3 g 4g adv_chal 041406 ver1


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3 g 4g adv_chal 041406 ver1

  1. 1. 3G and 4G Wireless – Advances and Challenges Suresh R. Borkar Adjunct Faculty, Dept of ECE, Ill Instt. of Tech. sureshbo@hotmail.com Apr 14, 2006 1SRB 041406 ver1
  2. 2. 3G and 4G Wireless – Advances and Challenges  Where are we?  3G Wireless Summary  Where do we Want to go?  Evolution to Seamless Networking  4G Wireless  Challenges The one who stays still is left behind 2SRB 041406 ver1
  3. 3. Where are We?  Classic Wireline MaBell Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) – US Universal coverage achieved early 1980’s  “Wireless” First Generation Analog Systems – Speech – AMPS, TACS  Second Generation Digital Systems – Enhanced Capacity – CDMA, D-AMPS, TDMA, GSM, DECT, PDC  2.5 Generation Systems – Low Speed Data – GPRS, EDGE  Third Generation Systems – “INTERNET” on Wireless – WiFi/HyperLAN <-> WiMAX/HyperWAN <-> CDMA2000/WCDMA – Evolution to All IP Network including VoIP 3SRB 041406 ver1
  4. 4. Representative Wireless Standards  GSM/TDMA – Time Division Multiplexing based access  CDMA – Code Division Multiplexing based access  OFDM – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Many toys to play with 4SRB 041406 ver1
  5. 5. TDMA/FDMA slot 1 slot 2 ... Slot n Frequency 1 Circuit Circuit Circuit Frequency 2 Circuit Circuit Circuit . . Downlink Path . Frequency Frequency n Circuit Circuit Circuit Domain Frequency 1 Circuit Circuit Circuit Frequency 2 Circuit Circuit Circuit . . Uplink Path . Frequency n Circuit Circuit Circuit Give the same air to all 5SRB 041406 ver1
  6. 6. CDMA t Freq: Chips X user 1 user 2 usern Separated by PN codes t Message III Channelization code: Separate xmissions from a single source from each other Scrambling code: separate different sources t from each other Spreading Code = Channelization code x Resulting Signal Scrambling code All persons are created equal 6SRB 041406 ver1
  7. 7. Multipath Arrival of Signals Y Y Transmitted symbol received signal Modified with the combined at each time delay channel estimate symbol finger #1 finger #2 finger #3 7SRB 041406 ver1
  8. 8. CDMA Rake Receiver Input signal (from RF) I correlator phase rotator delay SUM I equalizer Q I SUM Q code channel generator estimator Q Finger 1 Combiner Finger 2 Finger 3 Timing (Finger allocation) Matched filter 8SRB 041406 ver1
  9. 9. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)  Successor to Frequency Hopping and Direct Sequence CDMA  Capability to cancel multipath distortion in a spectrally efficient manner without requiring multiple local oscillators (802.11a and 802.16)  Based on use of IFFT and FFT  Frequency orthogonality as compared to code orthogonality in CDMA using Walsh Code 9SRB 041406 ver1
  10. 10. 3G Services 2MHz video telemedicine conferencing Video on Mobile demand TV electronic Internet radio newspaper Bandwidth paging audio conferencing messaging Mobile radio Fax voice 1KHz bi-directional unidirectional Broadcast/ multicast Who is first? – the customer; who is second? - No one 10SRB 041406 ver1
  11. 11. Key Mobility Services  Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS) – Text, sounds, images, and video – Transition from Short Message Service (SMS) – Open Internet standards for messaging  Web Applications – Information portals – Wireless Markup Language (WML) with signals using Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)  Location Communications Services – Location Awareness Based  Personalization of information presentation format – Service capability negotiations (MExE environment) 11SRB 041406 ver1
