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  1. 1. i.) Incisors. Incisors are the eight teeth in the front and center of your mouth (four on top and four on bottom). These are the teeth that you use to take bites of your food. Incisors are usually the first teeth to erupt, at around 6 months of age for your first set of teeth, and between 6 and 8 years of age for your adult set. ii.)Canines. Your four canines are the next type of teeth to develop. These are your sharpest teeth and are used for ripping and tearing food apart. Primary canines generally appear between 16 and 20 months of age with the upper canines coming in just ahead of the lower canines. In permanent teeth, the order is reversed. Lower canines erupt around age 9 with the uppers arriving between 11 and 12 years of age.
  2. 2. iii.)Premolars. Premolars, or bicuspids, are used for chewing and grinding food. You have four premolars on each side of your mouth, two on the upper and two on the lower jaw. The first premolars appear around age 10 and the second premolars arrive about a year later. iv.)Molars. Primary molars are also used for chewing and grinding food. These appear between 12 and 15 months of age. These molars are replaced by the first and second permanent molars (four upper and four lower). The first molars erupt around 6 years of age while the second molars come in between 11 and 13 years of age. v.)Third molars. Third molars are commonly known as wisdom teeth. These are the last teeth to develop and do not typically erupt until age 18 to 20, and some people never develop third molars at all. For those who do, these molars may cause crowding and need to be removed.
  3. 3. ―2: Baby teeth and adult teeth. 2 sets of teeth: 20 primary teeth, 32 permanent teeth (unless any are congenitally missing).‖
  4. 4. Deciduous teeth: They are the first set of teeth we have and there are altogether 20 of them. They usually start to erupt from around the age of six months until 3 years of age. Permanent teeth: At the age of 6, they sequentially erupt to replace the deciduous teeth which become loose and shed. Deciduous teeth: Space retainer for permanent teeth 1.)Normally, underneath the root of each deciduous tooth, there is a developing permanent successor tooth. 2.) When it is time for the permanent successor tooth to erupt, the root of the deciduous tooth will resorb and the deciduous tooth will become loose. The place is then taken up by its permanent successor tooth. 3.)Deciduous tooth retains the space for its permanent successor tooth.
  5. 5. i.)Developmental abnormalities most commonly affect the number, size, shape, and structure of teeth. ii.)Teeth help you chew your food, making it easier to digest. Each type of tooth has a slightly different shape and performs a different job.
  6. 6. The mouth is the gateway to the body... good health begins with good teeth. Tooth decay, infection and/or gum disease can lead to a variety of ailments and just generally ‗feeling bad.‘ Here‘s a list of Do‘s and Don‘ts for keeping your oral hygiene the best it can be:  Oral Hygiene Do‘s • Visit your dentist regularly for check-ups and cleaning. • Visit an orthodontist for an evaluation if you see any of the early warning signs of orthodontic problems. • Have your child(ren) evaluated by an orthodontist by age seven. Many orthodontic problems can be more easily corrected before tooth and facial growth is complete. • Brush your teeth at least twice a day using a soft-bristled toothbrush and a fluoride toothpaste. • Floss between your teeth at least once a day, after dinner and before bedtime. (Tip: Use toothpaste on your floss for extra fresh breath.) • Rinse and gargle with the mouthwash, ideally right before bedtime.
  7. 7. • Eat a balanced diet, limit between-meal snacks and eliminate sugary foods. • Clean your tongue when you brush your teeth. (Tip: Instead of using toothpaste to brush your tongue, dip your toothbrush in mouthwash.) • Drink plenty of liquids, especially water to keep your mouth moist. (Tip: If your mouth is dry, try sucking in your cheeks as if eating something sour to increase flow from the salivary glands.)  Oral Hygiene Don‘ts • Don‘t forget to clean behind your back teeth. • Don‘t give mouthwash or fluoride toothpaste to young children, as they can swallow it. • Don‘t clean your tongue so hard that it hurts. • Don‘t rely on mouthwash alone to keep your teeth and gums clean and your breath fresh. Practice complete oral hygiene. • Don‘t ignore your gums - you can lose your teeth as well as have bad breath. • Don‘t drink too much coffee. • Don‘t smoke.
  8. 8. For those wearing braces or other orthodontic appliances, keeping teeth and gums clean may be a bit more difficult, but the resulting smile will be worth the effort. Dental problems are never any fun, but the good news is that most of them can be easily prevented. Brushing twice a day, flossing daily, eating properly and regular dental check ups are essential in preventing dental problems. Educating yourself about common dental problems and their causes can also go a long way in prevention. i.) Bad Breath If you suffer from bad breath, you are not alone. Bad breath, also called halitosis, can be downright embarrassing. According to dental studies, about 85% of people with persistent bad breath have a dental condition that is to blame. Gum disease, cavities, oral cancer, dry mouth and bacteria on the tongue are some of the dental problems that can cause bad breath. Using mouthwash to cover up bad breath when a dental problem is present will only mask the odor and not cure it. If you suffer from chronic bad breath, visit your dentist to rule out any of these problems.
  9. 9. ii.) Tooth Decay Did you know tooth decay, also known as cavities, is the second most prevalent disease in the United States (the common cold is first). Tooth decay occurs when plague, the sticky substance that forms on teeth, combines with the sugars and / or starches of the food we eat. This combination produces acids that attack tooth enamel. The best way to prevent tooth decay is by brushing twice a day, flossing daily and going to your regular dental check ups. Eating healthy foods and avoiding snacks and drinks that are high in sugar are also ways to prevent decay. iii.)Gum (Periodontal) Disease Studies have shown that periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is linked to heart attacks and strokes. Gum disease is an infection in the gums surrounding the teeth. Gum disease is also one of the main causes of tooth loss among adults. There are two major stages of gum disease: gingivitis and periodontitis. Regular dental check ups along with brushing at least twice a day and flossing daily play an important role in preventing gum disease. iv.) Oral Cancer Oral cancer is a serious and deadly disease that affects millions of people. In fact, the Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that someone in the United States dies every hour of every day from oral cancer. Over 300,000 new cases of oral cancer are diagnosed every year, worldwide. This serious dental disease, which pertains to the mouth, lips or throat, is often highly curable if diagnosed and treated in the early stages.
