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Presened by: Sunita Sijwali
HHM/2013-018
Dept of Extension and Communication
Management
 Knowledge is a familiarity,
awareness or understanding of
someone or something, such as
facts, information, descriptions...
Classic Data to Knowledge
Hierarchy
 By differentiating between Data,
Information, Knowledge and
Wisdom, and seeing their...
Tacit and explicit knowledge
Organisational knowledge:
 An organization creates knowledge through the
interactions between explicit knowledge and taci...
 Socialization is the process of converting new
tacit knowledge through shared experiences, e.g.
through spending time to...
 Combination is the process of converting explicit
knowledge into more complex and systematic set
of explicit knowledge s...
Repository:
 Repository: a facility where
things can be deposited for
storage or safekeeping.
 Synonyms for repository
...
Knowledge repository:
 A knowledge repository is a computerized
system that systematically captures, organizes
and catego...
 They provide a central location to collect, contribute
and share digital learning resources for use in
instructional des...
The four types of knowledge repositories:
1. Subject-based repositories (commercial and non-
commercial, single and federa...
2. Research repositories
 are usually sponsored by research funding or performing
organisations to capture results. This ...
3. National repository
 systems require coordination - more for a federated
system, less for a unified system.
 National...
4. Institutional repositories
 It contain the various outputs of the institution. While
research results are important am...
Why We Need it:
 A good knowledge repository helps improve
relationships. If it’s written well it can bridge
communicatio...
Value to
Organization
Organizational
Learning
Active Knowledge
Transfer
Expert Knowledge
Base
Contact Links
Expert Assista...
Key features of effective digital knowledge
repositories:
 Centralization. A wide variety of digital
courseware, and cont...
 Cost savings. Repositories can potentially reduce the
cost of training and education by making affordable
course materia...
Key features:
Knowledge repositories are:
 Flexible
 Portable
 Heterogenous
 Emergent
 Generative
 constitutive
Before you start:
 Choose Your Weapon. You should have a knowledge base
product installed. It could be a wiki, a third-pa...
Guidelines to develop repository
:
Clear and Concise:
 It’s the number one rule of business writing,
technical writing, a...
Avoid the Curse of Knowledge:
 When we know our processes and systems well, we
often assume everyone else does too. We fo...
Bust the Jargon:
 The industry or organisation you are in may use a lot of
jargon. While it’s acceptable sometimes, try t...
Responsible Tagging:
 All online knowledge base systems are searchable—even
simple Word documents. So give each article y...
Some basic parameters of effective
knowledge repository:
 First impression: url, download time, readability,
look, home p...
Knowledge repository advantages
and disadvantages :
 Dynamic conversation: The biggest advantage
of a knowledge base is t...
 Prominence of Information: The democratic, organic
nature of a knowledge base means that the most
important information ...
 Solutions: A dedicated personnel needs to be appointed
to spend a few hours a week searching the knowledge
base for redu...
 Thank you.
Knowledge Repository and Knowledge Management
Knowledge Repository and Knowledge Management
Knowledge Repository and Knowledge Management
Knowledge Repository and Knowledge Management
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Knowledge Repository and Knowledge Management

  1. 1. Presened by: Sunita Sijwali HHM/2013-018 Dept of Extension and Communication Management
  2. 2.  Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.  “Processing data can be performed by machine, but only the human mind can process knowledge or even information.”
  3. 3. Classic Data to Knowledge Hierarchy  By differentiating between Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom, and seeing their relationship as a movement from Explicit Knowledge to Tacit Knowledge, we avoid the “reductionism” that confuses Explicit Data, Information and Knowledge with Tacit Wisdom.  Tacit Knowledge is primal. Explicit Knowledge is strongly influenced by the Tacit Dimension which operates beneathe the surface of
  4. 4. Tacit and explicit knowledge
  5. 5. Organisational knowledge:  An organization creates knowledge through the interactions between explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge. This interaction between the two types of knowledge is called "knowledge conversion", through which both tacit and explicit knowledge expands in both quality and quantity.  The four modes of knowledge conversion are: (1) socialization (from tacit knowledge to tacit knowledge); (2) externalization (from tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge); (3) combination (from explicit knowledge to explicit knowledge); and
  6. 6.  Socialization is the process of converting new tacit knowledge through shared experiences, e.g. through spending time together, through apprenticeship, in informal social meetings outside the workplace, or beyond organizational boundaries, as often firms often acquire and take advantage of the tacit knowledge embedded in customers or suppliers by interacting with them.  Externalization is the process of articulating tacit knowledge as explicit knowledge, thus allowing it to be shared by others, and it becomes the basis of new knowledge.
