i.) Incisors. Incisors are the eight teeth in the front and center
of your mouth (four on top and four on bottom). These are the
teeth that you use to take bites of your food. Incisors are
usually the first teeth to erupt, at around 6 months of age for
your first set of teeth, and between 6 and 8 years of age for
your adult set.
ii.)Canines. Your four canines are the next type of teeth to
develop. These are your sharpest teeth and are used for ripping
and tearing food apart. Primary canines generally appear
between 16 and 20 months of age with the upper canines
coming in just ahead of the lower canines. In permanent teeth,
the order is reversed. Lower canines erupt around age 9 with
the uppers arriving between 11 and 12 years of age.
iii.)Premolars. Premolars, or bicuspids, are used for chewing
and grinding food. You have four premolars on each side of
your mouth, two on the upper and two on the lower jaw. The
first premolars appear around age 10 and the second
premolars arrive about a year later.
iv.)Molars. Primary molars are also used for chewing and
grinding food. These appear between 12 and 15 months of
age. These molars are replaced by the first and second
permanent molars (four upper and four lower). The first
molars erupt around 6 years of age while the second molars
come in between 11 and 13 years of age.
v.)Third molars. Third molars are commonly known as
wisdom teeth. These are the last teeth to develop and do not
typically erupt until age 18 to 20, and some people never
develop third molars at all. For those who do, these molars
may cause crowding and need to be removed.
―2: Baby teeth and adult teeth. 2 sets of teeth: 20 primary teeth,
32 permanent teeth (unless any are congenitally missing).‖
They are the first set of teeth we have and there are altogether 20 of
them. They usually start to erupt from around the age of six months until
3 years of age.
At the age of 6, they sequentially erupt to replace the deciduous teeth
which become loose and shed.
Deciduous teeth: Space retainer for permanent teeth
1.)Normally, underneath the root of each deciduous tooth, there is a
developing permanent successor tooth.
2.) When it is time for the permanent successor tooth
to erupt, the root of the deciduous tooth will resorb
and the deciduous tooth will become loose. The
place is then taken up by its permanent successor
3.)Deciduous tooth retains the space for its permanent successor tooth.
i.)Developmental abnormalities most commonly
affect the number, size, shape, and structure of
ii.)Teeth help you chew your food, making it easier
to digest. Each type of tooth has a slightly different
shape and performs a different job.
The mouth is the gateway to the body... good health begins with good
teeth. Tooth decay, infection and/or gum disease can lead to a variety of
ailments and just generally ‗feeling bad.‘ Here‘s a list of Do‘s and Don‘ts
for keeping your oral hygiene the best it can be:
Oral Hygiene Do‘s • Visit your dentist regularly for check-ups and cleaning.
• Visit an orthodontist for an evaluation if you see any of the early
warning signs of orthodontic problems.
• Have your child(ren) evaluated by an orthodontist by age seven. Many
orthodontic problems can be more easily corrected before tooth and
facial growth is complete.
• Brush your teeth at least twice a day using a soft-bristled toothbrush
and a fluoride toothpaste.
• Floss between your teeth at least once a day, after dinner and before
bedtime. (Tip: Use toothpaste on your floss for extra fresh breath.)
• Rinse and gargle with the mouthwash, ideally right before bedtime.
• Eat a balanced diet, limit between-meal snacks and eliminate sugary
• Clean your tongue when you brush your teeth. (Tip: Instead of using
toothpaste to brush your tongue, dip your toothbrush in mouthwash.)
• Drink plenty of liquids, especially water to keep your mouth moist.
(Tip: If your mouth is dry, try sucking in your cheeks as if eating
something sour to increase flow from the salivary glands.)
Oral Hygiene Don‘ts
• Don‘t forget to clean behind your back teeth.
• Don‘t give mouthwash or fluoride toothpaste to young children, as they
can swallow it.
• Don‘t clean your tongue so hard that it hurts.
• Don‘t rely on mouthwash alone to keep your teeth and gums clean and
your breath fresh. Practice complete oral hygiene.
• Don‘t ignore your gums - you can lose your teeth as well as have bad
• Don‘t drink too much coffee.
• Don‘t smoke.
For those wearing braces or other orthodontic
appliances, keeping teeth and gums clean may be a bit more
difficult, but the resulting smile will be worth the effort.
Dental problems are never any fun, but the good news is that most of them
can be easily prevented. Brushing twice a day, flossing daily, eating properly
and regular dental check ups are essential in preventing dental problems.
Educating yourself about common dental problems and their causes can also
go a long way in prevention.
i.) Bad Breath
If you suffer from bad breath, you are not alone. Bad breath, also called halitosis,
can be downright embarrassing. According to dental studies, about 85% of people
with persistent bad breath have a dental condition that is to blame. Gum disease,
cavities, oral cancer, dry mouth and bacteria on the tongue are some of the dental
problems that can cause bad breath. Using mouthwash to cover up bad breath
when a dental problem is present will only mask the odor and not cure it. If you
suffer from chronic bad breath, visit your dentist to rule out any of these problems.
ii.) Tooth Decay
Did you know tooth decay, also known as cavities, is the second most prevalent
disease in the United States (the common cold is first). Tooth decay occurs when
plague, the sticky substance that forms on teeth, combines with the sugars and /
or starches of the food we eat. This combination produces acids that attack tooth
enamel. The best way to prevent tooth decay is by brushing twice a day, flossing
daily and going to your regular dental check ups. Eating healthy foods and
avoiding snacks and drinks that are high in sugar are also ways to prevent decay.
