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Design of Synchronverter based Microgrid

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  • Hi, I'm doing a college work about that but my model isn't working quite well. Would it be possible that you send me the simulink model? I would use it mainly to check the values im using in the integrator and gains. I don't know what is wrong with my values and Im going insane about it. I would really apreciate your help. Thank you. bruno.b.fernando.f@gmail.com
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Design of Synchronverter based Microgrid

  1. 1. Design of Synchronverter based Microgrid Somsubhra Ghosh (A20345654) Zaki Ahmad Daniyal (A20360233) S. Raghavan (A20354164)
  2. 2. Contents • Problem and Solution • Theoretical Background • Project Definition • Simulation • Renewable Sources • Experimental Results • Summary
  3. 3. Problem and Solution Challenges and the Approach
  4. 4. The Problem • The problem of instability at the grid is something that engineers have been puzzled about for a long time • Both generation assets and loads introduce instability at the grid • Generators vary from diesel generators to solar PV’s • Loads vary from Induction motors rated at several MVA to small household loads such as cell phone chargers
  5. 5. A Solution • Instability can be solved if all the loads and generators connected to the grid were synchronized. • Which means the alignment of voltage magnitude, frequency and phase. • Synchronous machines by their very nature synchronize once connected. • So, what if all the loads and all the generators connected on the grid behaved like synchronous machines. • For example two synchronous generators connected would themselves synchronize without the help of any outside controller.
  6. 6. A Solution • Most loads and renewable generators have an inverter at the front end from where they are tied to the grid • A solution was found in which inverters were controlled in such a manner that they mimic synchronous machines • Hence the name Synchronverter
  7. 7. Theoretical Background Underlying Theory of Synchronverter
  8. 8. Synchronverter: Theory • The modeling of the Synchronous Machines Give us the following three key equations.
  9. 9. Theory: Model • Compact Modeling • Model of Synchronous Machines as the core of the controller.
  10. 10. Theory: Droop Function • The Droop Equations are • The modified Droop eqns
  11. 11. Theory: Self Synchronization • The fundamentals of synchronization is equality in Phase, Amplitude and Frequency. • e=vg i.e. i=0 ⇒ P=Q=0 • Voltage Droop is cut-off. • ΔT is forced to be 0 with an integrator. • During synchronization, a virtual current is provided.
  12. 12. Theory: Self Synchronized Controller • Self Synchronization: • Sp is ON. • Sc in Position 1 • SQ is OFF • Pset=Qset=0 • Grid Connected & Droop enabled • Sp is OFF. • Sc in Position 2 • SQ is ON • Pset and Qset=set values
  13. 13. Project Definition Details of the Project
  14. 14. Our Project: Model
  15. 15. Our Project: Objective • For our project we focused on the operation of Synchronverters present at the front end of various generation assets only. • Synchronverter is also present at the front end of the main power grid. • The load, main grid and generators were connected through a point of common coupling after they are synchronized. • Implementation of controllers so that the synchronization process completes successfully. • Observe & Analyze the behavior of the system under set mode. • Observe & Analyze the behavior of the system in Droop Mode. • Observe & Analyze the behavior of the system with step change of load.
  16. 16. Our Project: Achievement • The project was divided into 2 stages. • Build the system using constant 400 V DC sources and synchronize using PLL’s • After this was achieved we added the self synchronization mechanism • A solar farm was made and added to the system • A wind farm was also made however due to computational constraints it was removed. • Simulation results were recorded and analyzed for set mode, droop mode and with step change of the load.
  17. 17. Project: Definition and Parameters • The project Parameters were set as following: Rated Voltage 230 V AC Rated Frequency 50 Hz Voltage Droop 10% over 100% ΔQ Freq. Droop 1% over 100% ΔP DC Bus Voltage 400 VDC Grid Impedance 0.24 mH, 0.1 ohm RL Load 3 ohm in series with 1.8 mH RC Load 20 ohm in parallel with 300 𝜇𝐹
  18. 18. Project: Definition and Parameters • The Parameters for the Synchronverters are set as follows: Inverters Grid Wind Farm Solar Farm Energy Storage Rated Apparent Power 30 kVA 15 kVA 10 kVA 5 kVA Capacitor C 10 µF 10 µF 10 µF 10 µF Inductor Ls 0.35 mH 0.7 mH 1.05 mH 2.1 mH Resistor Rs 0.02Ω 0.04Ω 0.06Ω 0.12Ω Inductor Lg 0.035 mH 0.07 mH 0.105 mH 0.21 mH Resistor Rg 0.002Ω 0.004Ω 0.006Ω 0.012Ω
  19. 19. Simulation MATLAB Models and Details
  20. 20. MATLAB: Our Project
  21. 21. Controllers: Grid • Uses the core synchronverter controller. • No Need for synchronization so no PLL is used. • MfIf is bounded and initialized at 1.035 which is calculated from the required steady state value.
  22. 22. Controllers: PLL assisted Synchronization • Uses the core synchronverter controller. • Synchronization reference frequency is provided by a Phase Locked Loop which is tuned to provide optimal performance. • MfIf is bounded and initialized at 1.035 which is calculated from the required steady state value.
  23. 23. Controllers: Self Synchronized • Self synchronizing so PLL is removed. • Provides much better dynamic response. • Provides the operations for synchronizing, set mode and droop mode as discussed earlier • Better dynamic response can be obtained by tuning the frequency loop PI. • MfIf is bounded and initialized at 1.035 which is calculated from the required steady state value.
  24. 24. Controllers: Parameters • Controller was implemented for the self synchronization model with the following parameters Inverter Dp Dq J K Pset (kW) Qset (kVAR) Grid (1) 24.317 782.61 0.048634 4917.283653 24 18 Wind (2) 12.1585 391.305 0.024317 2458.621827 12 9 Solar (3) 8.1057 260.8695 0.0162114 1639.091409 8 6 Battery (4) 4.05285 130.43478 0.0081057 819.5458932 4 3
  25. 25. Renewable Sources Models and Details
  26. 26. Renewables: Solar Farm Model • Aimed at the simplest possible solar cell design • MATLAB has an in build solar cell model • The SIMULINK model of single cell was taken • Its output voltage magnified using SIMULINK’s gain block • This was the converted from a SIMULINK signal to a SIM POWERSYSTEMS signal as the output voltage of our solar farm
  27. 27. Renewables: Wind Farm Model • Uses a simple PM Synchronous Machine. • Wind Speed is taken to be a constant 12 m/s for an average model. • Removed due to computational constraints.
  28. 28. Experimental Results Graphs!
  29. 29. Experimental Results: Frequency Response with PLL Response with Self Synchronization
  30. 30. Experimental Results: V-I output of wind Farm Response with PLL Response with Self Synchronization
  31. 31. Experimental Results: V-I output of smaller Inverters Response for Solar Response for Battery
  32. 32. Experimental Results: P-Q output Response for Grid Response for Wind
  33. 33. Experimental Results: P-Q output Response for Solar Response for Battery
  34. 34. Experimental Results: Synchronization V-I Response for Grid V-I Response for Wind
  35. 35. Experimental Results: Synchronization V-I Response for Solar V-I Response for Battery
  36. 36. Experimental Results: Droop Response V-I Response for Grid V-I Response for Wind
  37. 37. Experimental Results: Droop Response V-I Response for Solar V-I Response for Battery
  38. 38. Summary • 4 Synchronverters were modeled and experimented on to make a microgrid. • Two approaches were adapted and compared • PLL • Self Synchronization • Dynamic models for Solar Panels and wind turbines were adopted, however only solar model was used.
  39. 39. Thank You! Questions?

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