EPITHELIAL TISSUE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
MUSCULAR TISSUE
NERVOUS TISSUE
Oral cavity
Skin
Digestive
Tract
Peritoneum

Respiratory
Passages
Pleural
cavities
Hart and
Blood vessels
Pericardium

Uri...
FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIA
COVERING EPITHELIA
covering of surfaces and lining of cavities
protection of covered tissue
absorpt...
COMPONENTS OF BASAL
LAMINA
COLLAGEN TYPE IV
LAMININ, FIBRONECTIN
(glycoproteins)
PROTEOGLYCANS (HEPARAN SULFATE)
ANCHORING...
FUNCTIONS OF BASAL
LAMINA
Selective barrier between connective tissue
and epithelium
Adhesion of the connective tissue and...
POLARITY OF EPITHELIA
APICAL SURFACE
BASAL SURFACE - rests on basal lamina
TYPES OF EPITHELIA
ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF LAYERS
simple
stratified
pseudostratified
ACCORDING TO SHAPE OF CELLS
squamous
c...
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
endothelium, mesothelium
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM
proximal and distal renal tubules
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM
SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
stomach, small and large intestine,
oviduct
SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED EPITHELIUM
respiratory passages, epididymis
STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
keratinised - skin
nonkeratinised - oral cavity, vagina
STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
keratinised

Skin

nonkeratinised

Cornea

Esophagus
STRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
ocular conjunctiva
TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM
urinary bladder, ureter
INTERCELLULAR
JUNCTIONS
membrane associated structures responsible
for cohesion and communication between
cells
ADHERING J...
TIGHT JUNCTION ZONULA OCCLUDENS
LOCATION - the most apical
SHAPE - band encircling the cell
MORPHOLOGY - network of linear...
TIGHT JUNCTION ZONULA
OCCLUDENS
Prevent
the flow
between
the cells

Prevent the
movement
of membrane
proteins

TIGHT JUNCTION ZONULA
OCCLUDENS
DESMOSOME
DESMOSOME MACULA ADHERENS
LOCATION - along the lateral membranes
DISK-SHAPED
MORPHOLOGY attachment plaques - desmoplaquin
...
ZONULA ADHERENS
ZONULA ADHERENS
LOCATION - just below tight junction
SHAPE - band encircling the cell
MORPHOLOGY dense plagues - α -actini...
HEMIDESMOSOME
LOCATION - contact zone
between epithelium and basal
lamina
DISK-SHAPED
MORPHOLOGY - half a
desmosome
FUNCTI...
INTERCELLULAR
JUNCTIONS

Electron transmission
microscope
GAP JUNCTION NEXUS
LOCATION - anywhere along the lateral
membranes of epithelial cells
MORPHOLOGY - hexamers of proteins
w...
GAP JUNCTION NEXUS
GAP JUNCTION - NEXUS
MICROVILLI
Extension of cytoplasm 1µ m long
Actin-containing
microfilaments
FUNCTION - increase
the surface area
LIGHT MIC...
MICROVILLI
MICROVILLI – brush border
CILIA
LONG PROJECTIONS - 10 µ m
MOTILE
STRUCTURE:
central pair of microtubuls
9 pairs at the periphery
INSERTED INTO BASAL...
CILIA
STEREOCILIA long microvilli
FLAGELLA similar in structure to cilia
GLANDULAR
EPITHELIA - Glands

FUNCTION secretion of
products which are
used in other parts
of the organism
SEROUS GLANDS
ACINAR SECRETORY PORTIONS
SECRET CLEAR FLUID SECRETION
SEROUS CELLS:
ruonded nucleus at basal part of
cytopl...
SEROUS CELLS
MUCOUS GLANDS
TUBULAR SECRETORY
PORTIONS
SECRET MUCUS
MUCOUS CELLS
flat nucleus at
the basis
large, translucent
secretory ...
SUBLINGUAL GLANDS
TYPES OF EXOCRINE GLANDS
APOCRINE

HOLOCRINE

secretory product is
discharged with
apical part of
cytoplasm

secretory pro...
NUTRITION OF EPITHELIA
NO BLOOD VESSELS IN EPITHELIA
NUTRIENTS AND PRECURSORS OF
PRODUCTS DIFFUSE FROM
CONNECTIVE TISSUE A...
RENEWAL
REPLACEMENT OF OLD CELLS BY
NEW ONES
MITOTIC DIVISIONS
OCCUR IN ALL EPITHELIA
Lecture2 epitel
Lecture2 epitel
Lecture2 epitel
Lecture2 epitel
Lecture2 epitel
Lecture2 epitel
Lecture2 epitel
Lecture2 epitel
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Lecture2 epitel

