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Innate immunity lecture 2

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Innate immunity lecture 2

  1. 1. Innate Immunity Lecture 2 Presented by :Miss, Ihsan Elrashied alghad International Collage For Health Sciences
  2. 2. Immune Cells & Blood Components 1.Fluid Part (Plasma) 2.Cellular Part (Cells) • Red Blood Cells (RBCs) • Whit Blood Cells (WBCs) (Leukocytes) a.Polynuclear Cells (Granulocytes) - Neutrophils - Eosinophils - Basophiles a.Mononuclear Cells (Agranulocytes) - Lymphocytes (T-, B- &NK) - Monocytes/Macrophages Origin of Blood & Immune Cells - All blood cells & platelets are originated from the Stem cell Origin of Stem cell - Yolk Sac, - Fetal Liver & - Bone Marrow Types of Stem Cell • Myeloid Stem Cell -It is the origin of all blood cells except lymphocytes • Lymphoid Stem Cell -It is the origin of B- & T-lymphocytes
  3. 3. Lymphocyte Population •B-lymphocytesPlasma cell (B-cell precursor) (Ab producing cell) •T-lymphocytes 1.T- helper (Th1 & Th2) (Help all immune cells & secrete cytokines) 1.T-Cytotoxic cell (Tc) (Kill foreign cells) 2.T- Suppressor cell (Ts) (Suppress the immune cell) 3- Non-T & Non-B-cells (NK) (Large granular) cells (Kill foreign cells)
  4. 4. Anatomy of the Immune System Tissue & Cells of the Immune System Role of Different Lymphoid Tissue in the Development of the Immune Cells Types of Lymphoid Organs 1- Primary Lymphoid Organs 2- Secondary Lymphoid Organs 1- Primary Lymphoid Organs *- These are the Sites for:- Development - Maturation - Proliferation - Education & - Graduation of Lymphocytes, as:- T- lymphocytes - B- lymphocytes & - NK cells *- E.g. - Thymus Gland ~~ T-cell - Bursa of Fabricious (In Birds) ~~~~ B-Cells - Payer’s Patches - Bone Marrow ~ B-Cells
  5. 5. 2- Secondary Lymphoid Organs *- These are the sites for:-Lymphocyte response to the Antigen - The Sites for the Interactions between the Ags & Agsensitive cell (macrophage & lymphocyte) - This results Immune Reaction & Immune Response *- Either Humoral &/or Cellular Immune response *-E.g.-Tonsils - Spleen - Lymph Nodes - Gut associated LT - Bronchial associated LT
  6. 6. Cells of the Immune System (Immune Response) I- Lymphocytes (20-30% of WBCs) 1- B- Lymphocytes (15-20%) 2- T- Lymphocytes (65-70%) 3- Natural Killer (NK) Large Granular Lymphocytes (15% of total Lymphocytes) II- Monocytes /Macrophages (4 - 8% of WBCs) *- All of these cells are also called Immuno-Competant Cells Subpopulation of 1- T- Lymphocytes *- They are Thymus-Dependent Cells. *- T- cells are developed in Thymus gland T- Helper (Th) Cells T- Cytotoxic (Tc) Cells T- Suppressor (Ts) Cells T-Effectors (Te) Cells
  7. 7. 1- T- Helper (Th) Cells *- It represents ~ 65% of total T-cells *- It activates all the immune cells (B-, NK- & Tc) & also activates non- immune cell *- It Regulate the immune response (Humoral & Cellular) *- It Secret different kinds of Cytokines
  8. 8. 2- T- Cytotoxic (Tc) Cells *- It rep represent ~ 35% of total T-lymphocytes *- It responsible for Specific cytotoxicity of foreign cell *- It is MHC-I restricted (binding) cell *- It Kill by Kiss of Death 3- T- Suppressor (Ts) Cells *- It responsible for suppression or inhibition of immune response (T-h activity) 4- T-Effectors (Te) Cells *- It also called T-delayed Hypersensitivity (T-dh) *- It is a memory T- of cell mediated Immunity *- When it is activated, it will secrete different types of cytokines Development of T-Lymphocytes *- T- Cells are developed in thymus gland by NEGATIVE & POSITVE Selection
  9. 9. *- Stem Cells started to be developed to T-cells as follows:1- Stem Cells 2- Pre-T- Cells (Thy1 + & others -) 3- Immature T- Cells (TCR-, CD3 - & Others +) 4- Negative & Positive Selection of Immature T-cells (All + & αβTCR +) 5- T-helper cells (CD4 + & CD8 -) 6- T-Cyttotoxic (CD8 + & CD4 -)
  10. 10. Functions of Macrophages in immunity 1- Phagocytosis & destruction of bacterial 2- Cytotoxicity by ADCC 3- Cytotoxicity by Non-ADCC 4- Ag- processing & presentation 5- Tissue recognition & wound healing 6- Cytokines Secretion (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-δ, IFN-β, TNF-α & GM-CSF)
  11. 11. The End

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