of level is run, returning to the starting point of that day with a view to check the work done on that day. 3. Profile leveling: It is the operation in which the object is to determine the elevation of points at known distance apart along a given line, and thus to obtain the accurate out line of the surface of the ground. It is called the longitudinal leveling or sectioning
4. Cross sectioning: It is the operation of leveling to determine the surface undulation or outline of the ground transverse to the given line and on either side of it. 5. Reciprocal leveling: It is then method of leveling in which the difference in elevation between two points, accurately determined by two sets of observation when it is not possible to set up the level midway between the two points. 6. Barometric leveling: It is the method of leveling in which the altitudes of points are determined by means of a barometer, which measures atmospheric pressure. 7. Hypsometry: It is the method of leveling in which the heights of mountains are found by observing the temperature at which water boils. 8. Trigonometric leveling: It is then process of leveling in which the elevations of points are computed from the vertical, angles and horizontal distance measured in the field.
Types of foundations There are two type of main foundations (1)Shallow foundation wich consist of Pad foundation, Strip foundation, Raft foundation, Strap foundation, slopped foundation (2)Deep foundation which consist of Well foundation, Pile foundation etc.
Pile foundation pile foundation is a type of deep foundation which is prefered in case of encounter of upper soil strata of lower bearing capacity.In order to transfer the loads of the superstructure to a strata of high bearing capacity deep below the ground such as rock strata pile foundation is used.
Raft foundation A raft foundation consists of a raft of reinforced concrete under the whole of a building. This type of foundation is described as a raft in the sense that the concrete raft is cast on the surface of the ground which supports it, as water does a raft, and the foundation is not fixed by foundations carried down into the subsoil. Raft foundations may be used for buildings on compressible
Pad foundation On made up ground and ground with poor bearing capacity where a firm, natural bed of, for example, gravel or sand is some few metres below the surface, it may be economic to excavate for isolated piers of brick or concrete to support the load of buildings of some four storeys in height. The piers will be built at the angles, intersection of walls and under the more heavily loaded
Strip foundation Strip foundations consist of a continuous strip, usually of concrete, formed centrally under load bearing walls. This continuous strip serves as a level base on which the wall is built and is of such a width as is necessary to spread the load on the foundations to an area of subsoil capable of supporting the load without undue compaction. Concrete is the material principally used today for foundations as it