Report by Eng Bothaina Rached, General Manager of NREA, New and renewable energy authority, Cairo, www.nrea.gov.eg Presented at the workshop of the Mediterranean Solar Plan in Berlin, 28&29 Oct 2008.
Wind Energy in the southern Mediterranean, the case of Egypt
Arab Republic of Egypt
Ministry of Electricity & Energy
Mediterranean Solar Plan,
28 & 29 Oct. 2008 - Berlin
Wind Energy in the Southern Mediterranean,
The Case of Egypt
Eng. Bothayna Rashed
New & Renewable Energy Authority (NREA), Cairo
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Tel. & Fax:+202 22713176 & 22717173
Part I. Southern Mediterranean Profile
Potentials of Wind Energy.
Wind energy deployment.
Part II. The Case of Egypt
Wind Energy Development.
Wind Energy National Strategy up to 2020.
Part III. An Egyptian Point of View Towards MSP
Issues for discussed
Southern Mediterranean Profile
• Countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya,
Mauritania, Morocco, Palestine Territories, Syria, & Tunisia.
• Total Area: about 7.8 Mio. km2
• Population: about 197 Mio.
• Ave. Pop. Growth rate: 1.7%
• Energy Resources: Oil, Natural Gas, Hydro, Wind & Solar &
Source: CIA Fact book website
Key Indicators of SMCs
Country* Algeria Egypt Israel Jordan Leban. Libya Moro. Syria Tunis. Total OECD
Population (Mio) 32 72 6.8 5.9 3.54 5.74 32 18 10 185.98 1164
Pop Growth rate% 1.31 1.87 1.18 2.49 1.23 2.41 1.64 2.3 1.03 1.7
TPES (Mtoe) 32.9 56.9 20.7 6.52 5.4 18.2 11.5 18.4 8.7 179.22 5508
TPES/pop (toe/capita) 1.02 0.78 3.05 1.2 1.52 3.17 0.38 0.99 0.88 0.96 4.37
165.7 64.7 1.71 0.29 0.23 85.38 0.66 29.5 6.8 354.97 3860
26.3 88.3 46.28 8.57 8.85 14.46 17.73 24.48 11.5 246.47 9548
812 1215 6808 1575 2499 2520 595 1317 1157 1325 8204
GDP ppp (bil
196.4 281 152 23.44 19 33.7 118.1 61.65 70.91 956.2 29493
Net Imports (Mtoe) (132.3) (6.13) 19.05 6.73 5.18 (67.1) 10.6 (11.1) 1.99 (173) 1742
* No available data for Palestine and Mauritania
Source: Key World Energy Statistics, IEA, 2006
International Energy Annual, 2004, DOE
CIA Factbook website.
Energy Challenges Facing Southern Mediterranean
Uneven distribution of fossil fuel energy resources over the region.
Dramatic fluctuations in the international energy prices and markets, particularly
Lack of technology transfer and capacity building.
Modest investments in R&D related to energy aspects.
Limited FDIs and marginal role for national private sector.
National energy market distortion at different scales in some countries due to
Increasing electric energy demand due to socio-economic development.
Securing electricity supply on sustainable basis represents a burden on macro and
• RE can play a remarkable role in this respect, whereas Hydropower, Solar, Wind and Biomass
are the most available RE resources.
Potentials of Wind Energy in the Southern Mediterranean side
The potentials of large
scale wind power are
concentrated in some of
the coastal areas and
other internal parts of the
Southern side. source: AfriWEA
• Annual Average Wind Speed at
80 m above ground level in m/s
Source: ECMWF, ISET
DLR- MED CSP study
Wind Energy Potentials (cont.)
Source: DOE, USA
Wind Energy in the Southern Mediterranean side
Currently, 548 MW of wind farms are installed
in the Region, Compared with about 100 GW
world wide. Egypt; 340
Plans of wind energy in the SMCs:
- Morocco: 1000MW by 2012 Morocco; 174
- Algeria: Interested, NA
- Tunisia: 120MW by 2009 s
- Libya: 120 MW 2010
- Jordan: 30-40 MW by 2009, 180-380 MW Israel; 11
- Syria: 120MW by 2010
- Lebanon: NA
- Palestine: NA Egypt Morocco Tunisia Jordan Israel
- Israel: NA
Source: Global Wind Energy Council “GWEC” Feb. 2008
Source: RCREEE, MED-EMIP, NERC
Wind Energy Deployment
Wind energy utilization has not yet been boomed in the Southern
Mediterranean side, due to:
Dependence on imported equipment.
