Genetics & Endangered and Extinct Species Cloning By Leo Ko
Basic Genetics <ul><li>Traits are controlled by dominant and recessive alleles . When the dominant allele is present, the recessive allele is masked, therefore, the trait controlled by the dominant allele shows. If there is no dominant allele present, then the trait controlled by the recessive allele shows. The alleles that the offspring receives is based on their heredity , or the passing of traits to offspring. </li></ul><ul><li>A capitol letter represents the dominant allele (ex. Tall- T) </li></ul><ul><li>A lowercase letter represents the recessive allele. The recessive trait’s letter is the same letter as the dominant (ex. Short-t) </li></ul><ul><li>If the offspring is tall, the allele combination is TT or Tt </li></ul><ul><li>If the offspring is short, the allele combination is tt </li></ul><ul><li>If the two letters are the same, it is homozygous. (ex. TT or tt) </li></ul><ul><li>If the two letters are different, it is heterozygous. (ex. Tt) </li></ul>Punnett Squares show possible outcomes of an offspring's traits
Human Genome Project <ul><li>The Human Genome Project began in 1990 and continued for 13 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals for the Human Genome Project included… </li></ul><ul><li>identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA </li></ul><ul><li>determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, </li></ul><ul><li>store this information in databases, </li></ul><ul><li>improve tools for data analysis, </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer related technologies to the private sector, and </li></ul><ul><li>address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project. </li></ul>
Human Genome Project (continued) <ul><li>Genetic issues include privacy and confidentiality. People are worried about who owns and controls genetic information. People are also concerned about fairness in the use of genetic information . They think that they could be discriminated upon because of their genes. People are also worried that genetically modified foods may not be safe for people and the environment. </li></ul>
The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act <ul><li>The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) protects Americans from discrimination based on information resulting from genetic tests. </li></ul><ul><li>It also prohibits insurance companies from reducing coverage or pricing. </li></ul><ul><li>GINA also bans employers from making adverse employment decisions based on a person’s genetic code. </li></ul>
Genetic Disorders <ul><li>Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease that causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs and digestive tract. It is one of the most common chronic lung diseases in children and young adults, and may result in early death. Although there is no real cure for cystic fibrosis, there’re treatments for the symptoms such as inhaled medicines to help open the airways and pancreatic enzymes to help absorb fats and protein in the intestines. Lung transplant is also another option. </li></ul><ul><li>Hemophilia refers to a group of bleeding disorders in which it takes a long time for the blood to clot. The main symptom for hemophilia is excessive bleeding. Hemophilia is a sex-linked disease so it is more common in males because there is no other X chromosome to mask the diseased X chromosome. </li></ul><ul><li>Down syndrome is when a person has an extra chromosome 21 causing him/her to have 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. The extra chromosome causes problems with the way the body and brain develop. Physical signs include a flattened nose and/or a small mouth. Other problems may include slow learning or poor judgment. </li></ul>
Genetic Disorders (continued) <ul><li>A single gene disorder is the result of a single mutated gene. The gene could be dominant or recessive. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosome abnormalities usually happen as a result of an error in cell division. If meiosis does not occur properly, an egg or sperm could end up with too many chromosomes, or not enough chromosomes. An example of a chromosome abnormality is down syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>Multifactorial disorders are more complex, meaning that they most likely have to do with the effects of multiple genes in combination with lifestyle and environmental factors. Some examples of multifactorial disorders are heart disease of diabetes. </li></ul><ul><li>In Genetic Counseling, parents are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder and also the probability transmitting it. </li></ul>
Karyotypes <ul><li>A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. We could use the karyotype to see if there are any chromosomes that are missing, or if there are too many. </li></ul>Male Karyogram Female Karyogram
How Does It Work? <ul><li>Scientist take a well-preserved source if the animal’s DNA such as a skin cell, fused it with a cell of a similar or related animal (the related animal’s genetic material has been removed previously). Then, they implant the embryo into the womb of a the similar or related animal which serves as a “substitute” mother. The mother would give birth to the cloned animal, and there you have a successful extinct animal cloning . </li></ul>
Argument 1 Endangered and Extinct Species Cloning Pros and Cons Pros Cons We can revive an animal that could be vital to their ecosystem Extinct animal may not be able to survive in the condition of their environment. Cloning would help reverse damage to wildlife habitat done by people. People wouldn’t care as much about habitat destruction because a new animal, plant, etc. could be cloned. Ecosystem Preservation Against will of nature. Ecosystem “balancing” (ex. If a certain animal becomes extinct, perhaps the animal that it eats could overpopulate)
We Should Support Endangered and Extinct Species Cloning In saving one species, we could save others. For instance, an eagle hunts a snake. If the snake goes extinct, the bird would not be able to eat the snake. Therefore, the eagle has lost one of its main food sources. We could also clone animals to help an ecosystem. If the fox goes extinct, the rabbit has lost one of its biggest predators. Great? No. The rabbit could overpopulate thus hurting the ecosystem.
We Should Support Endangered and Extinct Species Cloning (continued) Cloning would help reverse damage to wildlife habitat done by people. If a certain habitat is suffering dramatically, we could help restore it by cloning endangered animals to bring the species back, which also gives us a second chance to help the habitat.
We Should Support Endangered and Extinct Species Cloning (continued even more) Cloning would also help preserve an ecosystem. If an animal is dying, it may effect its ecosystem. If an ecosystem is running the risk of becoming damaged, we could clone an animal that is becoming endangered and may hurt its ecosystem causing the ecosystem to come back into order.
Conclusion Overall, I think we should clone extinct and endangered species. One animal is actually very important in an ecosystem and food chain. Some people believe that it could be dangerous and the animal may not turn out properly. However, we have the technology and so far genetic engineering is becoming a success.. An extinct gaur has been successfully implanted into the womb of a cow. Scientists were able to get the needed DNA from a skin cell from a deceased gaur. If we could do that with a gaur, we could do it with others. We are able to save the lives of animals and help the Earth, why are we passing up this opportunity? We’re all trying to save animals…well, isn’t this one way?
Works Cited <ul><li>"Human Genome Project Information." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/ </li></ul><ul><li>Human_Genome/home.shtml>. "Cystic Fibrosis - PubMed Health." Web. 24 Mar. 2011. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001167/ </li></ul><ul><li>"Hemophilia - PubMed Health." Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001564/>. </li></ul><ul><li>"Down Syndrome - PubMed Health." Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001992/>. </li></ul><ul><li>"Using Karyotypes to Predict Genetic Disorders." Learn.Genetics™. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/traits/predictdisorder/>. </li></ul><ul><li>"Karyotype." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karyotype>. </li></ul><ul><li>"Endangered Species Cloning." Elements Online Environmental Magazine / Éléments Revue écologique En Direct. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.elements.nb.ca/theme/endangeredspecies/cheetah/mediaarticle.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>"What Are the Pros and Cons of Saving Endangered Species? - Yahoo! Answers." Yahoo! Answers - Home. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081205081627AAd3mDM>. </li></ul>