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Alternative binders for a sustainable built environment. SUS-CON alkali activated concrete

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Speech of Alessandro Largo (CETMA) during the 8th ECTP Conference in Brussels (13-14.11.2018)

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Alternative binders for a sustainable built environment. SUS-CON alkali activated concrete

  1. 1. Alternative binders for a sustainable built environment Sus-Con alkali activated concrete Alessandro LARGO
  2. 2. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 1994 ITALIAN RTO FOUNDED IN OUR SKILLS RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT & INNOVATION, ADVANCED SERVICES FOR: MATERIALS ENGINEERING ICTINDUSTRIAL DESIGN Materials & Construction Transport Productive systems Energy Healthcare 5.000 m2 of LABS and OFFICES • Materials technology lab • Rapid prototyping&ergonomics lab • Virtual Reality Center Industrial Priorities  CETMA - Facts & Figures 60+ EMPLOYEES researchers, engineers, designers & innovation managers www.cetma.it
  3. 3. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 …is a living creature which can adapt itself to any form, any need, any stress (Pier Luigi Nervi) CONCRETE… Calatrava, Auditorium, Tenerife Meier, Jubilee Church, Rome Millau bridge, France
  4. 4. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 14% of the total budget CIVIL ENGINEERING 19.1% NEW HOUSE BUILDING 23.1% REHABILITATION & MAINTENANCE 25,1% NON-RESIDENTIAL 32.7% 44,3% EU % OF GROSS FIXED CAPITAL FORMATION 0% (C) Direct costs of sub- contracting Indirect Costs 20% MAIN ACTIVITIES FIEC – KEY FIGURES 2018; CEMBUREAU 2016 JOBS IN CONSTRUCTION 2017 (X1000) 169.1 Million tonnes 14,536 6,955 4,980 Total EU-28 USA Japan 6.4% of total employment 8.9% of GDP 9.9 BLN € of turnover CEMENT PRODUCTION (EU 28)  CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY (EU 28 – Key figures)
  5. 5. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 HEALTH, SAFETY, & SECURITY WASTE production 7% of industrial ENERGY use 250 Mt/yr RAW MATERIALS SOIL use 7% of global CO2 EMISSIONS Raw materials extraction Raw materials processing Transport WATER consumption Usage Post-life NOISE www.wbcsdcement.org Raw materials transport before during after  GLOBAL CEMENT INDUSTRY
  6. 6. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 Carbon capture and storage Emission from cement kilns could be captured and stored. However, CCS technologies remain at the basic research or demonstration stages Clinker substitution A proportion of clinker can be replaced with other materials, such as fly ash and blast-furnace slag. Reduce use of cement in built environment For example, by recycling or reusing concrete or designing buildings to need less concrete HOW CAN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT BE REDUCED? Alternative ‘novel’ cements Development of clinker-free cements could significantly reduce environmental impact On average, the use of AAM can reduce environmental impact up to 8 times compared with traditional OPC
  7. 7. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 WHAT IS AN ALKALI ACTIVATED MATERIAL AND WHAT MAKES IT SO SPECIAL? AAM is any binder system derived by the reaction of an alkali metal source (activator) with a solid silicate powder (precursor) Geopolymers are a subset of AAMs, where the binding phase is almost exclusively aluminosilicate with low calcium content (fly ashes and calcined clays). The activator will usually be an alkali metal hydroxide or silicate Definitions from State-of-the-Art Report RILEM TC 224-AAM Duxson et al. (2006)
  8. 8. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 Metallurgical slag (GGBS, ferronickel, BOS, Valoxy) Mining industry wastes (perlite, bentonite, μ- silica, red mud) Energy industry / incineration wastes (PFA, APC) aggregates “precursor" materials (binder) chemical activators  Materials for alkali activated concrete production
  9. 9. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 WHAT EXPERTISE IS NEEDED TO DEVELOP ALKALI ACTIVATED MATERIALS? Advanced microstructural techniques for material characterisation and investigation on reaction products (XRD, IC, FTIR, TGA, SEM) Design, production and state-of-the-art facilities for testing paste, mortar and concrete products (fresh, hardened and durability properties)
  10. 10. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS To understand the reaction mechanisms and assess the reaction products of green binders LABORATORY TESTING ON SRM To measure main performances of secondary raw materials to be used as green aggregates MIX DESIGN To formulate hypotheses on the effect of certain variables to be confirmed or disproved LABORATORY TESTING ON AAM To investigate how variables influence the final results and show mutual interaction UPSCALE AND FULL TESTING To upscale the process from the lab to the plant, produce and test full scale components  AAM technology development (1/5)
  11. 11. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS To understand the reaction mechanisms of raw materials to be used as green binder LABORATORY TESTING ON SRM To measure main performances of secondary raw materials to be used as green aggregates MIX DESIGN To formulate hypotheses on the effect of certain variables to be confirmed or disproved LABORATORY TESTING ON AAM To investigate how variables influence the final results and show mutual interaction UPSCALE AND FULL TESTING To upscale the process from the lab to the plant, produce and test full scale components  AAM technology development (2/5)