  12. 12. Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic (CAMEL)  CAMEL = IN + Service portability (incl mobility and roaming)  Virtual Private Network (VPN) • Mobile user <-> ISP <-> corporate server • Mobility, Security, Capacity and quality  Prepaid, Usage Limitations, Advanced Routing Services  Virtual Home Environment (VHE) • Subscriber profile, charging information, Service information, numbering information • Integration of array of services, content conversion to heterogeneous services, network user profile, location aware services Take the claims with a grain of salt 12SRB 041406 ver1
  13. 13. GSM Network SCP gsm PSTN/ISDN SSP SCF STP ISUP IN HLR AuC C Gw-MSC Billing E, I C, D Center Call S UP VLR SMS-GW MSC GSM 04.08 A BSS UE Circuit domain 13SRB 041406 ver1
  14. 14. GSM & GPRS SCP gsm PSTN/ISDN SSP IP Services PDN SCF STP ISUP IN Gi HLR AuC Gc C Gw-MSC GGSN Billing Ga Data, CGw E, I C, D Center voice, Call S Gn video UP Ga call SMS-GW Gr VLR MSC SGSN GSM GSM 04.08+ A Gb 04.08+ BSS UE Circuit domain Packet domain 14SRB 041406 ver1
  15. 15. WCDMA/UMTS SCP gsm PSTN/ISDN SSP IP Services PDN SCF STP IN, CAMEL ISUP Gi+ HLR+ AuC Gc+ C Gw-MSC GGSN Billing Ga+ Data, C+, D+ CGw E+, Center voice, Call Gn+ I video SU P Ga+ call VLR SMS-GW Gr+ 3G-MSC 3G-SGSN GSM GSM 04.08++ Iu-cs Iu-ps 04.08++ UTRAN UE Circuit domain Packet domain 15SRB 041406 ver1
  16. 16. GSM/UMTS Bit rate, Mobility and Services High (Car / Train) GSM HSCSD GPRS Mobility Text Messaging EDGE Voice CS Data Fax UMTS Low (stationary) Bit Rate, Kbps 9.6 14.4 76.0 GPRS 384.0 EDGE UMTS 2 Mb/s HSCSD 16SRB 041406 ver1
  17. 17. 3G Evolution 2.5G GPRS 3.5G GSM EDGE HSCSD 170 kbps 473 kbps EDGE Ph2 15.2 kbps GRAN 473 kbps TDMA TD-SCDMA CDPD TD-SCDMA Ph 2 43.2 kbps 284 kbps 2 Mbps WCDMA TDD 2 Mbps PDA/PDC-P WCDMA FDD 14.4 kbps 2 Mbps WCDMA HSDPA 10 Mbps CDMA2000 1x 1XEV-DO (HDR) 2.4 Mbps cdmaOne 307 kps 76.8 kbps 1XEV-DV (HDR) 5.4 Mbps HyperLAN2 54 Mbps Harmonized WLAN HyperLAN2 IEEE 802.11b And IEEE 802.11a IEEE 802.11 a/h 11 Mbps 54 Mbps WiMAX/HyperMAN also in the mix Ref: Honkasalo et al, WCDMA and WLAN for 3G and Beyond, IEEE Wireless Communication, Apr 2002 17SRB 041406 ver1
  18. 18. Some Representative Current Wireless Options  3G Cellular (WCDMA) – Frequency Division Duplex (FDD): Uplink and Downlink are separated in frequency – (“symmetric”) – Time Division Duplex (TDD): Uplink and Downlink are separated in time – allows “asymmetric” traffic (adjust time slots in uplink and downlink)  3G Cellular (CDMA2000)  Wi Fi – 802.11a and 802.11b; HyperLAN2 – 2.4 GHz band  WiMAX – 802.16d (fixed); 802.16e (“portable”) – 5.8 GHz band; 10 – 20 Mbps symmetrical BW  Blue Tooth – RF based LAN technology; 20-30 feet coverage – 2.4 GHz band Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and Survival of the fittest 18SRB 041406 ver1
  19. 19. 3G WCDMA  Release 99  Release 4  Release 5  Domains, Protocols, and Channels  Radio Resource Management  Network Dimensioning and Optimization  Quality of Service (QoS0 and Location Services The favored twin sister of CDMA2000 19SRB 041406 ver1
  20. 20. Release 99  Radio Bearer Negotiations  Traffic Classes  Complex Scrambling  Speech Codec – (eight) Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR)  Battery Life  Transmission “spatial/antenna” diversity  Compressed Mode – Measurements in multiple frequency – Use of transmission time reduction techniques  # PDP Contexts per IP Address  QPSK; coherent detection; Rake receiver  Short and Long Spreading Codes  Multicall – several simultaneous CS calls with dedicated bearers of independent traffic and performance characteristics  Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL) Phase 3 A lot to gobble 20SRB 041406 ver1
  21. 21. Release 4  Bearer Independent Core Network  Tandem Free Operation (TFO), Transcoder Free Operation (TrFO), and Out of Band Transcoder Control (OoBTC)  Low Chip Rate TDD Operation  Network Assisted Cell Change  FDD Repeater  NodeB Synchronization for TDD  IPv6 packet switched network supporting both real time and non-real time traffic – Session Initiated Protocol (SIP) replacing SS7  Home Subscriber Server (HSS)  MSC/VLR -> MSC server (mobility management) and MGW (Connection management subtasks)  Multimedia Message Service (MMS) environment 21SRB 041406 ver1
