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THE role and design of instructional
material
chapter8
by
Somaye Bagheri kangani
Much of the language teaching that occurs throughout the
world today could not take place without the extensive use of
com...
Cunnings worth(1995,7) summarize the role of
materials(particularly
course books) in language teachings as:
-A resource fo...
Dudley-Evans and St. John(1998,170-
171)suggest that for teachers of ESP courses,
materials serve the following functions:...
Authentic versus created materials
Authentic materials refers to the use in
teaching of texts, photographs, video
selectio...
Advantages claimed for authentic materials
are (Phillips and
Shettlesworth 1978;Clarke1989;Peacock 1997):
-They have a pos...
Critics of the use of authentic materials:
Created materials can also be motivating for learners.-
- Authentic materials o...
Textbook
Commercial textbooks together with
ancillaries such as workbook ,cassettes, and
teacher's guides are perhaps the ...
Then
Author and academic centered
Uncertain global market
European focus
Sell what is published
Culture and methodology of...
The use of commercial text books in teaching has
both advantages and disadvantages.
some advantages are:
-They provide str...
some disadvantages are
-They may contain inauthentic
language.
-They may distort content.
-they may not reflect student's ...
Before evaluation a textbook some
information are needed on following
issues:
-The role of textbook in the program
-The te...
Criteria for textbook evaluation
Cunnings worth(1995)proposes four criteria for evaluating
textbooks, particularly course ...
Cunnings worth(1995)presents a checklist for
textbook evaluation and selection(Appendix2)
organized under the following ca...
Dudley Evans and St. John(1998,173)suggest that operating with so
many categories is often not very practical and it is ea...
In any language program,t herefore,it is unlikely that a published
checklist can be used without adaptation as a basis for...
Adapting textbooks
Dudley-Evans and St. John (1998,173)suggest that
a good provider of materials will be able to:
1. selec...
Commercial textbooks can seldom be used without
some form of adaptation to make them more suitable
for the particular cont...
The End
The role and design of instructional materials (2)
The role and design of instructional materials (2)
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The role and design of instructional materials (2)

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The role and design of instructional materials (2)

  1. 1. THE role and design of instructional material chapter8 by Somaye Bagheri kangani
  2. 2. Much of the language teaching that occurs throughout the world today could not take place without the extensive use of commercial materials. These may take the form of: a) printed materials such as books,workbooks,worksheets,or readers b) nonprint materials such as cassette or audio materials,vidios,or computer-based materials c) materials that comprise both print and nonprint sources such as self–access materials and materials on the Internet. In addition , materials not designed for instructional use such as magazine,newspaper,TV material may also play a role in
  3. 3. Cunnings worth(1995,7) summarize the role of materials(particularly course books) in language teachings as: -A resource for presentation materials(spoken and written) -A source of activities for learner practice and communicative interaction -A reference source for learners on grammar,vocabulary,pronunciation,and so on -A source of stimulation and ideas for classroom activities -A syllabus(where they reflect learning objectives that have already been determined) -A support for less experienced teachers who have yet to gain in confidence
  4. 4. Dudley-Evans and St. John(1998,170- 171)suggest that for teachers of ESP courses, materials serve the following functions: -As a source of language -As a learning support -For motivation and stimulation -For reference
  5. 5. Authentic versus created materials Authentic materials refers to the use in teaching of texts, photographs, video selections, and other teaching resources that were not specially prepared for pedagogical purposes. created materials refers to textbooks and other specially developed instructional resources.
  6. 6. Advantages claimed for authentic materials are (Phillips and Shettlesworth 1978;Clarke1989;Peacock 1997): -They have a positive effect on learner motivation -They provide authentic cultural information about the target culture -They provide exposure to real language -They relate more closely to learners, needs -They support a more creative approach to
  7. 7. Critics of the use of authentic materials: Created materials can also be motivating for learners.- - Authentic materials often contain difficult language - Created materials may be superior to authentic materials because they are generally built around a graded syllabus -Using authentic materials is a burden for teachers
  8. 8. Textbook Commercial textbooks together with ancillaries such as workbook ,cassettes, and teacher's guides are perhaps the commonest form of teaching materials in language teaching . Haines(1996,27)characterizes differences between past and current trends in English language textbooks.
  9. 9. Then Author and academic centered Uncertain global market European focus Sell what is published Culture and methodology of origin English for its own sake UK/US publisher dominance Native speaker expertise Culturally insensitive Low risk/completion Little design Artificial texts and tasks Single-volume titles Now Market led Specific fragmented markets Pacific Rim/latin American focus International or local culture Indigenous learning situation English for specific purposes Rise in local publishing Nonnative speaker competition Culturally sensitive high risk/competition design rich authenticity multicomponent/multimedia
  10. 10. The use of commercial text books in teaching has both advantages and disadvantages. some advantages are: -They provide structure and syllabus for a program. -They help standardize instruction. -They maintain quality. -They provide a variety of learning resources. -They are efficient. They can provide effective language models and input.- -They can train teachers.
  11. 11. some disadvantages are -They may contain inauthentic language. -They may distort content. -they may not reflect student's need. -They can deskill teachers. -They are expensive.
  12. 12. Before evaluation a textbook some information are needed on following issues: -The role of textbook in the program -The teacher in the program -The learners in the program
  13. 13. Criteria for textbook evaluation Cunnings worth(1995)proposes four criteria for evaluating textbooks, particularly course books: 1. They should correspond to learners , need. They should match the aims and objectives of the language learning program. 2. They should reflect the uses(present or future) that learners will make of the language. Textbooks should be chosen that will help equip students to use language effectively for their own purposes . 3. They should take account of students , needs as learners and should facilitate their learning processes, without dogmatically imposing a rigid "method". 4. They should have a clear role as a support for learning. like teachers,they mediate between the target language and the learner.
  14. 14. Cunnings worth(1995)presents a checklist for textbook evaluation and selection(Appendix2) organized under the following categories: -aims and approaches -design and organization -skills -topic -methodology -teachers, books -practical considerations
  15. 15. Dudley Evans and St. John(1998,173)suggest that operating with so many categories is often not very practical and it is easier to use two or three key criteria in the first instance and then apply others if or when needed. They propose the following questions to ask when selecting ESP materials: 1.Will the materials stimulate and motivate? 2.To what extent does the materials match the stated learning objectives and your learning objectives?(It is rare for a single of published material to match the exact learning needs of any one ESP learner group, and activities do not always meet the stated objectives.) 3. To what extent will the materials support the learning process?
  16. 16. In any language program,t herefore,it is unlikely that a published checklist can be used without adaptation as a basis for evaluating and choosing textbooks. Based on the factors in each situation, questions specific to that situation need to be generated around the main issues involved in textbook evaluation and selection: program factors- questions relating to concerns of the program teacher factors- questions relating to teacher concerns learner factors- questions relating to learner concerns content factors- questions relating to the content and organization of the material in the book pedagogical factors- questions relating to the principles underlying the materials and pedagogical design of the materials,including choice of activities and exercise types
  17. 17. Adapting textbooks Dudley-Evans and St. John (1998,173)suggest that a good provider of materials will be able to: 1. select appropriately from what is available 2. be creative with what is available 3. modify activities to suit learners need 4. supplement by providing extra activities
  18. 18. Commercial textbooks can seldom be used without some form of adaptation to make them more suitable for the particular context in which they will be used. This adaptation may take a variety of forms. -Modifying content. -Adding or deleting content. -Reorganizing content. -Addressing omissions. - Modifying tasks. -Extending tasks.
  19. 19. The End

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