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  1. 1. •Controlin management means settingstandards measuring actual performanceand taking corrective action•Itis important function because it help tocheck to check errors and to take thecorrective action so that deviation fromstandard are minimized and stated goalsof the organization are achieved indesired manner
  2. 2. •To maximize the use of scarceresources•To achieve purposeful behavior oforganization members•Improves efficiency and effectiveness•Make plan effective•Control aid in decision making
  3. 3.  TRADITIONAL  MODERN Personal observation  Management audit Break even analysis  Return on investment Statistical report  PERT&CPM Budgetary control  Management information
  4. 4. •izes wastage •IIt ensures optimum utilization of resources•t helps to fix responsibility•It motivates employees•It minimizes deviation•It facilitates delegation
  5. 5. •Controllingmay lower the morale of the staff throughbad supervision in the way of duties are delegated•Internal check system of instituted will frustrateemployees•It is usually an expensive system to install and maintain•Itmay be rigidly designed and not suitable for the typeof business and thus be difficult to sustain
  6. 6. Setting performance standards MeasurementCorrecting of actualdeviation performance Comparing actual Analysing performance deviation with standard
  7. 7. •Physical standards•Cost standards•Capital standards•Revenue standards•Program standards•Intangible standards•Goals as standards•Strategic plans as control points forstrategic control
  8. 8. Standards should be as precise as possible and communicated to all persons concerned. Moreover, communication alone is not sufficient; understanding is necessary. In humansystems, standards tend to be poorly defined and the allowable range of deviation from standard also indefinite. For example, how many hours each day should a professor be expected to be available for student consultation? Or, what kind of behavior should be expected by students in the classroom?
  9. 9. TYPES OF CONTROL MECHANISM OF CONTROLOutput control Financial measure of performance Organizational goal Operating budgetsBehavior control Direct supervision Management by objective Rules and standard Operating proceduresOrganization culture control Values Norms Socialisation
  10. 10. Brig. (Dr.) R.S. GrewalVice Chancellor, ChitkaraUniversityVIDEO1