U.N-OVERVIEW The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights.
Contd.UN has 4 main purposes To keep peace throughout the world; To develop friendly relations among nations; To help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms; To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals.
00 Ban Ki-moon is the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations.Mr. Ban took office on 1 January 2007. On 21 June 2011, he was unanimouslyre-elected by the General Assembly and will continue to serve until 31December 2016.
General Assembly The General Assembly is the main deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the United Nations. It comprises all the 193 Members of the United Nations It provides a unique forum for multilateral discussion of the full spectrum of international issues covered by the Charter.
General Assembly-President , Vuk Jeremić waselected President of the sixty-seventh session of the United Nations General Assembly on 8 June 2012.
COMMITTEES1. First Committee (Disarmament and International Security Committee)2. Second Committee (Economic and Financial Committee)3. Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee)4. Fourth Committee (Special Political and Decolonization Committee)5. Fifth Committee (Administrative and Budgetary Committee)6. Sixth Committee (Legal Committee)
TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL The Trusteeship Council is authorized to examine and discuss reports from the Administering Authority on the political, economic, social and educational advancement of the peoples of Trust Territories and, in consultation with the Administering Authority, to examine petitions from and undertake periodic and other special missions to Trust Territories.
Contd. The Charter established the Trusteeship Council as one of the main organs of the United Nations and assigned to supervise the administration of Trust Territories placed under the Trusteeship System. Major goals of the System were to promote the advancement of the inhabitants of Trust Territories and their progressive development towards self-government or independence. Authorized to examine and discuss reports from the Administering Authority on the political, economic, social and educational advancement of the peoples of Trust Territories
ECOSOC The Economic and Social Council shall consist of fifty-four Members of the United Nations elected by the General Assembly. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), established by the UN Charter, is the principal organ to coordinate the economic, social and related work of the United Nations and the specialized agencies and institutions.
FUNCTIONS and POWERS The Economic and Social Council may make or initiate studies and reports with respect to international economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related matters and may make recommendations. It may make recommendations for the purpose of promoting respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all. It may prepare draft conventions for submission to the General Assembly, with respect to matters falling within its competence. It may call, in accordance with the rules prescribed by the United Nations, international conferences on matters falling within its competence.
THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE The International Court of Justice shall be the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It shall function in accordance with the annexed Statute, which is based upon the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice and forms an integral part of the present Charter.
Contd. The Court is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It was established by the United Nations Charter, signed in 1945 at San Francisco (United States), and began work in 1946 in the Peace Palace, The Hague (Netherlands). The Court, which is composed of 15 judges, has a dual role: in accordance with international law, settling legal disputes between States submitted to it by them and giving advisory opinions on legal matters referred to it by duly authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies. The official languages of the Court are English and French.
SECURITY COUNCIL The Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. The Security Council takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression. The Security Council also recommends to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and the admission of new Members to the United Nations
FUNCTIONS & POWERSMaintaining Peace and SecurityWhen a complaint concerning a threat to peace is brought before it, the Council’s first action is usually to recommend that the parties try to reach agreement by peaceful means. The Council may: set forth principles for such an agreement; undertake investigation and mediation, in some cases; dispatch a mission; appoint special envoys; or request the Secretary-General to use his good offices to achieve a pacific settlement of the dispute
Contd. When a dispute leads to hostilities, the Council’s primary concern is to bring them to an end as soon as possible. In that case, the Council may: issue ceasefire directives that can help prevent an escalation of the conflict; dispatch military observers or a peacekeeping force to help reduce tensions, separate opposing forces and establish a calm in which peaceful settlements may be sought.
PRESENTATION BY SOMAN RAJ,S M.A Social Work, LOYOLA COLLEGE