Environmental Pollution is aninternational journal thatfocuses on papers that reportresults from original researchon the distribution andecological effects of pollutantsin air, water and soilenvironments.
Noise Pollution Air Pollution Water Pollution Soil Pollution Radioactive Pollution
Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal, or machine-createdenvironmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. The wordnoise may be from the Latin word nauseas, which means disgust or discomfort. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems, including motor vehicle noise, aircraft noise, and rail noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans, a rise in blood pressure, and an increase in stress and vasoconstriction, and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease.
On Human Being, Animal and Property: Noise has always been with the human civilization but it was never so obvious, so intense, so varied & so pervasive as it is seen in the last of this century. Noise pollution makes men more irritable. The effect of noise pollution is multifaceted & inter related.
There are many methods which help to control the noise pollution. The source of noise must be reduced. The path of transmission of sound must be stopped and the receiver of noise must be safe guarded. The amount of traffic must be reduced near the residential homes,educational institutes and hospitals. The machinery must be redesigned and the vehicles must be properly maintained. The acoustical furnishing must be done so that the sound can be absorbed.
Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, orbiological materials that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or built environment. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earths ecosystems. Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the World’s Worst Toxic Pollution Problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute Worlds Worst Polluted Places report.
Exposure to air pollution is associated with numerous effects on human health, including pulmonary, cardiac, vascular, and neurological impairments. The health effects vary greatly from person to person. High-risk groups such as the elderly, infants, pregnant women, and sufferers from chronic heart and lung diseases are more susceptible to air pollution. Children are at greater risk because they are generally more active outdoors and their lungs are still developing. Exposure to air pollution can cause both acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term) health effects. Acute effects are usually immediate and often reversible when exposure to the pollutant ends. Some acute health effects include eye irritation, headaches, and nausea. Chronic effects are usually not immediate and tend not to be reversible when exposure to the pollutant ends. Some chronic health effects include decreased lung capacity and lung cancer resulting from long-term exposure to toxic air pollutants. The scientific techniques for assessing health impacts of air pollution include air pollutant monitoring, exposure assessment, dosimetry, toxicology, and epidemiology.
There are other ways to reduce emissions besides using pollution control equipment--prevent emissions to begin with. Air quality permits help minimize, reduce or prevent emissions as much as possible by placing requirements on how things are done. Permits can specify the quantity, type, or quality of fuel or other substance used in a process. For example, a permit might specify the maximum percent of sulfur that can exist in the coal to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. A permit may specify the quantity of volatile chemicals in paint, solvent, adhesive or other product used in large quantity during manufacturing. Permits can also help reduce the impact of emitted pollutants on local air by specifying smokestack height and other factors. Engineers can also set combustion specifications to minimize emissions. For example, to help reduce nitrogen oxide formation, the combustion conditions in the furnace can be altered. These options are often reviewed, studied and best choices made depending upon cost, plant design and many other variables.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers,oceans, aquifers and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutantsare discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequatetreatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities.
The effects of water pollution are varied and depend on what chemicals are dumped and in what locations. Boston Harbor is a strong example of how badly pollution can damage bodies of water. The water is filled with toxic waste and sewage, and routinely receives more waste when rainfall pushes it into the harbor. Many bodies of water near urban areas are highly polluted. This is the result of both garbage dumped by individuals and dangerous chemicals legally or illegally dumped by industries. The main problem caused by water pollution is that it kills life that inhabits water-based ecosystems. Dead fish, birds, dolphins, and many other animals often wind up on beaches, killed by pollutants in their habitat.
It Is best controlled by the dilution of water. The pollutants must be treated chemically and must be converted into the non toxic substances. The low level of radioactive wastes in the water is removed by the oxidation of ponds. There are certain chemicals which act on the organic insecticideand are used in the pesticide. There are different techniques which are very helpful in the process of thermal pollution and involve the cooling, evaporation, water cooling; cooling can be wet or dry. Their main aim is to keep the water cool in rivers and streams. The shallow ponds must be used to store the domestic and industrial wastes. One must avoid the large ponds. The waste has a presence of sunlight and organic nutrients which may lead to the larger growth of bacteria which act on the waste matter.
