Introducing scada


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Introduces SCADA as the fundamental control systems for critical infrastructure

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Introducing scada

  1. 1. Introdocing Scada, 2013 Slide 1 Introducing SCADA
  2. 2. Introdocing Scada, 2013 Slide 2 Recap • As I discussed in previous video, individual elements of an infrastructure are controlled by PLCs which drive the actuators associated with these elements. • May also include Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) to collect information from sensors • These are connected to SCADA system, which is the central control system for the PLC and RTU network
  3. 3. Introdocing Scada, 2013 Slide 3 SCADA • SCADA – Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition • SCADA is the name for a class of industrial control systems
  4. 4. Introdocing Scada, 2013 Slide 4 Why is SCADA important • SCADA systems are the control systems of our critical infrastructure that are responsible for coordinating the control and management of critical infrastructure elements • They are essential for its correct and safe operation
  5. 5. Introdocing Scada, 2013 Slide 5 Why is SCADA important? • Failures or damage to a central SCADA control system can disable critical infrastructure across a wide geographic area – Incorrect control signals can cause equipment to malfunction – Lack of control signals may mean that equipment automatically shuts down for safety reasons
  6. 6. Introdocing Scada, 2013 Slide 6 What is SCADA? • An architectural pattern for industrial control systems with many components that are often distributed over a wide area – Programmable logic units control infrastructure components – Data acquisition by remote terminal or remote telemetry units (RTUs) – Data sent to control centre, running the SCADA system – Control Centre monitors the system, displays system status and issues commands • Originally based on standard industrial communication protocols NOT Internet protocols
  7. 7. Introdocing Scada, 2013 Slide 7 SCADA application areas • SCADA control systems are available from various manufacturers for different types of equipment – Electric power generation, transmission and distribution – Water and sewage – Buildings, facilities and environments – Manufacturing – Mass transit – Traffic signals
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  12. 12. Introdocing Scada, 2013 Slide 12 SCADA generations • 1st generation (1970s). Co-located control – Controlled units were on the same site as the controlling computer with hard-wired connections between them – No network so no potential for external attack. Very limited chance of insider attack because operation by teams rather than
  13. 13. Introdocing Scada, 2013 Slide 13 SCADA generations • 2nd generation (1980s/90s) Distributed control – SCADA systems networked with devices using special-purpose protocols – No external network connection – Vulnerable to insider attacks because of distributed sites
  14. 14. Introdocing Scada, 2013 Slide 14 SCADA generations • 3rd generation (2000s). Networked systems – SCADA systems no longer isolated but connected to external networks – External connection through computers (particularly PCs) that are directly connected to the Internet – May also interface with other Internet-connected systems such as manufacturing control systems – More use of standard protocols such as TCP/IP for communications – Remote system monitoring and upgrades from providers requires network connection
  15. 15. Introdocing Scada, 2013 Slide 15 SCADA functionality • A SCADA system performs four key functions: – Data acquisition from PLCs and RTUs – Unit control – Networked data communications with PLCs and other systems – Data presentation for system operation
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  17. 17. Introdocing Scada, 2013 Slide 17 Image credit: A SCADA system controlling an electricitydistribution network
  18. 18. Introdocing Scada, 2013 Slide 18 Summary • SCADA systems are the control systems for our critical infrastructure • Maintaining their reliability and security is essential for infrastructure dependability and resilience • I’ll talk about SCADA security in the next video