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  1. 1. A phobia is defined as the unrelenting fear of a situation, activity, or thing that causes one to want to avoid it. Phobias afflict more than 6 million people in the United States. Women tend to be twice as likely to suffer from a phobia compared to men. The most common fears or phobias that people usually suffer from include:heights, darkness, snakes, insects, closed-in places, etc.
  2. 2.   There are several types of phobias, including social, situational, animal, and specific phobias (fear of particular items or objects). While the list of phobias is almost endless, we'll take a look at some of the most common phobias on the next slides.
  3. 3. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. Acrophobia Algophobia Astraphobia Claustrophobia Hydrophobia Mysophobia Monophobia Nyctophobia Ochlophobia Pathophobia Pyrophobia Zoophobia Heights Pains Thunderstorm,Lightning Enclosed Places Water Being Alone Contamination Or Germs Darkness Crowd Disease Fire Animals Or Some Particular Animal
  4. 4. Also known as social anxiety disorder, social phobia is an excessive fear of embarrassment in social situations.  Examples include fears of public speaking, meeting new people, and other social situations.  Social Phobia is a condition where the sufferer becomes anxious in environments that are Social Phobia may arise by the fear of unfamiliar or where he or she having a panic attack in a setting from perceives that they have little which there is no easy means of escape. control. 
  5. 5. General characteristics  Fear of being in social situations in which one will be embarrassed or humiliated.
  6. 6.    Agoraphobia is a fear of in a situation from which one either cannot escape or from which escaping would be difficult or humiliating. Although agoraphobia, like other mental disorders, it also tends to run in families and for some people, may have a clear genetic factor. Agoraphobia was traditionally thought to involve a fear of public places and open spaces. However, it is now believed that agoraphobia develops as a complication of panic attacks.
  7. 7.   Zoophobia may have one of two closely related meanings: a generic term for the class of specific phobia to particular Animals,or an irrational fear or even simply dislike of any non-human animals. Zoophobia is a term that encompasses fears of specific types of animals such as spiders (arachnophobia), snakes (ophidiophobia), birds (ornithophobia), bees (apiphobia), etc.
  8. 8.    Erimophobial an abnormal fear of being by oneself. Also called eremiophobia, eremophobia, monophobia and autophobia. Autophobia involves not on the fear of being physically alone, but also a sense of being unable to trust oneself in any setting. People with this type of emotional condition are often unable to rest comfortably unless someone is relatively close.
  9. 9.    It is common for many people to be afraid of dark because they think that there are monsters hiding under their beds and in their closets. These sorts of fears come about as a result of things that they don't yet quite understand and this lack of understanding can be manifested into fear of the unknown, such as being afraid of the dark. This fear can easily develop into a phobia that is known as achluophobia. People who suffer this will often suffer symptoms such as anxiety, nervousness, insomnia and/or sweating.
  10. 10.     Claustrophobia is an abnormal and persistent fear of closed spaces, as in elevators, tunnels, or any other confined space. Claustrophobia is typically thought to have two key symptoms: fear of restriction and fear of suffocation. It is typically classified as an anxiety disorder and often results in panic attack. This type of fear is excessive and quite common.
  11. 11.   A fear of water. A non resourceful state, negative feeling, an unwanted reaction, a pattern of behaviour experienced by an individual, which prevents the swimmer from learning a water skill or freely entering a mass-volume water environment such as a swimming pool, sea, lake, ocean, or river.
  12. 12.     Phasmophobia, or the fear of ghosts. Most of us experience a certain thrill of anxiety when telling ghost stories or watching movies that feature ghosts and other supernatural entities . Most people are able to control this fear but for some people this fear is over whelming and life-limiting, thereby meeting the traditional definition of a phobia. Some experts feel that a phobia of ghosts may be symptomatic of a more serious thought disorder, as it may constitute a form of magical thinking. Let’s try to break down the relevant issues.
  13. 13.    Herpetophobia, or fear of reptiles, is a relatively common phobia. Our ancestors tended to fear those animals that could cause harm, and the sheer number of venomous reptiles may have caused herpetophobia to develop over time. This is the fear from especially crocodiles,snakes and lizards etc.
  14. 14.    Batrachophobia is an overwhelming, irrational fear of amphibians such as toads, frogs etc. The batrachophobic individual may be totally fearless with other reptiles such as lizards or snakes, but can be so compromised by this phobia, that they may not even be able to look at pictures of amphibians. People coping with this phobia may avoid ponds, streams, nature parks or anywhere that there may be a chance that they might encounter an amphibian.
  15. 15.     Acrophobia is an abnormally excessive and persistent fear of heights. Acrophobia can be dangerous, as sufferers can experience a panic attack in a high place and become too agitated to get themselves down safely. Acrophobia called space and motion discomfort that share both similar etiology and options for treatment. An acrophobic,on the other hand, continues to overrely on visual signals whether because of inadequate vestibular function or incorrect strategy.
  16. 16.   An abnormal and persistent fear of flying is called aerophobia. This phobia generally develops after a person witnesses a plane crash or loses a family member in a plane crash or accident. A fear of flying is a fear of being on an airplane (aeroplane), or other flying vehicle, such as a helicopter, while in flight. It is also sometimes referred to as aerophobia, aviatophobia, aviophobia or pteromerhanophobia.
  17. 17.      Atychiphobia is the fear of failure. Atychiphobia is also known as fear of failure,faer of failing and failure phobia. Atychiphobia, as with all phobias, is an extreme, irrational fear. Phobias, generally, keep us from enjoying some aspects of life. The fear of failure is often one of the most paralyzing phobias.
  18. 18.  Blood-injection-injury phobias consist of several specific phobias including fear of blood (hemophobia), injury phobia, and fear of receiving an injection (trypanophobia or aichmophobia).
  19. 19.    If left untreated, a phobia may worsen to the point at which the person's life is seriously affected. There may be periods of spontaneous improvement, but a phobia does not usually go away unless the person receives treatments. Alcoholics can be up to 10 times more likely to suffer.
  20. 20.   It is thought that phobias run in families, or can be triggered by life events. Phobia sufferers have been found to be more likely to manage stress by avoiding the stressful situation and by having difficulty minimizing the intensity of the fearful situation.
  21. 21.  Symptoms of phobias often involve having a panic attack as well as physical symptoms like shaking, sweating, rapid heartbeat, trouble breathing, and an overwhelming desire to escape the situation.
  22. 22.     Many health-care providers may help diagnose phobias specialists whom you see for a medical condition, psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers. You may need to submit to a medical interview and physical examination. A phobia may be associated with a number of other mental -health conditions, especially other anxiety disorders. Routine laboratory tests are often performed during the initial evaluation to rule out other possible causes of the symptoms.
  23. 23.   Exposing them to circumstances that are increasingly close to the one they are phobic. A second method is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps in changing the way of thinking of the sufferer.
  24. 24. Three Techniques To accomplish This goal:    Didactic Component: This phase helps to set up positive expectations for therapy and promote the phobia sufferer's cooperation. Cognitive Component: It helps to identify the thoughts and assumptions that influence the person's behavior. Behavioral Component: This employs behavior-modifying techniques to teach the individual with a phobia more effective strategies for dealing with problems.
  25. 25.    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications are often used to treat phobias. These medications affect levels of serotonin in the brain. Examples of these medications include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), fluvoxamine (Luvox), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro).