Genetic research project


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Genetic research project

  1. 1. Genetic Research Project<br />By: Olivia Gallo <br />And Caroline Kleiner<br />Period.1<br />
  2. 2. 1.    How are traits controlled by dominant and recessive alleles?<br />When a dominant allele is present, the recessive allele will not show. If the recessive allele is present without a dominant allele, it will show.<br />
  3. 3. 2.    How are traits controlled with co-dominant alleles?<br />In co-dominance, neither allele is masked up and both are dominant and recessive. Both alleles show up at the same time.<br />
  4. 4. 3.    Explain how the alleles of two parents combine to express traits in offspring?<br />The alleles from both parents combine. If there are two recessive traits, then the recessive trait will show.<br />If it is a dominant trait with a recessive trait the recessive trait will not show.<br />
  5. 5. 1.    When did the Human Genome Project start and how did scientists hope to use this information (what were the goals in the beginning)?<br />Some goals were expected to help doctors to get rid of many diseases from a patient’s genetic profile and cure and prevent diseases by targeting the main genetic defects.<br />The main goal was to find out the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome.<br />It was launched in the 1980’s, with mapping out the HGP, insurance companies can’t discriminate against you for pre-existing conditions according to GINA.<br />
  6. 6. What are the implications of the Human Genome project in regards to Ethical, legal and Social implications (address each of these in your explanation)<br />Revealing the genome’s secrets also poses a host of legal and ethical concerns, including whether genetic information should be patented or kept in the public domain.<br />Social Implications: The Human Genome project explains the issues of genomic information and technologies for how we understand such issues as health, disease, identity and individual responsibility<br />
  7. 7. How did the human genome project change current laws such as GINA? (Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008)<br />The Human Genome Project changed current laws, such as GINA by making sure insurance companies can’t discriminate against you if you have a pre-disposition or a pre-existing condition. The insurance companies have to accept you if you want insurance or health care. <br />
  8. 8. single gene disorder·       chromosome abnormalities·       multifactorial disorders<br />There are many differences and similarities between single cell disorders, chromosome abnormalities, and multifactorial disorders. If you have a single-cell disorder, then it is affecting one gene. A multifactorial disorder is when there are many factors that play a role in the disorder. A chromosomal disorder is when something goes wrong when copying the DNA. Each disorder causes a disease that has no cure yet.<br />
  9. 9. How can genetic counseling help perspective parents who have a genetic disorder regarding future children?<br />Genetic counselors help couples understand their chances of having a child with a particular genetic disorder. Genetic counselors use tools such as karyotypes, pedigree charts, and Punnett squares to help them in their work.<br />
  10. 10. How are karyotypes used to predict genetic disorders?<br />A karyotype can reveal whether a developing baby has the correct number of chromosomes in its cells and whether it is a boy or a girl.<br />
  11. 11. Scientific Advancements in cloning <br />People have cloned stem embryos and harvested stem cells from them too<br />If they done embryos, there are more stem cells to work with to cure many disorders<br />
  12. 12. Controversial Cloning<br />Cons: Unacceptable risk to humans<br />Few benefits to science<br />Pros: Help better understand how cells work<br />Help battle cancer and other diseases<br />Replace dying humans or to-be-extinct animals<br />
  13. 13. Organ Cloning<br />If you program stem cells to be a kidney cell, then you can have a brand new kidney cell.<br />It is another back up for a failing organ. If it takes too long to clone it, then stem cells can fill in the extra cell space.<br />
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  15. 15. Pros of Organ Cloning<br />Cloning organs can save people’s lives. If we don’t clone organs, many people would die sooner and have a harder time surviving if they could not get a donated organ in time. It would further advance our knowledge in organ cells and the organs themselves.<br />
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  17. 17. SOURCES<br />txt bk.Cooper, M. H. (2000, May 12). Human genome research. CQ Researcher, 10, 401-424. Retrieved from of Contents, B. (2004, October 22). Cloning debate. CQ Researcher, 14, 877-900. Retrieved from, D. (1997, May 9). The cloning controversy. CQ Researcher, 7, 409-432. Retrieved from, In Scopus. "ScienceDirect - Transplant Immunology : Therapeutic Cloning Applications forOrgan Transplantation." ScienceDirect - Home. Apr. 2004. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. <>."Human Genetics." Estrella Mountain Community College. 18 May 2010. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. <>." | Cloning Fact Sheet." | National Human Genome Research Institute(NHGRI) - Homepage. 11 Aug. 2010. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. <>.<br />