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Environmental Studies
&
Disaster Management
Somanath Sarvade
Assistant Professor (Agroforestry)
College of Agriculture Balaghat
E-mail: somanath553@jnkvv.org
Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishva Vidyalaya,
Jabalpur
‘A house is not a home unless it contains
food and fire for the mind as well as the
body’--Benjamin Franklin
Food resources
• Food is the basic necessity of human life without which one cannot
survive.
• Our food mainly comes from agriculture, animal husbandry and fishing.
• Modern patterns of agriculture are unsustainable and polluting the
environment with excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides.
• 16th October is declared as World Food Day.
Food production
Production of Major Agricultural Crops (2ndAdvance Estimates)
Food crops
• It is estimated that out of about 2,50,000 species of plants, only about 3,000 have
been tried as agricultural crops.
• Under different agro-climatic condition, 300 are grown for food and only 100 are
used on a large scale.
• Some species of crops provide food, whereas others provide commercial products
like oils, fibers, etc.
• Raw crops are sometimes converted into valuable edible products by using different
techniques for value addition.
• At global level, only 20 species of crops are used for food.
• These, in approximate order of importance are wheat, rice, corn, potatoes; barley,
sweet potatoes, cassavas, soybeans, oats, sorghum, millet, sugarcane, sugar beets,
rye, peanuts, field beans, chick-peas, pigeon- peas, bananas and coconuts.
• Many of them are used directly, whereas other can be used by changing them by
using different techniques for enhancing calorific value.
Livestock
• Domesticated animals are an important food source.
• The major domesticated animals used as food source by human beings
are ‘ruminants’ (e.g. cattle, sheep, goats, camel, reindeer, llama, etc.).
• Ruminants convert indigestible woody tissue of plants (cellulose) which
are earth’s most abundant organic compound into digestible food
products for human consumption.
• Milk, which is provided by milking animals, is considered to be the
complete food.
• Other domestic animals like sheep, goat, poultry and ducker can be
used as meat.
Aquaculture
Fish and seafood contributes 17 million metric tones of
high quality protein to provide balance diet to the world.
Presently aquaculture provides only small amounts for
world food but its significance is increasing day by day.
World Food Problems:
• Production of food is not keeping pace with the growing demand.
• There are great disparities in the availability of nutritious food. Some
tribes still face serious food problems leading to malnutrition
especially among women and children.
• Our fertile soils are being exploited faster than they can recuperate.
• Forests, grasslands and wetlands have been converted to
agricultural use, which has led to serious ecological problems.
• Our fish resources, both marine and inland, show evidence of
exhaustion.
• Global food production has increased by using more soil, water, plant,
animal and energy resources and causing more pollution and
environmental damage.
• More than 100 countries regularly import food from US, Canada,
Australia, Argentina, Western Europe, New Zealand and Thailand.
• With 30-40% of the calories coming from animal products, current world
agriculture system would support only 2.5 billion people to have typical
diet of a person in any developed country.
• 40% of people in India suffer from malnutrition because they are poor to
buy or to grow enough food to meet their basic needs.
• 2/3rd of India’s land is threatened by erosion, water shortages and
salinization.
• Women and children are mostly underfed and malnourished compared
to men.
Under-nourishment
• The FAO estimates that the average minimum daily caloric intake
over the whole world is about 2,500 calories per day.
• People who receive less than 90% of their minimum dietary intake
on a long-term basis are considered undernourished.
• Those who receive less than 80% of their minimum daily caloric
intake requirements are considered ‘seriously’ undernourished.
• Children in this category are likely to suffer from stunted growth,
mental retardation, and other social and developmental disorders.
• Therefore, Under-nourishment means lack of sufficient calories in
available food, resulting in little or no ability to move or work.
Malnourishment
• Person may have excess food but still diet suffers from due to
nutritional imbalance or inability to absorb or may have problem to
utilize essential nutrients.
