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  1. 1. A generalized fast motion estimation algorithm using external and internalstop search techniques for H.264 video coding standardIsmail, Y.; McNeely, J.; Shaaban, M.; Bayoumi, M.A.Circuits and Systems, 2008. ISCAS 2008. IEEE International Symposium onDigital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ISCAS.2008.4542232Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 3574 - 3577Cited by: 2IEEE Conference Publications | Quick Abstract | PDF (186 KB)In this paper, a set of computationally efficient accurate skipping techniques are proposed formotion estimation. First, a partial internal stop search (ISS) technique which utilizes anaccurate adaptive threshold model is exploited to skip the internal SAD (sum of absolutedifference) operations between the current and reference blocks. Second, an external stopsearch (ESS) technique greatly reduces the unnecessary operations by skipping all theirrelevant blocks in the search area. The proposed techniques can be incorporated in anyblock matching motion estimation algorithm. Computational complexity reduction isreflected on the amount of saving in motion estimation encoding time. Simulation resultsusing H.264 reference software (JM 12.4) show up to 71.26% saving in motion estimationtime using the proposed techniques compared to the fast full search algorithm adopted in JM12.4 with a negligible degradation in the PSNR by approximately 0.03 dB and a smallincrease in the required bits per frame by only 2%.A new technique for quality scalable video coding with H.264Benierbah, S.; Khamadja, M.Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions onVolume: 15 , Issue: 11Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TCSVT.2005.856897Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1332 - 1340Cited by: 2IEEE Journals & Magazines | Quick Abstract | PDF (800 KB)In this paper, we provide a technique that allows H264/AVC to achieve quality scalablecoding by allowing the coder to produce different coded motion qualities. This technique iscalled block ordering scalability. It realizes scalability by exploiting the existing buildingblocks of the standard. It may need minor changes of the current standard, but in its simpleform, presented here, it does not need any change at all. The blocks carrying the updatingpicture information are ordered according to their importance into different slices. Thisreordering allows realizing a gradual refinement of the quality of coded pictures. Animplementation of such a system is achieved by analyzing the motion of a given picture todetermine the most important blocks to code for basic quality and the less important onesused for enhancement. In this case, scalability affects the quality of the reproduced motion.
  2. 2. This way of coding the enhancement blocks allows achieving rate-adaptive coding. Manyexperimental results that show the efficiency of the technique are providedUnequal Error Protection Technique for ROI Based H.264 Video CodingH. Kodikara Arachchi; W.A.C. Fernando; S. Panchadcharam; W.A.R.J. WeerakkodyElectrical and Computer Engineering, 2006. CCECE 06. Canadian Conference onDigital Object Identifier: 10.1109/CCECE.2006.277430Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2033 - 2036Cited by: 1IEEE Conference Publications | Quick Abstract | PDF (153 KB)This paper presents a region of interest (ROI) based video coding technique for H.264 basedvideo coding with improved error resilience and error protection in the foreground. We usedthe flexible macroblock ordering (FMO) tool in H.264 video coding standard to encode thevideo frame into three separate slices. First slice carries the background, and other two slicescontains alternative macroblock of the foreground forming a check board pattern. Foregroundpackets are protected with a stronger error correction code than background packets.Experimental results show that the proposed technique improves the objective quality of theforeground by more than 1 dBImproved machine learning techniques for low complexity MPEG-2 to H.264transcoding using optimized codecsHolder, C.; Tao Pin; Kalva, H.Consumer Electronics, 2009. ICCE 09. Digest of Technical Papers International ConferenceonDigital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICCE.2009.5012345Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 2IEEE Conference Publications | Quick Abstract | PDF (249 KB)This paper discusses techniques for efficiently implementing a Mpeg-2 to H.264 videotranscoder. The transcoding results reported in the literature are based on a referenceimplementation and may not reflect the true performance gains obtained in real worldsystems. We have developed low complexity transcoding algorithms and have implementedthese solutions using highly optimized encoder and decoder implementations available fromIntel. The transcoding algorithms are based on exploiting the mode decision knowledgeinherent in the decoded MPEG-2 data. Machine learning techniques are used to makeaccurate and low-complexity H.264 MB encoding mode decisions. The results show that theproposed transcoder reduces the complexity by 50% without a significant loss in PSNR. Thisperformance improvement in production quality transcoders, and demonstrates thepracticality of machine learning based video transcoding algorithms