  22. 22. Release 5  IP Transport in UTRAN  High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) (upto 10 Mbps)  Intra Domain Connection to Multiple CN Nodes (Iuflex)  IP Multimedia CN Subsystem (IMS)  “Guaranteed” End to End (E2E) QoS in the PS domain  Global Text Telephony  Support for Real Time Services in packet domain  CAMEL Phase 4 22SRB 041406 ver1
  23. 23. HSDPA  Peak Data rate > 10 Mbps  Same spectrum by both voice and data – Up to 12 spreading codes for High Speed DSCH (HS-DSCH) – Fast link Adaptation – Both code and time division for channel sharing  Transmission Time interval 2 ms  Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ) – Automatic optimizations to Channel Quality Indicator (CQI)  QPSK and 16 QAM modulation at 3.84 Mhz symbol; spreading factor fixed to 16  Incremental Redundancy or chase combining (CH)  New DPCCH2 in uplink primarily for HARQ channel state info 23SRB 041406 ver1
  24. 24. WCDMA Domains Home Network Domain [Zu] Cu Uu Iu [Yu] Serving Transit Network Network Domain Domain USIM Mobile Access Core Domain Equipment Network Network Domain Domain Domain User Equipment Infrastructure Domain Domain Standardization of architecture (domains) and standardization of protocols (strata) 24SRB 041406 ver1
  25. 25. WCDMA Protocol Layers Radio Control Plane User Plane Network Layer Application Data Protocol Stream(s) Transport Transport Network Transport Network Transport Network Network User Plane Control Plane User Plane Layer ALCAP(s) Signalling Signalling Data Bearer(s) Bearer(s) Bearer(s) Physical Layer 25SRB 041406 ver1
  26. 26. WCDMA L1, L2, and RRC Sublayer C-plane signalling U-plane information GC Nt DC Duplication avoidance GC Nt DC UuS boundary L3 control RRC L3/RRC PDCP con con concon PDCP L2/PDCP trol trol trol trol BMC L2/BMC RLC RLC L2/RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC Logical Channels MAC L2/MAC Transport Channels PHY L1 26SRB 041406 ver1
  27. 27. WCDMA Channels Logical Channels Control Traffic BCCH PCCH DCCH CCCH SHCCH DTCH CTCH Mac -b -c/sh -d Common Dedicated Transport Channels BCH PCH FACH RACH UL CPCH DSCH DCH Physical Channels Mapped to Transport Channels Dedicated PCCPH SCCPCH PRACH PCPCH PDSCH DPDCH DPCCH SCH CPICH AICH PICH CSICH CD/CA-ICH Transport Channels: how information transferred over the radio interface Logical Channels: Type of information transferred over the radio interface Channels made by soft hats 27SRB 041406 ver1
  28. 28. Mapping Between Channels Uplink Downlink DCCH DCCH CCCH DTCH PCCH BCCH CCCH CTCH DTCH Logical Channels Transport RACH CPCH DCH Channels PCH BCH FACH DSCH DCH Mapped PRACH PCPCH DPDCH Physical PCCPCH SCCPCH PDSCH DPDCH DPCCH Channels DPCCH Dedicated SCH Physical CPICH Channels AICH PICH CSICH CD/CA-ICH N to M 28SRB 041406 ver1
  29. 29. WCDMA Channel Usage Examples Dedicated channels Common channels Shared channels DCH FCH RACH CPCH DSCH USCH Uplink/ Both Downlink Uplink Uplink Downlink Uplink, only Downlink in TDD Code Usage According to maxm Fixed Fixed Fixed Codes Codes bit rate codes per codes per codes per shared shared cell cell cell btw users btw users Fast Power control Yes No No Yes Yes No Soft handover Yes No No No No No Suited for Medium or large Small Small Small or Medium Medium data amounts data data medium or large or large amounts amounts data data data amounts amounts amounts Suited for bursty No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes data Flexibility comes with responsibility 29SRB 041406 ver1
