Challenges to Algae Use as a Biofuel


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Challenges to Algae Use as a Biofuel

  1. 1. AlgaeJaal Mann, Michael Karch, and Arij Beebe-Sweet
  2. 2. Fossil fuels are not sustainable•Dwindling petroleumreserves•CO2-caused global climatechangeSustainable alternatives are needed
  3. 3. Biofuels as a sustainable alternative to fossil fuel•Carbon neutral•Renewable•Cheaper than fossil fuel
  4. 4. Types of biofuel•Traditional food based: -corn -sugar cane -soybean•Non-food biomass based: -oil palm -switch grass -algae
  5. 5. Algae is a promising new biofuel•Higher yields than traditional biofuel crops•Saltwater and wastewater tolerant
  6. 6. Original Project Idea•Enclosed bioreactor with LEDs•Flaws: •Contamination •Time •Complexity •Quantity
  7. 7. LED ElectricityCost Per GallonOur research gave us the informationto answer our initial question. What is the cost of using 10-Watt LEDs?
  8. 8. Probable algae growth yields:10gal * 1/3000 * 0.5 = 0.0017gal/batchNumber of batches to achieve one gallon of lipids? 1gal/0.0017/gal/batch = 600 batches
  9. 9. How much electricity per batch?10W * 12h/d * 20d = 2.4kWh/batch Cost per batch? 2.4kWh * $0.10kW = $0.24/batchHow much electricity for one gallon of lipids? $0.24/batch * 600batches/gal=
  10. 10. $150/gallon
  11. 11. Project Evolution Plan B•Talk to researchers on the cutting edge of algae yields for biofuels
  12. 12. Algae to Biofuel Process and Challenges•Strain Selection•Growing Phase•Dewatering•Extraction•Transesterification
  13. 13. Strain Selection•Estimated 1-10 million different species•Hybridization weakens algae•Some ideal characterizations are: highlipid content, tolerates salt and waste waterand oils excreted outside the cells
  14. 14. Growing Phase•4 Litres of water per kilogram of dry algae•Difficult to Monoculture•Open ponds and Raceways have severalvulnerabilities
  15. 15. Dewatering•1 part algae 3,000 parts water•Best available dewatering technique iscentrifugation•High capitaland energy cost associatedwith most methods•Main bottleneck in algal culture
  16. 16. Extraction Methods•Mechanical crushing or pressing•Ultrasonic extraction•Supercritical CO2•Counter-current circulation•Microwaves??
  17. 17. Transesterification•The process of making biodiesel•14-22 Carbon chains long, freezing pointis high
  18. 18. Transportation Needs Western Washington:•50 million barrels of motor gasoline peryear (EIA)•About 450,000 metric tonnes of CO2 peryear (EPA)
  19. 19. Wastewater Management•Wastewater is rich in Nitrogen and Phosphorous•Nitrogen and Phosphorous can cause algaeblooms and resulting dead zones
  20. 20. Wastewater Management•Algae thrive on a diet of Nitrogen and (McShan 1974)•Growing algae in wastewater treatment plantsis very promising
  21. 21. Wastewater Management•Brine shrimp eat algae to maintain productivity(McShan 1974)•Brine shrimp can be harvested to offset systemcost (McShan 1974)
  22. 22. Algae Turf Scrubbing•Nutrient clean-up and biofuel at thesame time (Beardsley 2011)•Algal turf scrubbers removenutrients, produce fertilizers, returnoxygen to water, and can producebiofuel or pharmaceuticals(Beardsley 2011)
  23. 23. Food and Pharmaceutical Algae protein costs 30 times more that meat1Algae carbohydrates are not digestible by humans2 1. 2. Fujiwara-Arasaki, Teruko, Sorui; 12/10/84, Vol. 32 Issue 4, p293-299, 7p
  24. 24. How Algae Proteins Compare As a percentage of dry weight mass, protein potential comparison of one algae species to other foods.Product Proteins Carbohydr Lipids ates Meat 43 1 34 Rice 8 77 2Spirulina 60-71 13-16 6-7maxima http://www.affordable-natural-
  25. 25. Pharmaceutical Uses In treating oral disease 1 Has high percentage of vitamin C Natural carotenoids 2 Chlorophyll a used for deodorant Sirbu, Rodica,Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technologyvolume 32 August 2008.2. Daciana, Sava, Pharmaceutical Importance of some multicellular red algae speciesfrom the Romanian Black Sea shore. Annals of RSCB Vol XIV, Issue 2.
  26. 26. Looking to the future•Not ready for large-scalebiofuel use•More research in yieldsand lipid contents•Cost of production mustdecrease
  27. 27. BibliographyAlgal Turf Scrubbing: Boon or Blip?Timothy M. BeardsleyBioScience , Vol. 61, No. 6 (June 2011), p. 423Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the American Institute of BiologicalSciencesArticle DOI: 10.1525/bio.2011.61.6.1Article Stable URL: Treatment of Wastewater Using Algae and ArtemiaMichael McShan, Norman M. Trieff and Dov GrajcerJournal (Water Pollution Control Federation) , Vol. 46, No. 7 (Jul., 1974), pp. 1742-1750Published by: Water Environment FederationArticle Stable URL: Transporation Fuel Consumption: CO2 per gallon: Assessment of Biodiesel Production from MicroalgaeLaurent Lardon, Arnaud Hélias, Bruno Sialve, Jean-Philippe Steyer, and OlivierBernardEnvironmental Science & Technology 2009 43 (17), 6475-6481Dewatering of microalgal cultures: A major bottleneck to algae-based fuelsNyomi Uduman, Ying Qi, Michael K. Danquaha, Gareth M. Forde, and Andrew HoadleyDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3800,Australia (Received 22 July 2009; accepted 22 December 2009; published online 12 January 2010)