  3. 3. H.264 Main Profile video decoding implementation techniques onOMAP3430IVARamachandra, P.; Satish, M.R.Signal Processing (ICSP), 2010 IEEE 10th International Conference onDigital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICOSP.2010.5657208Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 271 - 274IEEE Conference Publications | Quick Abstract | PDF (161 KB)High resolution H.264 video contents are present over Internet and local storage devices inhuge number thus pushing the need of supporting high definition H.264 video decoding incurrent generation hand held devices. Texas Instruments (TI) OMAP3430 (Open MultimediaApplications Platform) is a multimedia processor which is highly used in portable devices.This paper describes the efficient implementation of H.264 Main Profile video decoder onImage and Video Accelerator (IVA) subsystem of OMAP3430 platform. Major focus ofcurrent work is on algorithmic, architectural and memory level optimizations. Proposedoptimization steps help in achieving real time playback of high resolution H.264 Main Profilecontents on hand held devices with high performance and low power consumptionPerceptual video encryption using multiple 8×8 transforms in H.264 andMPEG-4Siu-Kei Au Yeung; Shuyuan Zhu; Bing ZengAcoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2011 IEEE International Conference onDigital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICASSP.2011.5946976Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2436 - 2439Cited by: 1IEEE Conference Publications | Quick Abstract | PDF (572 KB)It has been demonstrated in our earlier works that perceptual video encryption can beeffectively achieved by using multiple transforms where the block size 4×4 has beenconsidered. In this paper, we study the extension to the transforms of size 8×8. In this case, amore complex flow-graph structure is resulted, thus leading to a larger room for encryption.In addition, special technique on controlling the encrypted video quality is presented bycarefully selecting the number of rotations in the flow-graph structure of an 8×8 transform.The proposed scheme is first evaluated using the high profile of H.264. It is then furthertested for the MPEG-4 standard that completely relies on 8×8 transform. Both cases showthat promising results can be achieved with our proposed schemeAn Edge Preserving Spatial Error Concealment Technique for the H.264Video Coding Standard
  4. 4. Beesley, S.; Armstrong, A.; Grecos, C.Research in Microelectronics and Electronics 2006, Ph. D.Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/RME.2006.1689909Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 113 - 116IEEE Conference Publications | Quick Abstract | PDF (3829 KB)This paper presents a combination of algorithms which, when used together, produce a highlyeffective spatial error concealment technique that can be used on intra slices in the H.264video coding standard. By first detecting edges passing through neighboring macroblocks, aweighting system can be applied to a multi-directional interpolation scheme, experimentalresults show that this preserves edges through erroneous macroblocks which in turn givesboth significantly improved mathematical and visual performance over the commonly usedweighted pixel value averagingAn Improved Transformation Technique for H.264 / Advanced Video CodingEzhilarasan, M.; Thambidurai, P.; Rajalakshmi, V.; Ramya, R.; Vishnupriya, M.Conference on Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications, 2007. InternationalConference onVolume: 3Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICCIMA.2007.124Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 123 - 127IEEE Conference Publications | Quick Abstract | PDF (268 KB)A video encoder/decoder (CODEC) performs video data compression by having combinationof three main modules such as motion estimation and compensation, transformation, andentropy encoding. Among these three modules, transformation is the module of removing thespatial redundancy that exists in the spatial domain of video sequence. Discrete cosinetransformation (DCT) is the defacto transformation method in existing image and videocoding standards. DCT is a popular transformation technique for intra and inter frame videocoding. Even though it has high energy preserving and correlation properties, it suffers fromblocking artifacts. This problem affects the performance of other subsequent modulesinvolved in the video CODEC. To overcome this problem, a hybridization method has beenincorporated in transformation module of video CODEC. This paper presents animprovement in the transformation module by incorporating DCT as transformationtechnique for inter frames and discrete wavelet transform for intra frames of video sequence.This proposal is also applied in the existing H.264/AVC standard. Extensive experimentshave been conducted with various low-bit rate video sequences. The results show that theproposed technique outperforms the existing transformation technique used in theH.264/AVC considerably.Improved H.264-based video coding using an adaptive transform
  5. 5. Biswas, M.; Pickering, M.R.; Frater, M.R.Image Processing (ICIP), 2010 17th IEEE International Conference onDigital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICIP.2010.5652136Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 165 - 168IEEE Conference Publications | Quick Abstract | PDF (266 KB)In block-based video coding, the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) has been adopted forsignal decorrelation in state-of-the-art standards. Although the Karhunen Loeve Transform(KLT) is known to achieve optimal energy compaction, it has been reported to offer onlymoderate compression as the KLT basis functions are source dependent and hence require thetransform itself to be coded. This paper describes a technique for prediction-error blockcoding using the KLT. The proposed method does not require coding of the KLT bases.Instead the basis functions can be derived at the decoder in a manner similar to the encoder.The proposed method is incorporated into a