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Horn: Keratinised structure
-Found in ungulate (hoofed) mammals only
True horns are found in pronghorns, antelopes,
sheep, goats and other cattle
-True horns consist of inner core of bone which is
out growth of frontal bone
-It is encased with keratinised epidermal covering
True horns grow continuously throughout the life
and do not shed
Horn
Rhinoceros or
keratin fibre horn
-Not true horn
-It has no skeleton
-Made by keratinised cells of
epidermis and consist of
matted keratin fibre bound
together
-Not true hair
Pronghorns or true horns
-Frontal bone grow and covered
with hard horney epidermal sheath
-Sheath forked bearing one or two
prongs made of only sheath
-Sheath shed annually and replaced
by new one
e.g Russian antelopes
Giraffe horns
-Not true horns
They develop from cartilaginous
protrusion which are present at
the time of birth
-They get ossified and fuse at the
top of skull.
-They appear as knob and
covered with skin and hairs
-3 in number
-One middle and two anterior
-Found in male of deer family
-No true horn
-Shed annually after breeding
season and new antlers
develop
-Made of bone and covered
with hairy skin called as
velvet
Antlers:
In many animal horny layer of epidermis modified to form
claws, nails and hoovs
Claws: They first appeared in reptiles
made of a hard horny dorsal scale-like plate called unguis and relatively
soft ventral subunguis
Both unguis and subunguis converge terminally
In mammals subunguis is much reduced and provided with pad
In cats: claws are retractile
Nails: found in primates
Unguis is large and flat
Subunguis is much reduced
Tip of the digits form sensitive and vascular pad over which nail groove is
present
Hoovs: found in mammals
Horny unguis is thick around the end of digits and encloses the
thickened subunguis which touch the ground
Fish scales
Scales in fishes: Dermal in origin
In ostracoderms: Armour of large bony plates presented
In placoderms: these plates became small to give rise to cosmoid scales
Cosmoid
scales
Cosmoid scales were found only on ancient
lobe-finned fishes, including some of the
earliest lungfishes.
It was made of four layer
1. The inner part of the scales is made of
dense lamellar bone called isopedine.
2. On top of this lies a layer of spongy
or vascular bone supplied with blood vessels
3. Complex dentine-like layer
called cosmine
4. superficial outer coating of vitrodentine.
vitrodentine
Ganoid scales
Most ganoid scales are
rhomboidal in shaspe
(diamond-shaped)
Ganoid scales are found in the sturgeons,
paddlefishes, gars and bowfin.
They are derived from cosmoid scales and often
have serrated edges. They are covered with a
layer of hard enamel-like dentine in the place of
cosmine i.e a layer of inorganic bone called
ganoine in place of vitrodentine
Ganoid scales
Loss of Ganoin layer
Cycloid and ctenoid scales
Cosmoid scales
Loss of all inner three
layer
Placoid Scales
Placoid (pointed, tooth-shaped) scales are found in the cartilaginous
fishes: sharks, rays.
They are also called dermal denticles.
Placoid scales are structurally homologous with vertebrate teeth,having
a central pulp cavity supplied with blood vessels, surrounded by a
conical layer of dentine, all of which sits on top of a rectangular basal
plate that rests on the dermis.
The outermost layer is composed
of vitrodentine, a largely
inorganic enamel-like substance
Placoid scales
Cycloid scales
Cycloid (circular) scales have a smooth
texture and are uniform, with a smooth
outer edge or margin. They are most
common in bony fishes such as carps.
Ctenoid Scales
Found in perch
Like cycloid scales but they have small teeth
like structure on their free posterior part
It is made of hydroxyapeptide and calcium
carbonate
scales and Int modification.pptx

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scales and Int modification.pptx

  • 1. Horn: Keratinised structure -Found in ungulate (hoofed) mammals only True horns are found in pronghorns, antelopes, sheep, goats and other cattle -True horns consist of inner core of bone which is out growth of frontal bone -It is encased with keratinised epidermal covering True horns grow continuously throughout the life and do not shed
  • 2. Horn Rhinoceros or keratin fibre horn -Not true horn -It has no skeleton -Made by keratinised cells of epidermis and consist of matted keratin fibre bound together -Not true hair Pronghorns or true horns -Frontal bone grow and covered with hard horney epidermal sheath -Sheath forked bearing one or two prongs made of only sheath -Sheath shed annually and replaced by new one e.g Russian antelopes
  • 3.
  • 4. Giraffe horns -Not true horns They develop from cartilaginous protrusion which are present at the time of birth -They get ossified and fuse at the top of skull. -They appear as knob and covered with skin and hairs -3 in number -One middle and two anterior -Found in male of deer family -No true horn -Shed annually after breeding season and new antlers develop -Made of bone and covered with hairy skin called as velvet Antlers:
  • 5.
  • 6. In many animal horny layer of epidermis modified to form claws, nails and hoovs Claws: They first appeared in reptiles made of a hard horny dorsal scale-like plate called unguis and relatively soft ventral subunguis Both unguis and subunguis converge terminally In mammals subunguis is much reduced and provided with pad In cats: claws are retractile Nails: found in primates Unguis is large and flat Subunguis is much reduced Tip of the digits form sensitive and vascular pad over which nail groove is present
  • 7. Hoovs: found in mammals Horny unguis is thick around the end of digits and encloses the thickened subunguis which touch the ground
  • 9. Scales in fishes: Dermal in origin In ostracoderms: Armour of large bony plates presented In placoderms: these plates became small to give rise to cosmoid scales
  • 10. Cosmoid scales Cosmoid scales were found only on ancient lobe-finned fishes, including some of the earliest lungfishes. It was made of four layer 1. The inner part of the scales is made of dense lamellar bone called isopedine. 2. On top of this lies a layer of spongy or vascular bone supplied with blood vessels 3. Complex dentine-like layer called cosmine 4. superficial outer coating of vitrodentine. vitrodentine
  • 11. Ganoid scales Most ganoid scales are rhomboidal in shaspe (diamond-shaped) Ganoid scales are found in the sturgeons, paddlefishes, gars and bowfin. They are derived from cosmoid scales and often have serrated edges. They are covered with a layer of hard enamel-like dentine in the place of cosmine i.e a layer of inorganic bone called ganoine in place of vitrodentine
  • 12.
  • 13. Ganoid scales Loss of Ganoin layer Cycloid and ctenoid scales Cosmoid scales Loss of all inner three layer Placoid Scales
  • 14. Placoid (pointed, tooth-shaped) scales are found in the cartilaginous fishes: sharks, rays. They are also called dermal denticles. Placoid scales are structurally homologous with vertebrate teeth,having a central pulp cavity supplied with blood vessels, surrounded by a conical layer of dentine, all of which sits on top of a rectangular basal plate that rests on the dermis. The outermost layer is composed of vitrodentine, a largely inorganic enamel-like substance Placoid scales
  • 15.
  • 16. Cycloid scales Cycloid (circular) scales have a smooth texture and are uniform, with a smooth outer edge or margin. They are most common in bony fishes such as carps.
  • 17.
  • 18. Ctenoid Scales Found in perch Like cycloid scales but they have small teeth like structure on their free posterior part It is made of hydroxyapeptide and calcium carbonate