  30. 30. Radio Resource Management  Power Control  Handover  Access Control  Load and Congestion Control  Packet Scheduling 30SRB 041406 ver1
  31. 31. WCDMA Power Control (near = far) Keep received power levels P1 and P2 equal Y Y Power control commands to the UEs UE1 NodeB UE2 Uplink and downlink (1500 Hz) Open Loop Power Control Closed Loop Power Control Outer Loop Power Control Equal Opportunity Administration (EOA) 31SRB 041406 ver1
  32. 32. WCDMA Handovers sector 1 The same signal is sent from both sectors to UE Softer Y Y RNC sector 2 Y Y Soft The same signal is sent from both NodeBs to UE, except for the RNC NodeB1 power control commands macro diversity Y Y combining in uplink NodeB2 Hard and Inter-frequency handovers Intersystem cell-reselection “Equivalent PLMN mode” (autonomous cell re-selection (packet) idle mode) 32SRB 041406 ver1
  33. 33. Handover Algorithm T T T Pilot Ec/IO of cell 1 Reporting_range + Hysteresis_event 1B Reporting_range - Hysteresis_event 1A Hysteresis_event 1C Pilot Ec/IO of cell 2 Pilot Ec/IO of cell 3 Connected to cell 1 Event 1A Event 1C Event 1B - add cell2 = replace cell1 = remove cell3 with cell3 A relay race with multiple batons 33SRB 041406 ver1
  34. 34. Network Dimensioning and Optimization  Dimensioning Criteria – Coverage, Capacity, Quality of Service  Dimensioning – Link budget, capacity (hard and soft) and load factor – Estimation of average interference power – Coverage end Outage probabilities  Optimization – Performance Requirements – Antenna adjustments, neighbor lists, scrambling codes Don’t force a round peg in a square hole 34SRB 041406 ver1
  35. 35. WCDMA Quality of Service (Qos)  Dynamic Negotiations of properties / Services of radio bearer – Thruput, transfer delay, data error rate – Authentications Traffic class Conversational class Streaming class Interactive class Background Fundamental Preserve time relation Preserve time Request response Destination is not characteristics (variation) between relation (variation) pattern expecting the data information entities of between information Preserve data within a certain time the stream entities of the integrity Preserve data Conversational pattern stream integrity (stringent and low delay) Examples of the voice, Streaming Web browsing, Background application videotelephony multimedia network games download of emails video games One way communications is no communications 35SRB 041406 ver1
  36. 36. Location Services (LCS) UTRAN Node B Iub SRNC HLR Uu LMU SMLC Iu type B Lh UE Le Lg External MSC Gateway Um A/ (Gb)/ LCS client MLC (Iu) BTS Abis BSC LMU Ls Lc LMU <- alternative -> type B Lb alternative -> <- type A (R98 and 99) GERAN SMLC Lp gsmSCF SMLC Cell ID based Observed Time Difference Arrival – Idle Period Downlink (OTDOA-IPDL) Network Assisted GPS You can run but you cannot hide 36SRB 041406 ver1
  37. 37. Why Move Towards 4G?  Limitation to meet expectations of applications like multimedia, full motion video, wireless teleconferencing – Wider Bandwidth  Difficult to move and interoperate due to different standards hampering global mobility and service portability  Primarily Cellular (WAN) with distinct LANs’; need a new integrated network  Limitations in applying recent advances in spectrally more efficient modulation schemes  Need all all digital network to fully utilize IP and converged video and data Incessant human desire to reach the sky 37SRB 041406 ver1
  38. 38. Where Do We Want to Go?  Seamless Roaming  Integrated “standard” Networks  Mobile Intelligent Internet Onwards to (Ultra) Wideband Wireless IP Networks We are no longer in Kansas, Toto 38SRB 041406 ver1
  39. 39. Upcoming  3.5 G – Evolved radio Interface – IP based core network  4G – New Air Interface – Very high bit rate services – Convergence of Wireline, Wireless, and IP worlds And Now for Something Completely Different 39SRB 041406 ver1
