Step Up To Writing Student Version:Basic, Practical and HelpfulInstruction About Writing
Step Up To Writing is About • Showing you the process • Helping you through the process • Letting you work through the process on your own
Step Up To Writing is About Tools: • Colors • Word Lists • Informal Outlines • Examples • small steps
Step Up To Writing isAbout The Writing Process: Prewriting and Planning Drafting, Revising, and Editing Creating a Final Copy, Proofreading, and Sharing
Step Up To Writing isAbout Promoting the Traits of Good Writing: • Content • Vocabulary • Organization • Sentence • Style Structure • Conventions
Golf is a great sport to play. It’s fun topound a golf ball around for nine to eighteenholes. However, to become good you needlots of practice and mental toughness.Practice is easy to come by, but we needtoughness too. Personally, I need a lot ofmental toughness. Golf can be really fun ifyou are playing well, but if you are playingbadly, it can cause frustration. Does this seem like a well thought out, organized paragraph?
What happened?• This student took all the information he/she knew about golf and just regurgitated it onto paper!
The keys to an effective paragraph: Expository paragraphs need: • A title • A topic sentence • Transitions • Good explanations and examples • A conclusion
Smoking’s Health Toll and Price Tag Fifth Grade Although smoking may seem cool, it is very unhealthy and expensive. Many people die from smoking related problems such as cancer, heart disease etc. every year. According to World Book Encyclopedia during the mid-1980s smoking contributed to 30 percent of all deaths from cancer and heart disease in the United States of America. Furthermore, cigarette smoking was associated with 85 percent of all cases of lung cancer. Secondly, smoking is very expensive. If someone smoked one pack of cigarettes every day that cost $3.00 for 50 years it would cost them $54,750.00 which is enough money to buy an expensive and luxurious car. On the contrary, if someone put $3.00 a day into a bank or investment institution they would be making hundreds of dollars in only a few years just because of the interest they are collecting. Clearly smoking is very unhealthy and expensive too, so don’t start smoking until you have considered all of the negative effects!
That was better!• Why?• Organization!• I will show you the process that 5th grade student used to get that level of organization.
The Five Elements of Expository Writing Organization is the key. Topic sentences and thesis statements are the heart. Transitions are the glue. Examples, evidence, and explanations are the meat. Conclusions tie it all together.
Informal Outlines: Using a piece of paper let’s work on an informal outline of a paragraph. •Fold paper over to the red margin line. •Unfold.Just •Fold about 5 lines from the top.One or •Fold about 5 lines from the bottom.Two words •Now draw lines on all the folds as shown. •It should look like an “I”
Remember this is all about colors so…• Get out your three colors (red, green, yellow) of crayons and make sure you color in the dots by the correct box.
TopicReason/fact/detail explain explainReason/fact/detail explain explain Conclusion Use your crayons to place your circles and titles in the correct areas. See teacher’s example
Topic: Cats can protect themselves Reason/fact/detail: explain:They can get away from enemies run fast explain: climb trees Reason/fact/detail: explain: Good fighters sharp claws explain: sharp teeth Conclusion: cats take care, protect Just One or Two words
Informal Outlines also need transition words: Topic: Cats can protect themselves Reason/fact/detail: explain: First They can get away from enemies run fast explain: climb trees Reason/fact/detail: explain: Next Good fighters sharp claws explain: sharp teeth Conclusion: cats take care, protect
Let’s build sentences. • Everyone should have a new paper and the same three crayons (yellow, green, red) yellow • It is time to fold this paper hamburger style once, and then twice. Open back up. • Draw lines on front and back where the folds are.
Front of Page Use crayon to Topic make dot on the left side Reason/fact/detail of the page. Then Explain write the words next to Explain the dots See teacher’s example
Back of Page Use crayon to Reason/fact/detail make dot on the left side Explain of the page. Then Explain write the words next to Conclusion the dots
Front of Page Topic Cats protect themselves in two ways Reason/fact/detail First, they are able to get away quickly from their enemies. Explain Cats are fast runners. Explain They can climb trees, too.