standard H.264 video codec using an adaptivetransform selection approach. Our experiments show that the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio(PSNR) improvement of up to 0.9 dB is achieved with the proposed technique whencompared with the standard H.264 codec.Unequal Error Protection for H.264 Video Using RCPC Codes andHierarchical QAMWei-Ho Chung; Paluri, S.; Kumar, S.; Nagaraj, S.; Matyjas, J.D.Communications (ICC), 2010 IEEE International Conference onDigital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICC.2010.5502199Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6IEEE Conference Publications | Quick Abstract | PDF (331 KB)Compressed video data is very sensitive to channel-induced errors and network losses. Mostconventional unequal error protection techniques involve forward error correction codes ofdifferent rates or asymmetric signal constellations for data of different priorities. It is yetunknown if combining the above two techniques can further improve performance. In thispaper, we investigate rate-compatible punctured convolutional (RCPC) codes concatenatedwith hierarchical QAM for H.264 encoded video sequences. We investigate systemconstraints and propose an optimization formulation to compute the optimal parameters of theproposed system under the given source significance information. An upper bound to the biterror rate of the proposed system is derived as a function of system parameters, including thecode rate and geometry of the constellation. The example shown demonstrates system designfor H.264 video, where PSNR improvement is observedRobust Filtering Technique for Reduction of Temporal Fluctuation in H.264Video Sequences
  6. 6. Jie Xiang Yang; Hong Ren WuCircuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions onVolume: 20 , Issue: 3Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TCSVT.2009.2035850Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 458 - 462Cited by: 2IEEE Journals & Magazines | Quick Abstract | PDF (298 KB)The H.264/advanced video coding standard applies a spatial loop-filter in both encoder anddecoder to reduce the blocking artifact. However, the temporal fluctuation artifact is stillnoticeable between intra-coded frames or between an intra (I)-frame and its preceding orsubsequent inter-prediction (P) frames. This letter proposes a temporal postfilter using arobust statistical model to reduce the temporal fluctuation and to preserve the motionsharpness of the reconstructed video. The novelty is the implementation of a simplified robuststatistical model as well as the Huber statistical model for the temporal fluctuation reduction.Performance evaluations of fluctuation reduction have been conducted using the proposedrobust statistical temporal filter (RSTF), the Huber filter, and three other temporal filteringtechniques, in terms of a temporal impairment metric (i.e., the sum of squared differences),and a spatial quality metric (i.e., the peak-signal-to-noise ratio). Consistent improvements ofthe temporal fluctuation reduction and the perceptual picture quality produced by the RSTFare demonstrated using the aforementioned performance criteria, and can be best appreciatedby viewing the sequences on professional broadcasting television monitors.VCGE: Video Coding Grid Environment Using H.264 Video CompressionTechnologiesYang Tao; Zhiming Liu; Yuxing PengComputational Intelligence and Security, 2006 International Conference onVolume: 2Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICCIAS.2006.295355Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1726 - 1729IEEE Conference Publications | Quick Abstract | PDF (4464 KB)In this paper we propose video coding grid environment (VCGE), which is a project toprovide a high performance video-coding platform in a grid-computing environment. As far,computational grids have become a vital emerging platform for high performance computingand video coding applications with high computing complexity have been used widely inmany scientific research areas. We adopt the H.264 video compression technologies that aredue to get high coding efficiency and high encoding performance in the new JVT while havevery high computing complexity. VCGE is a combination of grid and H.264 videocompression techniques on which complex video coding and other related applications can becarried out. In this paper, we discuss the infrastructure to provide the integration platformwith both techniques, and give the components of the environment, which provides flexible
  7. 7. and useful mechanism to achieve high video coding performance for video codingapplications. The proposed design is very efficient for more complex video codingapplications and presents us a novel video coding technology, which is leading a direction ofgrid application development.Adaptive Video Concealment using Neural Networks for H.264 Based VideoCodingA. Shahriari; W.A.C. Fernando; H. Kodikara ArachchiElectrical and Computer Engineering, 2006. CCECE 06. Canadian Conference onDigital Object Identifier: 10.1109/CCECE.2006.277457Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2041 - 2044IEEE Conference Publications | Quick Abstract | PDF (275 KB)Transmission errors are unavoidable in almost all state-of-the-art communication systems.Due to the predictive nature of the syntax elements and the use of variable length coding invideo coding techniques, even a single bit error could render a large portion of the bit streamundecodable. Therefore, some parts of a picture may not be able to reconstruct correctly. Dueto spatial temporal prediction, these errors can be propagated spatial and temporal directionsforming annoying visual artifacts. Therefore, error concealment is a key requirement inalmost