  40. 40. 3G All-IP Reference Architecture Applications Legacy mobile & Services signaling Network SCP Multimedia Alternative CSCF R-SGW IP Networks Access Mw Network Mh Ms Mm CAP HSS HLR CSCF Cx Mg Mr Gi Gr Gc Gi MRF SGSN Gi MGCF T-SGW Gn GGSN Mc Iu Gi PSTN/ TE MT UTRAN MGW MGW Iu Legacy/External R Uu Nb Mc Mc MSC Server GMSC Server T-SGW Gp Nc GGSN Signalling Interface Gn Signalling and Data Transfer Interface SGSN Other PLMN 40SRB 041406 ver1
  41. 41. WCDMA 3G Evolution to All-IP Network Ap p lic at PSTN/ISDN io Internet/Intranet/ISP Wireless www, n se Data email rv er Server s IP IP PSTN/ISDN Firewall GGSN CSCF MGCF SGW HLR HSS AuC 3G-MSC (G)MSC MGW PCM Server IP MGW SS7 SGSN MRF ATM GGSN GTP+/IP RNC RNC Iur Iub Iub N_B N_B UTRAN 41SRB 041406 ver1
  42. 42. 3.5G Radio Network Evolution  High Data rate, low latency, packet optimized radio access  Support flexible bandwidth upto 20 MHz, new transmission schemes, advanced multi-antenna technologies, and signaling optimization  Instantaneous peak DL 100 Mb/s and UP 50 Mb/S within 20 MHz spectrum  Control plane latency of < 100 ms (camped to active) and < 50 ms (dormant to active)  > 200 users per cell within 5 MHz spectrum  Spectrum flexibility from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz  Eliminate “dedicated” channels; avoid macro diversity in DL  Migrate towards OFDM in DL and SC-FDMA in UL  Support voice services in the packet domain  Adaptive Modulation and Coding using Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) measurements 42SRB 041406 ver1
  43. 43. 3.5G WCDMA Evolved System Architecture GERAN Gb Iu GPRS Core PCRF UTRAN Rx+ S7 S3 S4 HSS Op. S6 IP S1 MME S5 Inter AS Gi Serv. Evolved RAN Anchor (IMS, UPE PSS, Evolved Packet Core etc…) S2 S2 non 3GPP WLAN IP Access 3GPP IP Access * Color coding: red indicates new functional element / interface Source: www.3gpp.org 43SRB 041406 ver1
  44. 44. Key 3G and 4G Parameters Attribute 3G 4G Major Characteristic Predominantly voice- data as Converged data and VoIP add-on Network Architecture Wide area Cell based Hybrid – integration of Wireless Lan (WiFi), Blue Tooth, Wide Area Frequency Band 1.6 - 2.5 GHz 2 – 8 GHz Component Design Optimized antenna; multi- Smart antennas; SW multi- band adapters band; wideband radios Bandwidth 5 – 20 MHz 100+ MHz Data Rate 385 Kbps - 2 Mbps 20 – 100 Mbps Access WCDMA/CDMA2000 MC-CDMA or OFDM Forward Error Correction Convolution code 1/2, 1/3; Concatenated Coding turbo Switching Circuit/Packet Packet Mobile top Speed 200 kmph 200 kmph IP Multiple versions All IP (IPv6.0) Operational ~2003 ~2010 44SRB 041406 ver1
  45. 45. Key 4G Mobility Concepts  Mobile IP – VoIP – Ability to move around with the same IP address – IP tunnels – Intelligent Internet  Presence Awareness Technology – Knowing who is on line and where  Radio Router – Bringing IP to the base station  Smart Antennas – Unique spatial metric for each transmission Wireless IP <---> IP Wireless 45SRB 041406 ver1
  46. 46. 4G Networks Advances  Seamless mobility (roaming) – Roam freely from one standard to another – Integrate different modes of wireless communications – indoor networks (e.g., wireless LANs and Bluetooth); cellular signals; radio and TV; satellite communications  100 Mb/se full mobility (wide area); 1 Gbit/s low mobility (local area)  IP-based communications systems for integrated voice, data, and video – IP RAN  Open unified standards  Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) – Successor to “SS7”; replacement for TCP – Maintain several data streams within a single connection  Service Location Protocol (SLP) – Automatic resource discovery – Make all networked resources dynamically configurable through IP-based service and directory agents The demise of SS7 46SRB 041406 ver1