  7. 7.  Combination is the process of converting explicit knowledge into more complex and systematic set of explicit knowledge so as to create new knowledge.  Through Internalization, explicit knowledge created is shared throughout an organization and converted into tacit knowledge by individuals. Internalization is closely related to "learning by doing."  Knowledge creation is a continuous process of dynamic interactions between tacit and explicit knowledge. Organizational knowledge creation is a never-ending process that upgrades itself continuously.
  8. 8. Repository:  Repository: a facility where things can be deposited for storage or safekeeping.  Synonyms for repository  warehouse ,depository , archive ,vault , magazine ,depot ,
  9. 9. Knowledge repository:  A knowledge repository is a computerized system that systematically captures, organizes and categorizes an organization's knowledge. The repository can be searched and data can be quickly retrieved.  Knowledge repositories help organizations connect people with information and expertise globally via online searchable libraries, discussion forums and other elements.
  10. 10.  They provide a central location to collect, contribute and share digital learning resources for use in instructional design and content development for both traditional and non-traditional learning environments.  The effective knowledge repositories include factual, conceptual, procedural and meta-cognitive techniques. The key features of knowledge repositories include communication forums.  A knowledge base-type repository is usually dedicated to a specific program or process, and information can be submitted by developers, technical support personnel, or end users. The democratic nature of the knowledge base allows it to
  11. 11. The four types of knowledge repositories: 1. Subject-based repositories (commercial and non- commercial, single and federated)  usually have been set up by community members and are adopted by the wider community.  Spontaneous self-archiving is prevalent as the repository is of intrinsic value to scholars. Much of the intrinsic value for authors comes from the opportunity to communicate ideas and results early in the form of working papers and preprints, from which a variety of benefits may result, such as being able to claim priority, testing the value of an idea or result, improving a publication prior to submission, gaining recognition, achieving international attention and so on. As such, subject-based repositories are thematically well defined, and alert services and
  12. 12. 2. Research repositories  are usually sponsored by research funding or performing organisations to capture results. This capturing typically requires a deposit mandate.  Publications are results, including books, but data may also be considered a result worth capturing, leading to a collection with a variety of items. Because these items constitute a record of science, standards for deposit and preservation must be stringent.  Research repositories are likely to contain high-quality output. This is because its content is peer- reviewed multiple times (e.g. grant application, journal submission, research evaluation) and the production of the results is well funded.  Users who are collaborators, competitors or instigating a new research project are most likely to find the collections of relevance.
  13. 13. 3. National repository  systems require coordination - more for a federated system, less for a unified system.  National systems are designed to capture scholarly output more generally and not just with a view to preserving a record of scholarship, but also to support, for example, teaching and learning in higher education.  Indeed, only a national purpose will justify the national investment. Such systems are likely to display scholarly outputs in the national language, highlight the publications of prominent scholars and develop a system for recording dissertations. One could conceive of such a national system as part of a national research library that serves scholarly communication in the national language and supports public policy, e.g. in generating open educational
  14. 14. 4. Institutional repositories  It contain the various outputs of the institution. While research results are important among these outputs, so are works of qualification, and teaching and learning materials.  If the repository captures the whole output, it is both a library and a showcase. It is a library holding an institutional collection, and it is a showcase because the online open access display and availability of the collection may serve to impress and connect, for example, with alumni of the institution or the colleagues of researchers.  A repository may also be an instrument of the institution by supporting, for example, internal and external assessment as well as strategic planning. Moreover, an institutional repository could have an important function in regional development. It allows firms, public bodies and civil society organisations to understand immediately what kind of expertise is available locally.
  15. 15. Why We Need it:  A good knowledge repository helps improve relationships. If it’s written well it can bridge communication gaps not only between departments, but also between the business and its clients.  It reduces the time new staff spend in training, improves incident management, and helps you uncover automation opportunities via online self- help.  Knowledge repository is an explicit knowledge means easier to express and to make public.it
  16. 16. Value to Organization Organizational Learning Active Knowledge Transfer Expert Knowledge Base Contact Links Expert Assistance as Needed Communities of Practice Index Decision Making Tools Profiles for Customization Pushed Reports & News Collaboration Tools Repositories Best Practices Reports Documents Presentation Slides Tips
  17. 17. Key features of effective digital knowledge repositories:  Centralization. A wide variety of digital courseware, and content curated from multiple sources, can be housed in a central location where it can be tagged, shared and commented upon globally within one consistent interface.  Content management. The breadth of learning content can include audio visual files, simulations, data, learning modules, articles, blogs, YouTube videos, best practices guidance, monitoring capabilities and contact information. Content is searchable by key words, learning outcomes, and other vehicles.