all video applications. In this paper, we propose a fully receiver based adaptive errorconcealment algorithm using neural networks for video applications. A previously trainedneural network is fine tuned using correctly received motion vectors and the corruptedmotion vectors are predicted block by block using this network. Experimental results showthat the proposed algorithm improves the picture quality significantlyFast Mode Decision Algorithm Using Efficient Block Skip Techniques forH.264 P SlicesYoungsub Jo; Jongmin You; Wonkyun Kim; Jechang JeongAdvances in Multimedia, 2009. MMEDIA 09. First International Conference onDigital Object Identifier: 10.1109/MMEDIA.2009.24Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 92 - 97Cited by: 1IEEE Conference Publications | Quick Abstract | PDF (391 KB)In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm that can reduce the complexity for inter modedecision of the H.264 encoder by minimizing a large number of calculations of inter modedecision process adaptively. The main idea is to use the technique skipping unnecessarymacroblock modes. We focus on two block size modes, which is 16times16 and 8times8block size modes, in proposed algorithm. The percentage of 16times16 block size modes isthe largest in most of the sequences. This means that many redundant mode calculations canbe removed. The percentage of 8times8 block size mode is small. But time consumption
  8. 8. caused in the mode decision of encoder is very considerable. Therefore if we can extract theunnecessary 8times8 block size mode calculation well, a large amount of time can be saved intotal encoding process. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm canachieve up to 43% speed up ratio with a little PSNR loss. Increase of total bits encoded isalso not much noticeableStreaming of H.264 video using scalable multiple descriptions and ratelesscodesCostamagna, Eugenio; Favalli, Lorenzo; Folli, Marco; Savazzi, PietroWireless Pervasive Computing (ISWPC), 2010 5th IEEE International Symposium onDigital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ISWPC.2010.5483763Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 418 - 423Cited by: 1IEEE Conference Publications | Quick Abstract | PDF (285 KB)Efficient and reliable techniques are key factors in the delivery of multimedia informationover networks such as mobile ad hoc networks and the internet. Existing works tend to mixsource coding techniques like multiple description coding and scalability with networktechniques such as path diversity and forward error correction capabilities (FEC) or morerecently rateless codes. In this work we exploit all these factors and propose a technique thatgenerates H.264 compatible scalable streams which are sent over independent paths usingrateless codes. The amount of allowed redundancy is adapted according to the channelcapacity on a group of pictures basis. We show that the approach is efficient and allows toderive some design criteria to determine coding rate and buffer size at the receiver.Unequal error protection of H.264 Scalable Video Coding using discretewavelet transfrom within a lognormal shadowing environmentMorcos, A.; Elshabrawy, T.Consumer Electronics - Berlin (ICCE-Berlin), 2011 IEEE International Conference onDigital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICCE-Berlin.2011.6031842Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 66 - 70IEEE Conference Publications | Quick Abstract | PDF (236 KB)In this paper, Unequal Error Protection (UEP) is applied to a proposed Scalable VideoCoding (SVC) amendment to the H.264/AVC standard. The proposed SVC framework usesDiscrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) as a hierarchically signal decomposition for multi-resolution analysis and H.264/AVC as a source coding and compression technique. Theoutput streams are divided into four streams with different priorities. UEP is applied in twodifferent dimensions, the first dimension is defined under the video scalability and the seconddimension gives higher priority to I-frames over P-frames. UEP is realized using acombination of Hierarchical Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (H-QAM) and Forward Error
  9. 9. Correction (FEC) based on Rate Compatible Punctured Convolutional Codes (RCPC). Amethod to find the optimal selection of parameters for the H-QAM and the rate used by theRCPC is proposed to achieve a certain predefined quality of service based on the receivedSNR distribution due to lognormal shadowing within the network cell. Simulation resultsshow that the proposed UEP scheme outperforms the Equal Error Protection (EEP) for lowSNR values while minimizing as much as possible the loss for higher SNR users and thusachieving a better quality of serviceData hiding in audio signal, video signal text and JPEG imagesSathya, V.; Balasubramaniyam, K.; Murali, N.; Rajakumaran, M.; VigneswariAdvances in Engineering, Science and Management (ICAESM), 2012 InternationalConference onPublication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 741 - 746IEEE Conference Publications | Quick Abstract | PDF (465 KB)Steganography means hiding a message. Information hiding technique is a new kind of secretcommunication technology. Information hiding system uses multimedia objects like audio,images and text. Digital audio, images, text are increasingly furnished with distinguishing butimperceptible marks, which may contain a hidden copyright notice or serial number or evenhelp to prevent unauthorized copying directly. Today the growth in the informationtechnology, especially in computer networks such as internet, mobile communication anddigital multimedia applications such as digital camera, handset video etc