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CPR (or cardiopulmonary resuscitation) is a combination of
rescue breathing (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation) and chest
compressions. If someone isn't breathing or circulating blood
adequately, CPR can restore circulation of oxygen-rich blood
to the brain. Without oxygen, permanent brain damage or
death can occur in less than 8 minutes
CPR alone is unlikely to restart the heart; its main purpose is
to restore partial flow of oxygenated blood to the brain and
heart. It may delay tissue death and extend the brief window
of opportunity for a successful resuscitation without
permanent brain damage.. CPR may however induce a
shockable rhythm. CPR is generally continued until the person
regains return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or is
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a
combination of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and
chest compressions that delivers oxygen and
artificial blood circulation to a person who is in
cardiac arrest. It can be life-saving first aid.
Heart disease – the most common cause of cardiac arrest
Ventricular fibrillation (VF)
Ventricular tachycardia (VT)
Pulse less electrical activity
This may be result of following:
Foreign body in throat
Electrocution or injury by lightening
To maintain an open and clear airway (A).
To maintain breathing by external ventilation (B).
To maintain Blood circulation by external cardiac massages
To save life of the Patient.
To provide basic life support till medical and advanced life
To restore effective circulation and ventilation.
To prevent irreversible cerebral damage due to
anoxia. When the heart fails to maintain the
cerebral circulation for approximately four minutes
the brain may suffer irreversible damage.
CPR is used on people in cardiac arrest in order to oxygenate
the blood and maintain a cardiac output to keep vital organs
Blood circulation and oxygenation are required to transport
oxygen to the tissues. The brain may sustain damage after
blood flow has been stopped for about four minutes and
irreversible damage after about seven minutes.
Typically if blood flow ceases for one to two hours, the cells of
the body die. Because of that CPR is generally only effective if
performed within seven minutes of the stoppage of blood flow.
The heart also rapidly loses the ability to maintain a normal
rhythm. Low body temperatures as sometimes seen in near-
drownings prolong the time the brain survives.
Following cardiac arrest, effective CPR enables enough
oxygen to reach the brain to delay brain death, and allows the
heart to remain responsive to defibrillation attempts
Universal Compression To Ventilation Ratio:
For Adult- 30:2
For Children And Infant- 15:2
For New Born- 3:1
Recommended compression depth in adults and children
is about 5 cm (2 inches) and in infants it is 4 cm
CPR techniques are used in persons whose respirations
and circulation of blood have suddenly and
There is no need of attempting CPR techniques in
patients in the last stage of an incurable illness and in
persons whose heartbeat and respiration have been
absent for more than six minutes.
The immediate responsibilities of the resuscitator are:
To recognize the signs of cardiac arrest
Protect the patient’s brain from anoxia by immediately
starting artificial ventilation of the lungs and external
Call for help.
The cardio Pulmonary resuscitation must be
initiated within three to four minutes in order to
prevent permanent brain damage.
Strike the centre of the chest sharply with the side
of the clenched fist twice.
Call for assistance.
Clear the airway of false teeth, vomits food material
Initiate ventilation and external cardiac massage without
-The CPR techniques should not be discontinued for
more than five seconds before normal circulation and
ventilation of lungs are established except
When the patient is moved to a hard surface.
When endotracheal intubation is being carried out (
maximum time allowed for these two procedure is 15
-Before CPR is attempted in a patient, make sure that
the airway is clear. It may be obstructed due to many
reasons; so keep the patient’s neck hyper extended
after confirming that he is having any cervical injury.
Before starting CPR, check:
Is the person conscious or unconscious?
If the person appears unconscious, tap or shake his or
her shoulder and ask loudly, "Are you OK?"
If the person doesn't respond and two people are
available, one should call 108 or the local emergency
number and one should begin CPR. If you are alone and
have immediate access to a telephone, call 108 before
beginning CPR — unless you think the person has
become unresponsive because of suffocation (such as
from drowning). In this special case, begin CPR for one
minute and then call 108 or the local emergency
If an AED is immediately available, deliver one shock if
instructed by the device, then begin CPR.
In 2010, the American Heart Association changed its long-
held acronym of ABC to CAB — circulation, airway,
breathing — to help people remember the order to
perform the steps of CPR. This change emphasizes the
importance of chest compressions to help keep blood
flowing through the heart and to the brain.
CIRCULATION: RESTORE BLOOD
CIRCULATION WITH CHEST
Put the person on his or her back on a firm surface.
Kneel next to the person's neck and shoulders.
Place the heel of one hand over the center of the person's
chest, between the nipples. Place your other hand on top
of the first hand. Keep your elbows straight and position
your shoulders directly above your hands.
Use your upper body weight (not just your arms) as you
push straight down on (compress) the chest at least 2
inches (approximately 5 centimeters). Push hard at a rate
of about 100 compressions a minute.
AIRWAY: CLEAR THE AIRWAY
If you're trained in CPR and you've performed 30 chest
compressions, open the person's airway using the head-
tilt, chin-lift maneuver. Put your palm on the person's
forehead and gently tilt the head back. Then with the
other hand, gently lift the chin forward to open the
Check for normal breathing, taking no more than five or
10 seconds. Look for chest motion, listen for normal
breath sounds, and feel for the person's breath on your
cheek and ear. Gasping is not considered to be normal
breathing. If the person isn't breathing normally and you
are trained in CPR, begin mouth-to-mouth breathing. If
you believe the person is unconscious from a heart
attack and you haven't been trained in emergency
procedures, skip mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing and
continue chest compressions
BREATHING: BREATHE FOR THE PERSON
Rescue breathing can be mouth to mouth breathing
or mouth to nose breathing if the mouth is seriously
injured or can’t be opened.
If the person has normal breathing, coughing, or
movement, do not begin chest compressions. Doing
so may cause the heart to stop beating.
Be sure to survey the scene for danger before you
attempt to administer CPR.
Remember that CPR is different for adults, children and
infants; this CPR is meant to be administered to an
Always wear gloves and use a breathing barrier when
possible to make transmission of diseases less likely.
Do not move the patient unless they are in immediate
danger or are in a place that is life threatening.
Review the person’s condition if signs of life return
(coughing, movement or normal breathing). If the
person is breathing on their own, stop CPR and
place them on their side with their head tilted back.
If the person is not breathing, continue full CPR
until the ambulance arrives.
Be ready to recommence CPR if the person stops
breathing or becomes unresponsive or unconscious
again. Stay by their side until medical help arrives.
Talk reassuringly to them if they are conscious.