• If we compare diet of the developed countries with developing
countries, people in developed countries have processed food which
may be deficient in fiber, vitamins and other components where as in
the diet of developing countries, may be lack of specific nutrients
because they consume less meat ,fruits and vegetables due to poor
purchasing power .
• Malnourishment can be defined as lack of specific components of food
such as proteins, vitamins, or essential chemical elements.
Major problems of malnutrition
Marasmus: a progressive emaciation caused by lack of protein and
calories.
Kwashiarkor: a lack of sufficient protein in the diet which leads to a
failure of neural development and therefore learning disabilities.
Anemia: it is caused by lack of iron in the diet or due to an inability to
absorb iron from food.
Pellagra: it occurs due to the deficiency of tryptophan and lysine,
vitamins in the diet.
• Every year, food problem kill as many people as were killed by the
atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima during World War II.
• This shows that there is drastic need to increase food production,
equitably distribute it and also to control population growth.
• Although India is the third largest producer of staple crops, it is
estimated that about 300 million Indians are still undernourished.
• India has only half as much land as USA, but it has nearly three
times population to feed.
• Our food problems are directly related to population.
Balanced diet
• Supply of adequate amount of different nutrient can help to
improve malnutrition and its ill effects.
• Cereals like wheat and rice can supply only carbohydrate
which are rich in energy supply, are only fraction of nutrition
requirement.
• Cereal diet has to be supplemented with other food that can
supply fat, protein and minor quantity of minerals and
vitamins.
• Balanced diet will help to improve growth and health.
Changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing
• From centuries, agriculture is providing inputs to large
number of industries involved in production, processing
and distribution of food.
• Accordingly, agriculture has significant effect on
environment.
• The effects of agriculture on environment can be classified
as local, regional, and global level.
• Deforestation
• Soil Erosion
• Depletion of nutrients
• Impact related to high yielding varieties (HYV)
• Fertilizers related problems include micronutrient imbalance, nitrite
pollution and eutrophication.
• Pesticide related problems include creating resistance in pests and
producing new pests, death of non-target organisms, biological
magnification.
• Some other problems include water logging, salinity problems and
such others.
The agriculture also makes impact on the usage of land generally as
follows:
The carrying capacity of land for cattle depends upon micro climate
and soil fertility. If carrying capacity is exceeded than land is
overgrazed. Because of overgrazing the agricultural land gets
affected as follows:
• Reduction in growth and diversity of plant species
• Reduce plant cover leads to increased soil erosion
• Cattle trampling leads to land degradation
Effects of Modern Agriculture
For sustainable production modern techniques are
used to enhance productivity of different cropping
systems under different agro-eco-zones. Adoption
of modern agricultural practices has both positive
and negative effects on environment. Effects of
modern agriculture are briefly discussed under
different heads as under:
Soil erosion
Raindrops bombarding bare soil result in the
oldest and still most serious problem of
agriculture. The long history of soil erosion
and its impact on civilization is one of
devastation. Eroded fields record our failure
as land stewards.
Irrigation
• Adequate rainfall is never guaranteed for the dry land farmer in arid and
semiarid regions, and thus irrigation is essential for reliable production.
• Irrigation ensures sufficient water when needed and also allows farmers
to expand their acreage of suitable cropland.
• In fact, we trust heavily on crops from irrigated lands, with fully one-third
of the world's harvest coming from that 17% of cropland that is under
irrigation.
• Unfortunately, current irrigation practices severely damage the cropland
and the aquatic systems from which the water is withdrawn.
Agriculture and the loss of genetic diversity
• As modern agriculture converts an ever-increasing portion of the earth's
land surface to monoculture, the genetic and ecological diversity of the
planet erodes.
• Both the conversion of diverse natural ecosystems to new agricultural
lands and the narrowing of the genetic diversity of crops contribute to
this erosion.
Fertilizer and pesticide problem
• A significant portion of fertilizer and pesticide applied to the soil runs off into
surface water or leaches into ground water.
