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# Atomic structure – cont

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### Atomic structure – cont

1. 1. Atomic Structure – cont…
2. 2. Isotopes Elements are defined by the number of protons (atomic #, Z). Atoms of an element with the same # of protons and electrons, but different # of neutrons. ◦ Same atomic # (Z) but different mass # (A) ◦ Same chemical properties, however some are radioactive
3. 3. Isotopes - hydrogen
4. 4. Isotopes - chlorine Chlorine Protons Electrons Neutrons n
5. 5. Isotopes - chlorine Chlorine Protons Electrons Neutrons n 17 17 17 17
6. 6. Isotopes - chlorine Chlorine Protons Electrons Neutrons n 17 17 35-17=18 17 17 37-17 = 20
7. 7. Isotopes Practice Problems…..
8. 8. Relative Atomic Mass (Ar) oHow we compare the mass of atoms oBased on Carbon atom oAtomic mass units (amu) Element Ar H 1 C 12 O 16 Mg 24 Cl 35.5
9. 9. Relative Atomic Mass (Ar) Calculate the relative atomic mass (Ar) or Chlorine. 25 % 75 % (75x35) + (25x37)= 35.5 amu 100
10. 10. Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms Electrons move very fast around the nucleus It is impossible to pinpoint their location Electrons are arranged in energy levels and cannot be between them.
11. 11. Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms 1st level – 2 2nd level – 8 3rd level – 18 (when 8 are present next two jump to level-4, then following return to level-3) 4th level - 2
12. 12. Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms Bohr-Rutherford Diagrams