  47. 47. 4G Networks Advances – cont’d  Diameter – Successor to “Radius” – Unified authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA)  Integrated LAN card and Subscriber Identity Modules (SIMs)  HSS – Unified Subscriber Information  Application developers, Service providers, and content creators Expand beyond the circle 47SRB 041406 ver1
  48. 48. Key Challenges  Spectral Efficiencies – Challenge Shannon’s fundamental law of data communications (BW, Sig/No) – Hardware Frequency Synthesis techniques esp. for Frequency Hop (FH) systems – Traffic characteristics management (burstiness, directionality)  Multi Carrier Modulation (MCM) – Baseband process using parallel equal bandwidth subchannels – MC-CDMA; OFDM – Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK); Multilevel Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M-QAM); Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) – Add cyclic extension or guard band to data – Challenges of Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and Peak to Average Ratio (PAVR) No pain, no gain 48SRB 041406 ver1
  49. 49. Key Challenges - cont’d - 1  Signal Processing and optimizations – Handling extremely large number of users – Synchronous and asynchronous transmissions – Orthogonality / correlation of large number of codes – Spectrum Pollution – Multi path re-enforcement / interference – Multi User Detection (MUD) and Adaptive Interference suppression techniques (ISI and MAI) 49SRB 041406 ver1
  50. 50. Key Challenges - cont’d - 2  Extremely Fast Arithmetic (esp. multiplication) – N Dimensional vector spaces – IFFT, FFT – Advanced DSP’s for parsing and processing data  Smart / Intelligent Antennas – Dynamically adjust beam pattern based on CQI – Switched beam Antennas; adaptive arrays – Coverage limitations due to high frequencies (> 5 GHz) Manage Entropy 50SRB 041406 ver1
  51. 51. Key Challenges - cont’d - 3  More Efficient and Sensitive Transreceiver Designs – Noise figure, gain, group delay, bandwidth, sensitivity, tunable filters, spurious rejection, power consumption – Frequency Reuse; linearity techniques – Tight closed Loop power control – Dynamic Frequency selection and packet assignments – Multi band, wide band, and flexible radios – Error Correction Coding – “Perfect” Synchronization / phase alignment between Xmitter and Receiver • Clock recovery algorithms (e.g., as times-two, zero crossing) – Adaptive digitization of speech and multi media signals • A/D and D/A transformations 51SRB 041406 ver1
  52. 52. 4G RF/IF Architecture Example Source: http://www.mobileinfo.com/3G/4G_CommSystemArticle.htm 52SRB 041406 ver1
  53. 53. 4G Transreceiver Processing Example Source: http://www.mobileinfo.com/3G/4G_CommSystemArticle.htm 53SRB 041406 ver1
  54. 54. Key Challenges - cont’d - 4  All IP Network – Tunneling and Firewalls – Fast Handoff control, authentication, realtime location tracking, distributed policy management – Media Gateways for handling packet switched traffic • Trasnscoders, echo cancellations, media conversions Planetary Interoperability  Integration across different topologies – Multi Disciplinary Cooperation WPAN WLAN + IP WWAN WMAN There is packet at the end of the tunnel 54SRB 041406 ver1
  55. 55. Key Challenges - cont’d - 5  Distribute intelligence to the edges – Very Smart User equipment; away from “network Centric” architecture – Access routers – Miniaturization esp User Equipment  Security and Levels of Quality of Service (QoS) – Encryption Protocols; Security and “trust of information” – Different rates, error profiles, latencies, burstiness – Dynamic optimization of scarce resources  Advanced Used interactions / presentation – Improved User interfaces – advanced Speech recognition and synthesis – Flexible displays 55SRB 041406 ver1