iii.)Gum (Periodontal) Disease
Studies have shown that periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is
linked to heart attacks and strokes. Gum disease is an infection in the gums
surrounding the teeth. Gum disease is also one of the main causes of tooth loss
among adults. There are two major stages of gum disease: gingivitis and
periodontitis. Regular dental check ups along with brushing at least twice a day
and flossing daily play an important role in preventing gum disease.
iv.) Oral Cancer
Oral cancer is a serious and deadly disease that affects millions of people. In
fact, the Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that someone in the United States
dies every hour of every day from oral cancer. Over 300,000 new cases of oral
cancer are diagnosed every year, worldwide. This serious dental disease, which
pertains to the mouth, lips or throat, is often highly curable if diagnosed and
treated in the early stages.
v.) Mouth Sores
There are several different types of mouth sores and they can be pesky
and bothersome. Unless a mouth sore lasts more than two weeks, it is
usually nothing to worry about and will disappear on its own. Common
mouth sores are canker sores, fever blisters, cold sores, ulcers and
vi.) Tooth Erosion
Tooth erosion is the loss of tooth structure and is caused by acid
attacking the enamel. Tooth erosion signs and symptoms can range from
sensitivity to more severe problems such as cracking. Tooth erosion is
more common than people might think, but it can also be easily
Tooth sensitivity is a common problem that affects millions of people.
Basically, tooth sensitivity means experiencing pain or discomfort to
your teeth from sweets, cold air, hot drinks, cold drinks or ice cream.
Some people with sensitive teeth even experience discomfort from
brushing and flossing. The good news is that sensitive teeth can be
viii.) Toothaches and Dental Emergencies
I can't think of much worse than suffering from a toothache. While many toothaches and
dental emergencies can be easily avoided just by regular visits to the dentist, we all
know that accidents can and do happen. Having a dental emergency can be very painful
and scary. Fortunately, you can do several things until you are able to see your dentist.
ix) Unattractive Smile
While an unattractive smile is not technically a "dental problem," it is considered a
dental problem by people who are unhappy with their smile and it's also a major reason
that many patients seek dental treatment. An unattractive smile can really lower a
person's self-esteem. Luckily, with today's technologies and developments, anyone can
have a beautiful smile. Whether it's teeth whitening, dental implants, orthodontics or
other cosmetic dental work, chances are that your dentist can give you the smile of your
Cosmetic dentistry is generally used to refer to any dental work that improves the
appearance (though not necessarily the function) of a person's teeth, gums and/or bite.
Many dentists refer to themselves as "cosmetic dentists" regardless of their specific
education, specialty, training, and experience in this field. This has been considered
unethical with a predominant objective of marketing to patients.The American Dental
Association does not recognize cosmetic dentistry as a formal specialty area of
However, there are still dentists that promote
themselves as cosmetic dentists.
There are only 2 dental specialties that predominantly
focus on dental esthetics/cosmetics. They are:
Prosthodontics and Orthodontics and such specialists
are called Prosthodontists and Orthodontists
Cosmetic dentistry may involve:
i.)The addition of a dental material to teeth or gums examples: bonding, porcelain veneers (laminates),
crowns (caps), gum grafts.
ii.)The removal of tooth structure or gums - examples:
iii.)Neither adding nor removing dental materials, tooth
structure, or gums - examples: teeth whitening
(bleaching), gum depigmentation
iv.)Straightening of teeth accompanied by improvement
in appearance of face - Orthodontics
In the past, dental fillings and other tooth restorations were made of gold, amalgam and
other metals—some of which were veneered with porcelain. Now, dental work can be
made entirely of porcelain or composite materials that more closely mimic the
appearance of natural tooth structure. These tooth colored materials are bonded to the
underlying tooth structure with resin adhesives. Unlike silver fillings (amalgams) they
are entirely free of mercury. Many dentists offer procedures to be cosmetic and because
their patients prefer natural looking teeth.Cosmetic dentistry has evolved to cover many
new procedures and new dental materials are constantly introduced.
Formally trained specialists recognized by the American Dental Association undergo a
minimum of 2–3 years full-time rigorous education program after dental school
graduation. These specialties also lead to board certification approved by the American
Non-specialists with supplemental education related to specific interests. The
certifications by these groups will not lead to approval by the American Dental
American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry: The American Academy of Cosmetic
Dentistry (AACD) is the largest international dental organization in the world,
composed of general dentists, specialists, and lab technicians focused on the art and
science of cosmetic dentistry.
Founded in 1984, the AACD has over 7,000 members in the United States and more
than 70 countries around the globe. Members of the Academy include dentists,
dental laboratory technicians, educators, researchers, students, hygienists,
corporations and dental auxiliaries. AACD members seek out continuing education
through lectures, workshops, and publications in order to keep up-to-date with all
of the advancements in cosmetic dental techniques and technology. In 1984, the
AACD was formed and has filled the dire need for credentialing in cosmetic
dentistry. The purpose of the American Board of Cosmetic Dentistry (ABCD) is the
testing, analyzing, and evaluation of the services of dentists and laboratory
technicians for the purpose of awarding AACD Accreditation in cosmetic dentistry.
However, this certification is not approved or recognized by the American Dental
American Society For Dental Aesthetics: Conceived in 1976, the American Society
for Dental Aesthetics was developed with a single purpose in mind: continuing
dental education to teach dental health professionals the most advanced aesthetic
and restorative techniques available. To become a member of the ASDA, a dentist
must show a minimum of five years in dental practice, or postgraduate training of
two years in an approved program; attendance to at least two ASDA sponsored
continuing dental education seminars; nomination by a member accompanied by
two letters of recommendation by Society members; presentation of five (5) cases
illustrating the concepts of aesthetic dentistry.