  12. 12. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS To understand the reaction mechanisms of raw materials to be used as green binder LABORATORY TESTING ON SRM To measure main performances of secondary raw materials to be used as green aggregates MIX DESIGN To confirm or disprove hypotheses on the effect of mix variables on the material performances LABORATORY TESTING ON AAM To investigate how variables influence the final results and show mutual interaction UPSCALE AND FULL TESTING To upscale the process from the lab to the plant, produce and test full scale components  AAM technology development (3/5)
  13. 13. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS To understand the reaction mechanisms of raw materials to be used as green binder LABORATORY TESTING ON SRM To measure main performances of secondary raw materials to be used as green aggregates MIX DESIGN To formulate hypotheses on the effect of certain variables to be confirmed or disproved LABORATORY TESTING ON AAM To investigate how variables influence the final results and show mutual interaction UPSCALE AND FULL TESTING To upscale the process from the lab to the plant, produce and test full scale components  AAM technology development (4/5)
  14. 14. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS To understand the reaction mechanisms of raw materials to be used as green binder LABORATORY TESTING ON SRM To measure main performances of secondary raw materials to be used as green aggregates MIX DESIGN To formulate hypotheses on the effect of certain variables to be confirmed or disproved LABORATORY TESTING ON AAM To investigate how variables influence the final results and show mutual interaction UPSCALE, FULL TESTING ON AAM To upscale the process from the lab to the plant, produce and test full scale components  AAM technology development (5/5)
  15. 15. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 100% SRM concrete Ready-mixed (screeds) 1.000 blocks 50 panels 3 DEMOs SPAIN, ROMANIA, TURKEY SUStainable, innovative and energy- efficient CONcrete, based on the integration of all-waste materials SUCCESS STORY This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 285463
  16. 16. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 4 DEMOs UK, SPAIN, ITALY, TAIWAN CDW recycling maximization (robotics sorting system, disassembly strategies, BIM tool) www.re4.eu REuse and REcycling of CDW materials and structures in energy efficient pREfabricated elements for building REfurbishment and construction RE4 MATERIALS & COMPONENTS This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 723583
  17. 17. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 HOW MATURE IS THE TECHNOLOGY FROM AN INDUSTRIAL POINT OF VIEW? Production processes of AAMs are highly compatible with the existing concrete production processes (minimized equipment costs) High replicability using local materials from different sources system prototype demonstration in operational environment TRL 9 TRL 8 TRL 6 TRL 7 TRL 5 TRL 4 TRL 2 TRL 3 TRL 1
  18. 18. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 950-1500 kg/m3 5-18 MPa 1-2,5 MPa 0,15-0,25 W/mK Eco-sustainable, cement-free concrete blocks made of AAM (PFA/GGBS and PFA) and lightweight aggregates (PU, EoL tyre rubber, MSW mixed plastics) GEOBlock 100 %
  19. 19. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 1000-1400 kg/m3 5-10 MPa 1,5-2 MPa 0,15-0,30 W/mK Eco-sustainable, cement-free, prefabricated concrete panels made of AAM (PFA/GGBS and PFA) and lightweight aggregates (PU, MSW mixed plastics) GEOPanel 100 %
  20. 20. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 1100 kg/m3 12 MPa 1,4 MPa 0,18 W/mK Eco-sustainable pre-mixed, cement-free concrete made of AAM (PFA/GGBS) and lightweight aggregates (PU) GEOScreed 100 %
  21. 21. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 2300 kg/m3 42 MPa 3 MPa - W/mK Eco-sustainable pre-mixed, cement-free concrete made of AAM (PFA/GGBS) and CDW-derived aggregates GEOcrete 100 %
  22. 22. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 2150 kg/m3 30 MPa - MPa - W/mK Eco-sustainable, cement-free binder made of AAM (ceramic powder/GGBS) GEObinder 100 %
  23. 23. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018  Full-scale mock-ups 1 2 3 High replication potential (3 full scale mock-ups with different local sources as raw materials) 1 2 3
  24. 24. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 CUSTOMERS Lower price; high quality; low impact COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES Greener and more sustainable than its competitors; no use of natural resources; cost cutting KEY DRIVERS Increase in the preference of SRMs; demand of greater sustainability TECHNOLOGY Meet standards; high quality; use of SRMs; reduction of CO2 emission CONTEXT Concrete market size and high growth potential; resources scarcity; legislation for greener products Recycling of Secondary Raw Materials for greener building products  Market opportunities
  25. 25. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT…IS AAM THE PANACEA? Alkali activated concrete is a novel building material that allows a wide range of applications, high technological properties and reduced environmental impact. However some issues still need to be further investigated:  development and optimization of mix designs  analysis of durability characteristics  development of appropriate admixtures to enable rheology control  development of activators with lower environmental impact  validation and standardization of testing methods and performance-based specifications Panacea (center) administering medicine to a baby (J. Gazola,1716)
  26. 26. ECTP Conference Brussels, November 13-14, 2018 Diagnostics and Civil Engineering Area Manager Advanced Material & Processes Consulting Division s.s. 7 Appia Km 706+030 - 72100 Brindisi – ITALY phone: +39 (0)831 449.406 e-mail: alessandro.largo@cetma.it skype: alessandro.largo www.cetma.it DID I MAKE YOU CURIOUS ABOUT AAM? Alessandro LARGO

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