  56. 56. Key Challenges - cont’d - 6  Web AI service / Interactive Intelligent Programs – Smart applications in the web; intelligent agents – Web Adaptiveness – global database schemes, global error corrective feedback, logic layer protocol, learning algorithms – Symbolic manipulation – Derive specifically targeted knowledge from diverse information sources  Standardizations and Regulatory – Modulation techniques, switching schemes, roaming – Spectrum – Cooperation/coordination among global Spectrum Regulators 56SRB 041406 ver1
  57. 57. 4G Forums  Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) in Europe  Next-Generation Internet (NGI) – Led by and focused on US Fed Agencies (DoD, DoE, NASA, NIH etc.) – High Performance networks: vBNS (NSF), NREN (NASA), DREN (DoD), ESnet (DoE),  Internet2 – US Universities Initiated – Focus on Gigabit/sec Points of Presence (gigaPoPs) 57SRB 041406 ver1
  58. 58. Summary  Mobile Intelligent Internet and multi media applications  Seamless Roaming, substantially high and selectable user bandwidth, customized QoS, Intelligent and responsive user interface  Mobile IP, Radio Routers, smart Antennas  Continued advances and challenges from 1G -> 4G – Modulation techniques, transreceiver advances, fast manipulations, user interfaces, IP tunelling and firewalls – Spectrum usage, regulatory decisions, “one” standard, authentication and security, multi disciplinary co-operation  Packing so much intelligence in smaller and smaller physical space, esp. User Equipment (UE) IP + WPAN + WLAN + WMAN + WWAN + any other stragglers = 4G IP in the sky with diamonds 58SRB 041406 ver1
  59. 59. Back-up 59SRB 041406 ver1
  60. 60. 1st Generation Analog Cellular Systems Standard Region Frequency Channel No. of Modulation Data Rate (MHz) Spacing Channels (kbps) (kHz) AMPS USA 824-849 30 832 FM 10 869-894 TACS Europe 890-915 25 1000 FM 8 935-980 ETACS UK 872-915 25 1240 FM 8 917-950 NMT 450 Europe 453-457.5 25 180 FM 1.2 463-467.5 NMT 900 Europe 890-915 12.5 1999 FM 1.2 935-960 C-450 Germany 450-455.74 10 573 FM 5.28 Portugal 460-465.74 RTMS Italy 450-455 25 200 FM - 460-465 Radiocom France 414.8-418 12.5 250 FM - 2000 424.8-428 NTT Japan 870-885 25 600 FM 0.3 JTACS / Japan 860-870 25 400 FM 8.0 NTACS 915-925 60SRB 041406 ver1
  61. 61. 2nd Generation Cellular and Cordless Systems System IS-54 GSM IS-95 CT-2 CT-3 DECT Country USA Europe USA Europe, DCT-90 Europe Asia Sweden Access TDMA / TDMA / CDMA / FDMA TDMA / TDMA / Technology FDMA FDMA FDMA FDMA FDMA (DS) Frequency Band BS(MHz) 869-894 935-960 869-894 864-868 862-866 1800-1900 MS(MHz) 824-849 890-915 824-849 Duplexing FDD FDD FDD TDD TDD TDD RF Channel 30 200 1250 100 1000 1728 Spacing (kHz) Modulation Pi/4 GMSK BPSK / GFSK GFSK GFSK DQPSK QPSK Frequency Fixed Fixed Fixed Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic Assignment Power Control MS Y Y Y N N N BS Y Y Y N N N Speech VSELP RPE-LTP QCELP ADPCM ADPCM ADPCM Coding Speech rate 8 (kbps) (variable 7.95 13 rate) 32 32 32 Channel Bit Rate (kbps) 48.6 270.833 1228.8 72 640 1152 Channel 1/2 rate 1/2 rate 1/2 rate None CRC CRC Coding convolution convolution forward, 1/3 rate reverse, CRC 61SRB 041406 ver1
  62. 62. 3G WCDMA and CDMA2000 Standards UMTS-WCDMA CDMA2000 "No Backward Compatibility Backward compatibility with CDMAOne Cell Sites not synchronized Cell sites synchronized thru GPS timing Each cell site with different scrambling Adjacent cell sites use diffferent time offset code for spreading of same scrambling code for spreading Complex soft Hand Over Simple Soft Hand Over Scrambling code 38,400 chips; frame Preudo Random (PN) sequence of length 15 of 10 ms 2 - 1 chips; period of 26.67 ms; different site offset of 64 chips OVSF Codes Walsh Codes 62SRB 041406 ver1
  63. 63. Cdma2000 Layered Structure Packet Data Packet Data Packet Data Application Application Application Upper Layers Signaling TCP UDP High Speed (OSI 3-7) Services Circuit Network Layer Services IP PPP LAC LAC Protocol Null LAC Link Layer (OSI 2) MAC Control Best Effort Delivery RLP State MAC Multiplexing QoS Control Physical layer (OSI 1) Physical Layer 63SRB 041406 ver1 Unique to cdma2000