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Lecture2 epitel

  1. 1. EPITHELIAL TISSUE CONNECTIVE TISSUE MUSCULAR TISSUE NERVOUS TISSUE
  2. 2. Oral cavity Skin Digestive Tract Peritoneum Respiratory Passages Pleural cavities Hart and Blood vessels Pericardium Urinary tracts Glands Limph vessels
  3. 3. FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIA COVERING EPITHELIA covering of surfaces and lining of cavities protection of covered tissue absorption - intestines, proximal tubules of kidney GLANDULAR EPITHELIA secretion - exocrine glands NEUROEPITHELIAL CELLS sensation - olfactory epithelium , taste buds MYOEPITHELIAL CELLS contractility - salivary glands, sweat glands
  4. 4. COMPONENTS OF BASAL LAMINA COLLAGEN TYPE IV LAMININ, FIBRONECTIN (glycoproteins) PROTEOGLYCANS (HEPARAN SULFATE) ANCHORING FIBRILS COLLAGEN TYPE VII
  5. 5. FUNCTIONS OF BASAL LAMINA Selective barrier between connective tissue and epithelium Adhesion of the connective tissue and the epithelium
  6. 6. POLARITY OF EPITHELIA APICAL SURFACE BASAL SURFACE - rests on basal lamina
  7. 7. TYPES OF EPITHELIA ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF LAYERS simple stratified pseudostratified ACCORDING TO SHAPE OF CELLS squamous cuboidal columnar
  8. 8. SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM endothelium, mesothelium
  9. 9. SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
  10. 10. SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM proximal and distal renal tubules
  11. 11. SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM
  12. 12. SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM stomach, small and large intestine, oviduct
  13. 13. SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
  14. 14. PSEUDOSTRATIFIED EPITHELIUM respiratory passages, epididymis
  15. 15. STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM keratinised - skin nonkeratinised - oral cavity, vagina
  16. 16. STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM keratinised Skin nonkeratinised Cornea Esophagus
  17. 17. STRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM ocular conjunctiva
  18. 18. TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM urinary bladder, ureter
  19. 19. INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS membrane associated structures responsible for cohesion and communication between cells ADHERING JUNCTIONS IMPERMEABLE JUNCTIONS COMMUNICATING JUNCTIONS
  20. 20. TIGHT JUNCTION ZONULA OCCLUDENS LOCATION - the most apical SHAPE - band encircling the cell MORPHOLOGY - network of linear fusion sites between membrane associated proteins FUNCTION - close off the intercellular space (leakiness of the epithelium)
  21. 21. TIGHT JUNCTION ZONULA OCCLUDENS
  22. 22. Prevent the flow between the cells Prevent the movement of membrane proteins TIGHT JUNCTION ZONULA OCCLUDENS
  23. 23. DESMOSOME
  24. 24. DESMOSOME MACULA ADHERENS LOCATION - along the lateral membranes DISK-SHAPED MORPHOLOGY attachment plaques - desmoplaquin intercellular space - desmoglein cytokeratin filaments FUNCTION - very firm adhesion of neighbor-cells
  25. 25. ZONULA ADHERENS
  26. 26. ZONULA ADHERENS LOCATION - just below tight junction SHAPE - band encircling the cell MORPHOLOGY dense plagues - α -actinin, vinculin, myosin, tropomyosin intercellular space - E-kadherin and calcium ions actin-containing microfilaments FUNCTION - adhesion of neighbor-cells
  27. 27. HEMIDESMOSOME LOCATION - contact zone between epithelium and basal lamina DISK-SHAPED MORPHOLOGY - half a desmosome FUNCTION - binds the epithelial cell to basal lamina
  28. 28. INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS Electron transmission microscope
  29. 29. GAP JUNCTION NEXUS LOCATION - anywhere along the lateral membranes of epithelial cells MORPHOLOGY - hexamers of proteins with a hydrophilic pore in the center (connexon) FUNCTION - interchange of small molecules between adjacent cells (cyclic AMP, ions)
  30. 30. GAP JUNCTION NEXUS
  31. 31. GAP JUNCTION - NEXUS
  32. 32. MICROVILLI Extension of cytoplasm 1µ m long Actin-containing microfilaments FUNCTION - increase the surface area LIGHT MICROSCOPE - BRUSH BORDER
  33. 33. MICROVILLI
  34. 34. MICROVILLI – brush border
  35. 35. CILIA LONG PROJECTIONS - 10 µ m MOTILE STRUCTURE: central pair of microtubuls 9 pairs at the periphery INSERTED INTO BASAL BODIES FUNCTION - permit a current of material over epithelium
  36. 36. CILIA
  37. 37. STEREOCILIA long microvilli FLAGELLA similar in structure to cilia
  38. 38. GLANDULAR EPITHELIA - Glands FUNCTION secretion of products which are used in other parts of the organism
  39. 39. SEROUS GLANDS ACINAR SECRETORY PORTIONS SECRET CLEAR FLUID SECRETION SEROUS CELLS: ruonded nucleus at basal part of cytoplasm abundant RER – basophilic cytoplasm well visible secretory granules at the apex
  40. 40. SEROUS CELLS
  41. 41. MUCOUS GLANDS TUBULAR SECRETORY PORTIONS SECRET MUCUS MUCOUS CELLS flat nucleus at the basis large, translucent secretory granules well developed Golgi complex
  42. 42. SUBLINGUAL GLANDS
  43. 43. TYPES OF EXOCRINE GLANDS APOCRINE HOLOCRINE secretory product is discharged with apical part of cytoplasm secretory product is shed with whole cell MEROCRINE secretory granules leave the cell by exocytosis
  44. 44. NUTRITION OF EPITHELIA NO BLOOD VESSELS IN EPITHELIA NUTRIENTS AND PRECURSORS OF PRODUCTS DIFFUSE FROM CONNECTIVE TISSUE ACROSS THE BASAL LAMINA TO EPITHELIAL CELLS
  45. 45. RENEWAL REPLACEMENT OF OLD CELLS BY NEW ONES MITOTIC DIVISIONS OCCUR IN ALL EPITHELIA

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