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Communication:process functions barriers.


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Communication:process functions barriers.

  2. 2. Introduction of communication • Communication may be defined as sharing information and ideas so as to create mutual understanding between people. • The word communication has been derived from the Latin word “ communis ” means to share. • It is also the source of the English word “common” which means that whatever is common is shared by all.
  3. 3. Most Common Ways To Communicate Spe ak i ng es ag . Im Vis Bo W ti ri g n dy La n gu a ge
  4. 4. Art of getting your message across effectively through: •Spoken words – first & simplest way •Body Language – can make or mar •Written words – reflects importance •Visuals – leaves greatest impact
  5. 5. To express our emotions Achieve joint understanding To get things done Pass on and obtain information Reach decisions Develop relationships
  6. 6. Letters, Memos, Circulars Reports… Oral Conversations, Interviews, Phone Calls, Speeches… Gestures Facial expressions, Actions, Voice Tone, Silence, Stance… Visuals Photographs, Paintings, Videos, Film… Multimedia Television, Newspaper, Magazines, Internet… Written
  7. 7. Communication Goals To change behavior To get and give Information To persuade To get action To ensure understanding
  8. 8. Aim of good Communication • • • • • • • To give and receive information. To provide advice. To provide counselling. To issue orders and instructions. To receive suggestions. To persuade people. To impart education and training. • To warning and notice. • To improve morale. • To improve discipline.
  9. 9. Basic Model Of Communication
  10. 10. 7 Principles of Communications Engage your audiences Reference: Herta Murphy, Herber Hildebrandt and Jane Thomas, Effective Business Communications McGraw Hill.
  11. 11. Seven Communication Principles To compose effective message you need to apply certain specific communication principles. They tie closely with the basic concepts of the communication process and are important for both written and oral communications called the “Seven C”. Courtesy Conciseness Clarity Consideration Correctness Concretenes s Completeness
  12. 12. Completeness: Think Who, What, Where, When, How • Who you want to communicate with (Superior, Subordinates, Customers,etc)? Know your target audiences and set your tone right and say the right things (Don’t say the unnecessary things). • What you want him/her to do and what you want to achieve? Focus on the objective and key points and make sure what you want to achieve is clear without guessing. • Where to put your ideas and instructions (The Flow)? Good flow allows reader to progressively understand your ideas at ease and will act upon your message quickly. • When should you deliver the information? Deliver at the right time, not at the wrong time, will have better results. • How to achieve your objective? If you have to ask your reader to perform certain tasks, then state clearly the steps to achieve that. If your instructions, is not clear, you will not get your things done or the way you want in the shortest time. Communications is key to productivity. Are you productive? Are you able to get things done quickly without to and fro?
  13. 13. Conciseness A concise message saves time and expense for both sender and receiver. Conciseness is saying what you have to say in the fewest possible words without sacrificing the other C qualities. Conciseness contributes to emphasis. By eliminating unnecessary words, you help make important ideas stand out. To achieve conciseness, try to observe the following suggestions: • Eliminate wordy expressions. • Include only relevant statements. • Avoid unnecessary repetition. Add on: Check the flow of your information.
  14. 14. Consideration Consideration means that you prepare every message with the recipient in mind and try to put yourself in his or her place. Try to visualize your readers (or listeners)—with their desires, problems, circumstances, emotions, and probable reactions to your request. Then handle the matter from their point of view. This thoughtful consideration is also called “you-attitude” empathy, the human touch, and understanding of human nature. (It does not mean, however, that you should overlook the needs of your organization) In a broad but true sense, consideration underlies the other six C's of good business communication. You adapt your language and message content to your receiver's needs when you make your message complete, concise, concrete, clear, courteous, and correct. However, in four specific ways you can indicate you are considerate: • Focus on "you" instead of "I" and "we." • Show reader benefit or interest in reader perspective. • Emphasize positive, pleasant facts. • Apply integrity and ethic.
  15. 15. Concreteness Communicating concretely means being specific, definite, and vivid rather than vague and general. The following guidelines should help you compose concrete, convincing messages: • Use specific facts and figures. • Put action in your verbs. • Choose vivid, image-building words ex: if you want to be put in vague and general messages, it’s better to omit it altogether! Wasting your reader’s time is the Last thing you want in communications.