  64. 64. UMTS Spectrum Allocation IMT-2000 IMT-2000 TDD TDD GSM 1800 IMT-2000 MSS IMT-2000 MSS DL DECT UL UL DL DL Europe IMT-2000 IMT-2000 PHS UL DL Japan IS-95 IMT-2000 IMT-2000 DL UL DL Korea PCS/UL PCS/DL USA 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 64SRB 041406 ver1
  68. 68. HSDPA Protocol Architecture RLC RLC MAC MAC-D MAC-c/sh HS- HS- DSCH DSCH MAC- HS- HS- FP FP hs DSCH DSCH FP FP L2 L2 L2 L2 PHY PHY L1 L1 L1 L1 Uu Iub Iur 68SRB 041406 ver1
  69. 69. IMS Architecture Home HSS I-CSCF S-CSCF Other IP/IMS network IMS UTRAN SGSN GGSN P-CSCF Serving PS domain 69SRB 041406 ver1
  70. 70. Standards IEEE 802.11a and b: Wireless LAN (WiFi) IEEE 802.15: Wireless PAN (Bluetooth) IEEE 802.16d and e: Wireless MAN (WiMAX) IS-41: Inter-systems operation (TIA/EIA-41) IS-54: 1st Gen (US) TDMA; 6 users per 30 KHz channel IS-88: CDMA IS-91: Analog Callular air interface IS-93: Wireless to PSTN Interface IS-95: TIA for CDMA (US) (Cdmaone) IS-124: Call detail and billing record IS-136: 2nd Genr TDMA (TDMA control channel) IS-637: CDMA Short Message Service (SMS) IS-756: TIA for Wireless Network Portability (WNP) IS-2000: cdma2000 air interface (follow on to TIA/EIA 95-B) 70SRB 041406 ver1
  71. 71. Glossary 3GPP:3G Partnership Project IMT:International Mobile Telecommunications AAA:Authentication, Authorization, Accounting ITU:International Telecommunications Union AMR:Adaptive Multi Rate (Speech Codec) OVSF:Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor ANSI:American National Standards Institute PDN:Public Data Network ARIB:Association of Radio Industries and Businesses PLMN:Public Land Mobile Network (Japan) PSTN:Public Switched Telephone Network BRAN:Broadband Radio Access Network (HYPERLAN QoS:Quality of Service 2) 2.5 Mbps RAB:Radio Access Bearer CAMEL:Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced RNC:Radio Network Controller Logic RRC:Radio Resource Control CDMA:Code Division Multiple Access SGSN:Servicing GPRS Support Node CWTS: China Wireless Telecommunications Standards SIM:Subscriber Identity Module group (China) TDD:Time Division Duplex ECMA:European Computer Manufacturers Association TDMA:Time Division Multiple Access EDGE:Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution TTA:Telecommunications Technology Association ETSI:European Telecommunications Standards Institute (Korea) FDD:Frequency Division Duplex TTC:Telecommunications Technology FDMA:Frequency Division Multiple Access Commission (Japan) GGSN:Gateway GPRS Support Node UMTS:Universal Mobile Telecommunications GMSC:Gateway MSC System GPRS:General Packet Radio Service UTRAN:UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network GSM:Global System for Mobile communication VoIP:Voice over Internet Protocol GTP:GPRS Tunneling Protocol WCDMA:Wideband Code Division Multiple HIPERLAN:High Performance Radio Local Area Access Network WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network HLR:Home Location Register WPAN: Wireless Personal Area Network HSCSD: High Speed Circuit Switched Data WWAN: Wireless Wide Area Network HYPERLAN: High Performance Radio Access network IMSI:International Mobile Subscriber Identity 71SRB 041406 ver1
  72. 72. References 1. www.3gpp.org 2. WCDMA for UMTS, Ed.: H. Holma and A. Toskala, John Wiley, 2001 3. UMTS - Mobile Communications for the Future, Ed. F.Muratore, John Wiley, 2001 4. WCDMA: Towards IP Mobility and Mobile Internet, Eds E.Djanpera and R.Prasad, Artech House, 2001 5. IS-95 CDMA and CDMA2000, V.K.Garg, Publishing House of Electronics Industry, Beijing, 2002 6. IP Telephony, O. Hersent, D. Gurle Et, and J-P Petit, Addison-Wesley, 2000 7. www.mobileinfo.com 72SRB 041406 ver1