• Spraying of pesticides had lead to ecological damage like human toxic
effects, cancer and organ damage from breathing and ingesting pesticides.
• Increase in cropped area and irrigation have problems like soil erosion,
water logging and steady buildup of salts.
• The biggest problem with pesticides is the development of genetic
resistance by pest organisms and they will become immune to the
fungicides.
• Sometimes insecticides kill natural predators and parasites which may
increase new pests’ growth.
• Pesticides may accumulate in the bodies of animals which is called bio-
accumulation. This problem affects animals and when that affected animal
is eaten by a carnivore leading to the disease or death
Water logging
• High water table or surface flooding can cause water
logging problems.
• Water logging may lead to poor crop productivity due to
anaerobic condition created in the soil.
• In India, deltas of Ganga, Andaman and Nicobar Islands
and some areas of Kerala are prone to frequent water
logging.
Salinity
• Due to adoption of intensive agriculture practices and increased
concentration of soluble salts leads to salinity.
• Due to poor drainage, dissolved salts accumulate on soil surface and
affects soil fertility.
• Excess concentration of these salts may form a crust on the surface
which may injurious to the plants.
• The water absorption process is affected and uptake of nutrient is
disturbed.
• According to an estimate, in India, 7 million hectare of land is saline and
area is showing in increasing trends due to adoption of intensive
agriculture practices.
Case Studies
• A study on birth defects in water birds, in Kesterson wildlife refuge in
California, indicated that these defects where due to high concentration of
selenium.
• Recent reports from cotton growing belt of Punjab which covers Abohar,
Fazalka and part of Bathinda indicates that over use of pesticides for
control of insect pest in cotton to enhance productivity has not only
affected soil health, but also caused cancer in human being.
• Diclofenac is the drug for veterinary use to treat the livestock which have
strong residual nature, which leads to high persistence throughout the
food chain. Due to bio-magnification it becomes more dangerous to the
vultures as they are consumers of diclofenac treated cattle. Diclofenac is
responsible for bringing three South Asian species of Gyps vultures to the
brink of extinction. It has been banned in India since 2006.
Thank You

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Lecture 3 2ppt Food resources

  • 1. Environmental Studies & Disaster Management Somanath Sarvade Assistant Professor (Agroforestry) College of Agriculture Balaghat E-mail: somanath553@jnkvv.org Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishva Vidyalaya, Jabalpur
  • 2. ‘A house is not a home unless it contains food and fire for the mind as well as the body’--Benjamin Franklin
  • 3. Food resources • Food is the basic necessity of human life without which one cannot survive. • Our food mainly comes from agriculture, animal husbandry and fishing. • Modern patterns of agriculture are unsustainable and polluting the environment with excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides. • 16th October is declared as World Food Day.
  • 4. Food production Production of Major Agricultural Crops (2ndAdvance Estimates)
  • 5. Food crops • It is estimated that out of about 2,50,000 species of plants, only about 3,000 have been tried as agricultural crops. • Under different agro-climatic condition, 300 are grown for food and only 100 are used on a large scale. • Some species of crops provide food, whereas others provide commercial products like oils, fibers, etc. • Raw crops are sometimes converted into valuable edible products by using different techniques for value addition. • At global level, only 20 species of crops are used for food. • These, in approximate order of importance are wheat, rice, corn, potatoes; barley, sweet potatoes, cassavas, soybeans, oats, sorghum, millet, sugarcane, sugar beets, rye, peanuts, field beans, chick-peas, pigeon- peas, bananas and coconuts. • Many of them are used directly, whereas other can be used by changing them by using different techniques for enhancing calorific value.
  • 6. Livestock • Domesticated animals are an important food source. • The major domesticated animals used as food source by human beings are ‘ruminants’ (e.g. cattle, sheep, goats, camel, reindeer, llama, etc.). • Ruminants convert indigestible woody tissue of plants (cellulose) which are earth’s most abundant organic compound into digestible food products for human consumption. • Milk, which is provided by milking animals, is considered to be the complete food. • Other domestic animals like sheep, goat, poultry and ducker can be used as meat.