  10. 10. v.) Mouth Sores There are several different types of mouth sores and they can be pesky and bothersome. Unless a mouth sore lasts more than two weeks, it is usually nothing to worry about and will disappear on its own. Common mouth sores are canker sores, fever blisters, cold sores, ulcers and thrush. vi.) Tooth Erosion Tooth erosion is the loss of tooth structure and is caused by acid attacking the enamel. Tooth erosion signs and symptoms can range from sensitivity to more severe problems such as cracking. Tooth erosion is more common than people might think, but it can also be easily prevented. vii.)Tooth Sensitivity Tooth sensitivity is a common problem that affects millions of people. Basically, tooth sensitivity means experiencing pain or discomfort to your teeth from sweets, cold air, hot drinks, cold drinks or ice cream. Some people with sensitive teeth even experience discomfort from brushing and flossing. The good news is that sensitive teeth can be treated.
  11. 11. viii.) Toothaches and Dental Emergencies I can't think of much worse than suffering from a toothache. While many toothaches and dental emergencies can be easily avoided just by regular visits to the dentist, we all know that accidents can and do happen. Having a dental emergency can be very painful and scary. Fortunately, you can do several things until you are able to see your dentist. ix) Unattractive Smile While an unattractive smile is not technically a "dental problem," it is considered a dental problem by people who are unhappy with their smile and it's also a major reason that many patients seek dental treatment. An unattractive smile can really lower a person's self-esteem. Luckily, with today's technologies and developments, anyone can have a beautiful smile. Whether it's teeth whitening, dental implants, orthodontics or other cosmetic dental work, chances are that your dentist can give you the smile of your dreams.  Cosmetic dentistry is generally used to refer to any dental work that improves the appearance (though not necessarily the function) of a person's teeth, gums and/or bite. Many dentists refer to themselves as "cosmetic dentists" regardless of their specific education, specialty, training, and experience in this field. This has been considered unethical with a predominant objective of marketing to patients.The American Dental Association does not recognize cosmetic dentistry as a formal specialty area of dentistry.
  12. 12. However, there are still dentists that promote themselves as cosmetic dentists. There are only 2 dental specialties that predominantly focus on dental esthetics/cosmetics. They are: Prosthodontics and Orthodontics and such specialists are called Prosthodontists and Orthodontists respectively. Cosmetic dentistry may involve: i.)The addition of a dental material to teeth or gums examples: bonding, porcelain veneers (laminates), crowns (caps), gum grafts. ii.)The removal of tooth structure or gums - examples: enameloplasty, gingivectomy. iii.)Neither adding nor removing dental materials, tooth structure, or gums - examples: teeth whitening (bleaching), gum depigmentation iv.)Straightening of teeth accompanied by improvement in appearance of face - Orthodontics BEFORE AFTER
  13. 13.  Materials In the past, dental fillings and other tooth restorations were made of gold, amalgam and other metals—some of which were veneered with porcelain. Now, dental work can be made entirely of porcelain or composite materials that more closely mimic the appearance of natural tooth structure. These tooth colored materials are bonded to the underlying tooth structure with resin adhesives. Unlike silver fillings (amalgams) they are entirely free of mercury. Many dentists offer procedures to be cosmetic and because their patients prefer natural looking teeth.Cosmetic dentistry has evolved to cover many new procedures and new dental materials are constantly introduced. Formally trained specialists recognized by the American Dental Association undergo a minimum of 2–3 years full-time rigorous education program after dental school graduation. These specialties also lead to board certification approved by the American Dental Association. i.)Prosthodontics ii.)Orthodontics Non-specialists with supplemental education related to specific interests. The certifications by these groups will not lead to approval by the American Dental Association. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry: The American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) is the largest international dental organization in the world, composed of general dentists, specialists, and lab technicians focused on the art and science of cosmetic dentistry.
  14. 14. Founded in 1984, the AACD has over 7,000 members in the United States and more than 70 countries around the globe. Members of the Academy include dentists, dental laboratory technicians, educators, researchers, students, hygienists, corporations and dental auxiliaries. AACD members seek out continuing education through lectures, workshops, and publications in order to keep up-to-date with all of the advancements in cosmetic dental techniques and technology. In 1984, the AACD was formed and has filled the dire need for credentialing in cosmetic dentistry. The purpose of the American Board of Cosmetic Dentistry (ABCD) is the testing, analyzing, and evaluation of the services of dentists and laboratory technicians for the purpose of awarding AACD Accreditation in cosmetic dentistry. However, this certification is not approved or recognized by the American Dental Association. American Society For Dental Aesthetics: Conceived in 1976, the American Society for Dental Aesthetics was developed with a single purpose in mind: continuing dental education to teach dental health professionals the most advanced aesthetic and restorative techniques available. To become a member of the ASDA, a dentist must show a minimum of five years in dental practice, or postgraduate training of two years in an approved program; attendance to at least two ASDA sponsored continuing dental education seminars; nomination by a member accompanied by two letters of recommendation by Society members; presentation of five (5) cases illustrating the concepts of aesthetic dentistry.