Lack of national plans for technology transfer.
Absence of the strategic planning towards the relevant R&D.
Inadequate interest towards the technical education.
The role of the private sector in such business is marginal.
Ineffective sub-regional and regional cooperation in terms of
manufacturing/assembling the components of RE equipment
and facilitating the movement of the capitals and profits,
hence the wind market is still weak.
The Case of Egypt
340 MW wind farms
Electricitysolar thermal power plant
140 MW Accessibility:
98% of Egyptian Population
2783 MW Hydro power plants
Wind Energy Development in Egypt
Developing wind energy program is based on :
• Setting up the concerned national institutional frame
• Bilateral and international cooperation.
• Securing funds for the projects (national resources,
grants and soft loans).
• Building the national capacity in the field.
• Conducting extensive wind resource assessment.
Wind Atlas of
Wind Atlas of Gulf
of Suez, 2003
Wind Energy Program
The program has passed through 3 phases since 1988.
i) Pilot ph.: small scale projects:
* 400 KW wind project to serve an Oil Co. at Gulf of Suez).
* 400 KW wind farm at Hurghada on the Red Sea coast (some components were locally
ii) Demo ph.: limited commercial projects:
* 5.2 MW wind farm project at Hurghada (some components were locally
Wind Energy Projects
iii) Large scale grid connected projects:
Presently, 335 MW wind farm at Zafarana site (451 turbines)
on the Gulf of Suez is operative into stages starting from
The farm is generating about 1100 GWh/a, saving about
260,000 T.O.E., and avoiding about 650,000 T.CO2.
2x120 MW wind farms at Zafarana are in different phases of
implementation to be operative by mid of 2009 and 2010
• 420 MW projects at Al Zayt Gulf area on Gulf of Suez, are in the phase of studies.
300 MW projects at Al Zayt Gulf are in the pipeline.
• 120 MW private investments project at Al Zayt Gulf is in the phase of environmental
Wind Energy National Strategy up to 2020
Recently, the Supreme Council of Energy in Egypt has approved an
ambitious plan to:
•Satisfy 20% of the generated
electricity by RE by 2020,
• Out of which is 12% contribution
from wind energy (about 7200 MW)
grid-connected wind farms,
•Accordingly, about 600 MW will be
implemented annually .
The plan is open for private investments, through competitive bidding
as a 1st ph., to be followed by feed-in-tariff, taking into consideration
the prices achieved in ph. 1.
Egypt' Case, Lessons Learnt
I. On the national level
•Resource assessment studies (wind atlas etc.).
•Establishing the institutional framework (NREA).
•Setting up national RE strategy over a long term.
•Supporting regulatory framework (long PPA, regulations, tax
reduction, exemption, etc.).
•Well trained staff.
• Leveling the ground for private sector participation and attracting
Egypt' Case, Lessons Learnt
II. On the international level
A positive role for international institutions (GEF, UNEP, WB…).
Strong bilateral cooperation (KfW, Danida,…).
Facilitating technology transfer.
Strengthening the regional and international cooperation (RCREEE).
Technical and financial assistance for the developing countries.
An Egyptian Point of View Towards MSP
• SMCs enjoy huge potentials of solar energy as well as remarkable
potentials of wind energy,
• Relevant technologies are matured and well known,
• RE power projects are expensive,
• The political coverage for MSP is existing,
But, the Road Map to go beyond further is ……..?
• An implementing structure and mechanism to keep the momentum of MSP
(e.g. Secretariat, Executive Committee, Task Forces, Focal Points, …..).
• Financing modalities are indispensable.
• A continuous dialogue between the EU-SMCs would be an added value in
terms of identifying the priorities, needs, roles, means and action plans.
• Conditions/criteria for projects selection in terms of technologies, sizes,
sites, objectives, beneficiaries, financing schemes, etc.).
Specific Issues for Comprehensive Discussions
•Export of RE power to EU (EU tariffs for RE generated electricity
form SMCs based on “transnational” feed in laws).
•The required infrastructure ( Grid connection and TL capacities).
•Coordination, interpretation and transparency between parties.
•Cooperation with existing bodies (e.g. RCREEE) and coordination
between initiatives (GMI-CSP, Empower, MSP/UFM,…).
•Facilitating development and technology transfer to SMCs.
•Roles of EU, national Governments, project developers, private
sector, industry, CDM/Green certificates.
Mediterranean Basin Interconnection