  • 7. Aquaculture Fish and seafood contributes 17 million metric tones of high quality protein to provide balance diet to the world. Presently aquaculture provides only small amounts for world food but its significance is increasing day by day.
  • 8. World Food Problems: • Production of food is not keeping pace with the growing demand. • There are great disparities in the availability of nutritious food. Some tribes still face serious food problems leading to malnutrition especially among women and children. • Our fertile soils are being exploited faster than they can recuperate. • Forests, grasslands and wetlands have been converted to agricultural use, which has led to serious ecological problems. • Our fish resources, both marine and inland, show evidence of exhaustion.
  • 9. • Global food production has increased by using more soil, water, plant, animal and energy resources and causing more pollution and environmental damage. • More than 100 countries regularly import food from US, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Western Europe, New Zealand and Thailand. • With 30-40% of the calories coming from animal products, current world agriculture system would support only 2.5 billion people to have typical diet of a person in any developed country. • 40% of people in India suffer from malnutrition because they are poor to buy or to grow enough food to meet their basic needs. • 2/3rd of India’s land is threatened by erosion, water shortages and salinization. • Women and children are mostly underfed and malnourished compared to men.
  • 10. Under-nourishment • The FAO estimates that the average minimum daily caloric intake over the whole world is about 2,500 calories per day. • People who receive less than 90% of their minimum dietary intake on a long-term basis are considered undernourished. • Those who receive less than 80% of their minimum daily caloric intake requirements are considered ‘seriously’ undernourished. • Children in this category are likely to suffer from stunted growth, mental retardation, and other social and developmental disorders. • Therefore, Under-nourishment means lack of sufficient calories in available food, resulting in little or no ability to move or work.
  • 11. Malnourishment • Person may have excess food but still diet suffers from due to nutritional imbalance or inability to absorb or may have problem to utilize essential nutrients. • If we compare diet of the developed countries with developing countries, people in developed countries have processed food which may be deficient in fiber, vitamins and other components where as in the diet of developing countries, may be lack of specific nutrients because they consume less meat ,fruits and vegetables due to poor purchasing power . • Malnourishment can be defined as lack of specific components of food such as proteins, vitamins, or essential chemical elements.
  • 12. Major problems of malnutrition Marasmus: a progressive emaciation caused by lack of protein and calories. Kwashiarkor: a lack of sufficient protein in the diet which leads to a failure of neural development and therefore learning disabilities. Anemia: it is caused by lack of iron in the diet or due to an inability to absorb iron from food. Pellagra: it occurs due to the deficiency of tryptophan and lysine, vitamins in the diet.
  • 13.
  • 14. • Every year, food problem kill as many people as were killed by the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima during World War II. • This shows that there is drastic need to increase food production, equitably distribute it and also to control population growth. • Although India is the third largest producer of staple crops, it is estimated that about 300 million Indians are still undernourished. • India has only half as much land as USA, but it has nearly three times population to feed. • Our food problems are directly related to population.
  • 15. Balanced diet • Supply of adequate amount of different nutrient can help to improve malnutrition and its ill effects. • Cereals like wheat and rice can supply only carbohydrate which are rich in energy supply, are only fraction of nutrition requirement. • Cereal diet has to be supplemented with other food that can supply fat, protein and minor quantity of minerals and vitamins. • Balanced diet will help to improve growth and health.
  • 16. Changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing • From centuries, agriculture is providing inputs to large number of industries involved in production, processing and distribution of food. • Accordingly, agriculture has significant effect on environment. • The effects of agriculture on environment can be classified as local, regional, and global level.