Back of Page Reason/fact/detail Next, cats are good fighters. Explain Cat’s sharp claws can inflict pain and discourage attackers. Explain They can also use their pointed incisors to bite their enemies when necessary. Conclusion Felines can take care of themselves.
What is the deal with the colors! Go! Write a topic sentence. SlowD Give a reason, detail or fact. own Use a transition word or phrase. Stop Explain. Gave an example. Go Remind the reader of your topic. Back
Using Colors for OrganizationTopic Sentence: • Green means “go.” • Green asks the writer to decide — “What am I going to prove?” “What am I going to explain?” “What information will I share?”
Using Colors for Organization Reasons/Details/Facts: • Yellow means “slow down.” • Introduce key concepts to support the topic sentence.
Using Colors for Organization Explain: • Red means “stop and explain.” • Present evidence. • Provide explanation and examples.
Using Colors for Organization Conclusion: • Green means “go back to your topic.” • Restate the topic and the position. • Do not introduce new information. • Use synonyms and leave your reader with something to remember.
So now you see… How to put together a well organized paragraph. But…
Don’t get stuck!• Many students will ask “How many sentences do I have to write?”• This is the ZME (zone of minimal effort) talking. •With this process you can expand and shrink your paragraphs with ease. •The rule is: you should use as many sentences as is needed to explain what you have to say.
This time let’s just make it a six sentence paragraph Topic 2 fun ways to spend a million dollars Reason/fact/detail explain Reason/fact/detail explain Conclusion
Topic: 2 fun ways to spend a million dollarsReason/fact/detail: explain: Shopping New car, Odyssey touring Reason/fact/detail: explain: Traveling cruise, Alaska Conclusion: fun, happy, rich Just One or Two words
Front of Page Use crayon to Topic make dot on the left side Reason/fact/detail of the page. Then Explain write the words next to the dots See teacher’s example
Back of Page Use crayon to Reason/fact/detail make dot on the left side Explain of the page. Then Conclusion write the words next to the dots
Front of Page Topic If I had a million dollars, I would have a grand time depleting it. Reason/fact/detail First, I would go out and buy the Honda Odyssey Touring Edition. Explain This model has the six-DVD player, voice controlled navigation and enough seats for all my friends to come hang out with me.
Back of Page Reason/fact/detail Next, I would book a cruise to Alaska. Explain I would make sure it was the longest cruise available and I would take all my friends with me. Conclusion Rolling in money would clearly be a boon for not only myself, but my closet friends.
If I was Rolling in the Dough! If I had a million dollars, I would havea grand time depleting it. First, I would goout and buy the Honda Odyssey TouringEdition. This model has the six-DVD player,voice controlled navigation and enough seatsfor all my friends to come hang out with me.Next, I would book a cruise to Alaska. Iwould make sure it was the longest cruiseavailable and I would take all my friendswith me. Rolling in money would clearly be aboon for not only myself, but my closetfriends.
How About MoreThan One ParagraphYou can just add more “explain” pieces and make the “reason/detail/fact” sentence become the topic.
For example:Paragraph Topic = Plymouth Colony Paragraph R/D/F Difficult trip across Atlantic e Dangerous waters e One ship turned back e Poor living conditions Paragraph R/D/F Difficult winter e Arrived in wrong location e Arrived too late to plant garden e Arrived too late to build homes Paragraph R/D/F Befriended by Indians e Invited to first Thanksgiving Paragraph for the conclusion
Persuasive Essay FormatR/D/F Outlines: Reasons Outline Topic = Reasons for Learning to Swim R Safety reasons e Help yourself e Save others R Social reasons e Parties e Vacations e Summertime Of course, you will NOT limit yourself to only two reasons or three examples.
You try… • Get a paper ready like in step one but with 3 yellows (reason/detail/fact). One reason must be the opposing viewpoint and a rebuttals to it. • Think about the topic you want to write your persuasive essay about. • Fill in using your topic and at least two reds (explain) that you can think of to support each yellow. • Remember to only JOT information.
By tomorrow • You will need to bring me the “step one” paper you have been working on for my “green light” on your topic. • Tomorrow we will research any information you will need for the examples on your topic.