  18. 18.  Cost savings. Repositories can potentially reduce the cost of training and education by making affordable course materials accessible, reducing the need for classroom training and stimulating productive informal learning.  Access control. By restricting individual content pieces via password authentication and other security functionality, curators can accomplish various goals.  Record management. Repositories can integrate with learning management systems to blend seamlessly into learning and talent management programs.
  19. 19. Key features:
  20. 20. Knowledge repositories are:  Flexible  Portable  Heterogenous  Emergent  Generative  constitutive
  21. 21. Before you start:  Choose Your Weapon. You should have a knowledge base product installed. It could be a wiki, a third-party knowledge management system, or even a collection of well-organised and maintained Word documents.  Who’s Your Audience?Who is the documentation for-- your team, or the people you support? The language you use may be different depending on who needs to understand it. If you are writing for your end-users, spend some time with them. Find out how they already do things, what they could do more effectively, and what they don’t know how to do. Interview them, observe them, and don’t take negative feedback personally.  Understand.When you take on the communicator role, you need to understand what you’re communicating. If the information doesn’t make sense, either go back to the source
  22. 22. Guidelines to develop repository : Clear and Concise:  It’s the number one rule of business writing, technical writing, and any other kind of functional writing.  In 1946 George Orwell said, “Never use a long word where a short one will do”.  Keep your sentences simple and short wherever possible. A good test is to read it out loud. If you need to take a breath partway through, it’s too long.  Knowledge base articles are generally instructional, so they should be written in the present tense.
  23. 23. Avoid the Curse of Knowledge:  When we know our processes and systems well, we often assume everyone else does too. We forget that some of our readers may not know what we’re talking about. Here’s how you can avoid that problem.  As you write each article, imagine a new employee reading it. Have you left something unsaid that seems obvious to you, but wouldn’t be to them? Just the Facts:  Stick with describing the facts. No in-jokes and no opinion.
  24. 24. Bust the Jargon:  The industry or organisation you are in may use a lot of jargon. While it’s acceptable sometimes, try to avoid it as much as possible to avoid confusing your readers.If you must use it, provide a quick reference guide to commonly-used jargon andacronyms. Make the Connections:  Some knowledge base systems let you reference related articles..  Link to definitions, contacts, other related issues and articles, and externalwebsites with relevant information.  If you can, attach photographs, screenshots, maps or other documents thathelp describe the problem or environment.
  25. 25. Responsible Tagging:  All online knowledge base systems are searchable—even simple Word documents. So give each article you write a relevant, meaningful heading and use the words people are most likely to search for.. Always choose the most relevant tags, and if it doesn’t exist see if you can create it. Easy to Read Formatting:  Careful formatting and adequate whitespace between chunks of text makes your article easier to read.  Stick to one style of font in black and opt for one other colour to highlight important points.  Don’t just cut and paste haphazardly. Invest the time to reformat it. Break it Down :  Many procedures involve several steps. Depending on your reader, consider how granular those steps need to be. Break them down accordingly, and define each step clearly.
  26. 26. Some basic parameters of effective knowledge repository:  First impression: url, download time, readability, look, home page on screen.  Navigation: ease of use, site map, visible navigational links  Content: useful information, use of texts, graphics, audio, video, animation, language, FAQs  Browser compatibility  User satisfaction forum  Contact information.
  27. 27. Knowledge repository advantages and disadvantages :  Dynamic conversation: The biggest advantage of a knowledge base is that it allows a variety of users to contribute to the knowledge base results in "live" documentation and generate a dynamic, relevant conversation.  Also, since it includes contributions from development, tech support, and end users, those doing online research can explore the same problem from several different viewpoints, possibly leading them to a solution that they wouldn't have considered on their own.
  28. 28.  Prominence of Information: The democratic, organic nature of a knowledge base means that the most important information is likely to make itself prominent, while the less important information will be buried, giving knowledge bases a natural sorting function.  If poorly written or incorrect information is submitted, other users are able to bury it by replacing it with better information, or can flag it for deletion/review by an administrator.  Archived Documentation :Old articles left in the knowledge base provide an automatic archive of documentation for legacy versions of the product or process. As new versions of the product or process are created, the knowledge base can be reorganized or restarted to archive the old information while keeping the
  29. 29.  Solutions: A dedicated personnel needs to be appointed to spend a few hours a week searching the knowledge base for redundant, outdated, or inaccurate resolutions and delete them as needed. They should be trained in the use of the knowledge base.  Inconsistent Documents:The different writing styles and knowledge levels of contributors often result in a disjointed, nonstandardized document, which is one of the biggest disadvantages of a knowledge base.  Redundancy becomes the rule rather than the exception. It is almost certain that the same mistakes will be added to the knowledge base several times over. Dedicated maintenance is thus required.  A knowledge base requires time to build as scenarios and problems are found, resolved, and documented.
  30. 30.  Thank you.
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