  • 17. • Deforestation • Soil Erosion • Depletion of nutrients • Impact related to high yielding varieties (HYV) • Fertilizers related problems include micronutrient imbalance, nitrite pollution and eutrophication. • Pesticide related problems include creating resistance in pests and producing new pests, death of non-target organisms, biological magnification. • Some other problems include water logging, salinity problems and such others. The agriculture also makes impact on the usage of land generally as follows:
  • 18. The carrying capacity of land for cattle depends upon micro climate and soil fertility. If carrying capacity is exceeded than land is overgrazed. Because of overgrazing the agricultural land gets affected as follows: • Reduction in growth and diversity of plant species • Reduce plant cover leads to increased soil erosion • Cattle trampling leads to land degradation
  • 19. Effects of Modern Agriculture For sustainable production modern techniques are used to enhance productivity of different cropping systems under different agro-eco-zones. Adoption of modern agricultural practices has both positive and negative effects on environment. Effects of modern agriculture are briefly discussed under different heads as under:
  • 20. Soil erosion Raindrops bombarding bare soil result in the oldest and still most serious problem of agriculture. The long history of soil erosion and its impact on civilization is one of devastation. Eroded fields record our failure as land stewards.
  • 21. Irrigation • Adequate rainfall is never guaranteed for the dry land farmer in arid and semiarid regions, and thus irrigation is essential for reliable production. • Irrigation ensures sufficient water when needed and also allows farmers to expand their acreage of suitable cropland. • In fact, we trust heavily on crops from irrigated lands, with fully one-third of the world's harvest coming from that 17% of cropland that is under irrigation. • Unfortunately, current irrigation practices severely damage the cropland and the aquatic systems from which the water is withdrawn.
  • 22. Agriculture and the loss of genetic diversity • As modern agriculture converts an ever-increasing portion of the earth's land surface to monoculture, the genetic and ecological diversity of the planet erodes. • Both the conversion of diverse natural ecosystems to new agricultural lands and the narrowing of the genetic diversity of crops contribute to this erosion.
  • 23. Fertilizer and pesticide problem • A significant portion of fertilizer and pesticide applied to the soil runs off into surface water or leaches into ground water. • Spraying of pesticides had lead to ecological damage like human toxic effects, cancer and organ damage from breathing and ingesting pesticides. • Increase in cropped area and irrigation have problems like soil erosion, water logging and steady buildup of salts. • The biggest problem with pesticides is the development of genetic resistance by pest organisms and they will become immune to the fungicides. • Sometimes insecticides kill natural predators and parasites which may increase new pests’ growth. • Pesticides may accumulate in the bodies of animals which is called bio- accumulation. This problem affects animals and when that affected animal is eaten by a carnivore leading to the disease or death
  • 24. Water logging • High water table or surface flooding can cause water logging problems. • Water logging may lead to poor crop productivity due to anaerobic condition created in the soil. • In India, deltas of Ganga, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and some areas of Kerala are prone to frequent water logging.
  • 25. Salinity • Due to adoption of intensive agriculture practices and increased concentration of soluble salts leads to salinity. • Due to poor drainage, dissolved salts accumulate on soil surface and affects soil fertility. • Excess concentration of these salts may form a crust on the surface which may injurious to the plants. • The water absorption process is affected and uptake of nutrient is disturbed. • According to an estimate, in India, 7 million hectare of land is saline and area is showing in increasing trends due to adoption of intensive agriculture practices.
  • 26. Case Studies • A study on birth defects in water birds, in Kesterson wildlife refuge in California, indicated that these defects where due to high concentration of selenium. • Recent reports from cotton growing belt of Punjab which covers Abohar, Fazalka and part of Bathinda indicates that over use of pesticides for control of insect pest in cotton to enhance productivity has not only affected soil health, but also caused cancer in human being. • Diclofenac is the drug for veterinary use to treat the livestock which have strong residual nature, which leads to high persistence throughout the food chain. Due to bio-magnification it becomes more dangerous to the vultures as they are consumers of diclofenac treated cattle. Diclofenac is responsible for bringing three South Asian species of Gyps vultures to the brink of extinction. It has been banned in India since 2006.