  16. 16. Clarity Clarity means getting your message across so the receiver will understand what you are trying to convey. You want that person to interpret your words with the same meaning you have in mind. Accomplishing that goal is difficult because, as you know, individual experiences are never identical, and words have different meanings to different persons. Here are some specific ways to help make your messages clear: 1. Choose short, familiar, conversational words. 2. Construct effective sentences and paragraphs. 3. Achieve appropriate readability (and listen-ability). 4. Include examples, illustrations, and other visual aids, when
  17. 17. Correctness The correctness principle comprises more than proper grammar, punctuation, and spelling. A message may be perfect grammatically and mechanically but still insult or lose a customer (internal & external) and fail to achieve its purpose. The term correctness, as applied to a business message, means the writer should: • Use the right level of language (When to be formal, tone, etc.) • Include only accurate facts, words, and figures • Maintain acceptable writing mechanics • Choose nondiscriminatory expressions • Apply all other pertinent C qualities
  18. 18. Courtesy Courteous messages help to strengthen present business friendships, as well as make new friends. Courtesy stems from sincere you-attitude. It is not merely politeness with mechanical insertions of "please's" and "thank-you's." To be courteous, considerate communicators should follow these suggestions regarding tone of the communications. • Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and appreciative. • Omit expressions that irritate, hurt, or belittle. • Grant and apologize good-naturedly.
  19. 19. FUNCTION OF COMMUNICATION • • • • • • • • Interaction function Information function Education/training function Entertainment function Emotional function Decision making function Feedback Persuasion function
  21. 21. Barriers to communication • Physical barriers (noise, invisibility, physical problems). • Language barriers (graphical mistakes, verbalism etc.). • Psychological barriers (anxiety, boredom, nervous) •
  22. 22. Other classification of barriers: Tangible Differences Gender Age Race National or Cultural Origin Socioeconomic Class Education Level Urban or Rural Residence
  23. 23. GENDER Major influence on the way we communicate with others. When men and women work together in a group, men tend to be more assertive and self-confident. Women are more likely than men to express their emotions, to reveal how they feel about a situation.
  24. 24. AGE Young people and old people communicate in different ways. We do tend to judge a statement by different standards if we know the speaker’s age. A person’s age or gender is not important in judging the truth or wisdom of what
  25. 25. Their maturity, their educational backgrounds, and the different eras in which they grew up make a Generation Gap inevitable.
  26. 26. Intangible Differences Perception Motivation Tunnel Vision EgoDefensiveness Negative Emotions
  27. 27. PERCEPTION Our physical limitations are a screen through which we perceive things that exist in our environment. Our perception is also limited by psychological screens that we have developed. Choosing from among the many things within our range of perception those that we will notice, and block out the rest is called “Selective Perception”
  28. 28. Mother: Will you straighten up your room? Teenager: Why? What’s messy?
  29. 29. Selective Perception • Allows us not only to block out things that are there, but also to see more things than are there. • Leads us to make our own reality! • Most clearly seen in the human tendency to stereotype others.
  30. 30. MOTIVATION A Motive is a Reason For Action! The most strongest motivations are those that are most personal. We are motivated by money, fame, power, love, status, security, skill, ambition...etc It can be both positive or negative.
  31. 31. TUNNEL VISION A closed way of thinking, especially about abstract topics, such as religion and politics. • The person with tunnel vision is one who has firmly fixed ideas • The opposite side is open-mindedness • Person with tunnel vision has attitude seems to say; “I’ve already made up my mind, Don’t confuse me with the facts!!!”
  32. 32. EGO DEFENSIVENESS A response pattern in which a person who follows this pattern sees a disagreement as a personal at act . A self-centered communication More than just being selfish
  33. 33. NEGATIVE EMOTIONS Almost always obstacles to good communication! Especially true if the emotion is uncontrolled, unfocused, or misdirected.
  34. 34. DISTORTION BARRIERS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Distractions Semantic Problems Absence Of Feedback Climate Status And Power Differences
  35. 35. Distractions It occurs where people are constantly coming in and leaving for one reason or another, and experinced the frustration that is created by this distracting traffic flow. flow
  36. 36. Semantic Problems Distortion in communication comes from semantics- the use of words or expressions which have a different meaning for the sender or receiver. Created when communicators use technical jargon- usage common to a particular field or specialization.
  37. 37. Status And Power Differences Differences in communications are likely to parallel the differences in power. Imbalance or asymmetry in negotiating power leads the high power party to perform significantly better than the low power party.
  38. 38. GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION ℘Be Exact ℘Use the word “is” carefully ℘Avoid Over generalization ℘Be sensitive to connotative meaning ℘Do not to overuse any word ℘Recognize that you don’t know all the answers to all questions ℘ Always remember that what others may not mean the way we think they mean it ℘ Focus on common interests rather than differences ℘ Think positive
  39. 39. IMPROVING COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVENESS IN NEGOTIATION • ♣QUESTIONING For clarifying communications, and eliminating noise and distortion . • ♣ROLE REVERSAL Understand the other’s position by actively arguing his position to his satisfaction. • ♣ACTIVE LISTENING / REFLECTING
  40. 40. Assignment • list out modern communication technologies. • Mail it to.