Soil contamination or soil pollution is caused by the presence of xenobiotic(human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals, or improper disposal of waste. The most common chemicals involved are petroleumhydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (such as naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene), solvents, pesticides, lead, and other heavy metals. Contamination is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of chemical usage. The concern over soil contamination stems primarily from health risks, from direct contact with the contaminated soil, vapors from the contaminants, and from secondary contamination of water supplies within and underlying the soil.Mapping of contaminated soil sites and the resulting cleanup are time consuming and expensive tasks, requiring extensive amounts of geology,hydrology, chemistry, computer modeling skills, and GIS in Environmental Contamination, as well as an appreciation of the history of industrial chemistry.
The effects of pollution on soil are quite alarming and can cause huge disturbances in the ecological balance and health of living creatures on earth. Some of the most serious soil pollution effects are: Decrease in soil fertility and therefore decrease in the soil yield. How can one expect contaminated soil to produce healthy crops? Loss of soil and natural nutrients present in it. Plants also would not thrive in such soil, which would further result in soil erosion. Disturbance in the balance of flora and fauna residing in the soil. Increase in salinity of the soil, which therefore makes it unfit for vegetation, thus making it useless and barren. Generally crops cannot grow and flourish in polluted soil. Yet, if some crops manage to grow, they would be poisonous enough to cause serious health problems in people consuming them. Creation of toxic dust is another potential effect of soil pollution. Foul smell due to industrial chemicals and gases might result in headaches, fatigue, nausea, etc., in many people.
It includes the limited use of fertilizers and pesticides. The biological control method must be known and implemented. The grazing must be controlled and forest managementshould be done properly. The afforestation and reforestation must be done. In areas of wind erosion wind breaks and shields must be used. The soil binding grass must be planted and the large trees must be placed along the banks. The industrial wastes must be dumped in the low lying areas. There is a definite technique of cropping which does not allow the weeds to settle on the fields. The mining ways must be improved along with their transportation. The area must not be left barren and dry.
DEFINITION Radio spectrum pollution is the straying of waves in the radio and electromagnetic spectrums outside their allocations that cause problems for some activities.It is of particular concern to radio astronomers. Radio spectrum pollution is mitigated by effective spectrum management. Within the United States, the Communications Act of 1934grants authority for spectrum management to the President for all federal use (47 USC 305). The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) manages the spectrum for the Federal Government. Its rules are found in the "Manual of Regulations & Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management". The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) manages and regulates all domestic non- federal spectrum use (47 USC 301).Each country typically has their own spectrum regulatory organization. Internationally, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) coordinates spectrum policy.
The first effects were noted in the early 20th century. The people who were working in the uranium mines suffer from skin burn and cancer. These occur due to the radiations from the radioactive material. The different organisms show different sensitivity to the radiations. There are certain conditions in which the oak trees can survive but the pine trees are not able to do so. The plants which are present at the high altitudes have a multiple set of chromosomes which is referred as a polyploidy. It helps in the protection from radiations. The southern part of our country has a large number of radiations which are harmful and are background in nature and occur in the coastal areas. The cells which divide rapidly are also damaged easily. It includes the skin cells, intestinal cells, bone marrow and gonads. The cells which do not divide rapidly are also not damaged easily.
It includes the stoppage of leakage from the radioactive materials including the nuclear reactors, industries and laboratories. The disposal of radioactive material must be safe and secure. They must be stored in the safe places and must be changed into harmless form. The wastes with a very low radiation must be put into the sewage. The nuclear power plants must follow all the safe instructions. The protective garments must be worn by the workers who work in the nuclear plants. The natural radiation must be at the permissible limits and they must not cross it.
Presence of dangerous unnatural ingredeints causing imbalance in the ecosystems and health hazards to human beings and animals is called pollution. Pollution is mainly found in air, water, soil, food and sound. Major human activities like industries, agriculture, health care, transport, dwelling and energy generation are the causes of pollution. Many industries like textile, paper, steel, sugar, petroleum, food, chemical and cement industries cause air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution. Industrial pollutants include gases like methane, cyanides, carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulphides, carbon monoxide, hydrogen disulphides, hydrochloric acids, ammonia, sulphur dioxide as well as multiples of liquid / solid compounds. Modern agriculture - encouraging the large scale of fertilizers and pesticides - is primary cause of drinking water pollution.